Viennese classical period

the Viennese classical period (approx. 1780 - 1827) are a style direction of the European art music. You belong to Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven. In a broader sense also „the time of the Viennese classical period is “meant with this term. Thereforesometimes composers are included such as Michael Haydn or Carl Ditters of Dittersdorf.

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characteristics of the music

the three large composersthe Viennese classical period eint the control and sublimation of the most different kinds of music and composition ways from the Volkslied to the baroque Polyphonie. They unite characteristics of the Galanten and feeling seeds the style and brought different further German, French and Italian kinds of style together in variety of kinds.

The specialat their composition way are three highly developed procedures:
Obligatory Accompagnement, broken through style and topic tables work.
These procedures are used in almost all kinds, after them develop mainly in the chamber music (caper quartet) and in the orchestra music (symphony) primarily from Joseph Haydnare. Also in the opera (z. B. with Mozart) and in the clergyman music (z. B. with Beethoven) they determine the Faktur of the composed one. The instrument valley music experienced thereby by the Viennese classical authors a revaluation to the autonomous art. Usually in their header records is thoseunder any circumstances schematically, rather fantasyful and individually used Sonatenhauptsatzform as container for a dialectic, thematically did not determine composition way.

Vienna as center

area and background for this development gave Vienna as a city with a multilayered music culture, which required variety at musical production. GoodsParis (opera) and London (public concert) in the second half 18. Century first still, then Vienna attained the clay-indicating music cities of Europe particularly with the Glorifizierung the Mozarts after its death and the influx Beethovens a European supremacy. Mozart had up to then rather as oneViennese size applied; Beethoven already regarded Vienna as the worthwhile goal of its career. Hellsichtig formulated this circumstance his sponsor count Ferdinand Ernst Gabriel von Waldstein: „By continuous diligence you receive: Mozart's spirit from Haydens hands. “

Crucial for the constitution of one „Viennese classical period “were the years after the Mozarts' removal to Vienna. Here the kompositorische interaction between Joseph Haydn and Mozart developed, beginning with the mutual suggestion resumed to the new composition of caper quartets and with the establishment of the Symphonie as the public-most effective kind of the time.

influencesfrom outside of Vienna

Joseph Haydn regarded the citizen of Berlin and Hamburg Carl Philipp Emanuel brook as model and activator on his way to „the composition science “(Haydn). Still at the age it reported attempt enthusiastically of its „on the true kind the Clavier to play “(1753 and1762) and the works printed therein.

Wolfgang Amadé Mozart particularly became acquainted with on his journeys composers and their music. Th. De Wyzewa and G. de Saint Foix fathomed the various traces of it in their large Mozart work (1936-1946). To call is above all the Londoner Johann ChristianBrook, some composers of the Italian opera and the masters of the Mannheimer school. Finally also George Friedrich trade ( vowel works like „ the Messiah “) and Johann Sebastian brook ( instrument valley music and Motetten) is to be called.

All also Beethoven learned directly personally or indirectly in JosephHaydns and Mozart's compositions know. Influences from outside of Vienna came besides for example from the Italian and the French opera as well as from the French orchestra music. Beethoven praised Luigi Cherubini as direct model.

discussion of the term

during the English-language music science the term „VienneseClassical period “rather avoids and a more comprehensive, uniformly erscheinden, certainly in arbitrary turning out classical period term maintains, discusses it the German music science controversially. Ludwig Fin would like it, thought R. G. Gravel weather of 1834 following, to which works limit Joseph Haydns and Mozart between 1781 and 1803.HansHeinrich harrow-broken occupied by extensive analyses its Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven comprehensive definition going into the musical detail. Carl Dahlhaus against it resumed Friedrich Blumes thought, classical period and romance formed a common classical-romantic epoch.< for b> This dialectic connection between Viennese classical period and romance reveals itself particularly clearlyin the comparison Beethovens and thrust RTS. Thrasybulos Georgiades assigned thrust ore in its analyses of its vocal and instrument valley music to the three large ones „the Viennese classical period “and particularly showed thrust RTS classical composition procedures in its songs and its „ Unfinished “up.


  • RaphaelGeorge gravel weather, history of the European abendländischen or our current music. Leipzig 1834
  • T. de Wyzewa, G. de Saint Foix, W. - A. [!] Mozart. SA vie musicals et son oeuvre de l `enfance A la pleine maturité [...] Essai de biographie critique suivi D `un nouveau catalogue chronologique del `oeuvre complète de maitre [...]. 5 volumes, Paris 1936-1946
  • Friedrich flower, classical period. In MGG 1958
  • Friedrich flower, romance. In MGG 1963
  • Thrasybulos Georgiades, thrust ore, music and lyric poetry. Goettingen 1967
  • Carl Dahlhaus, classical and romantic music aesthetics. Laaber 1988
  • Hans Heinrich harrow-break, musicin the evening country, processes and stations from the Middle Ages to the present. In Mn. /Z 1991, S. 471-487
  • Ludwig Fin, classical period. In MGG, special part of Bd. to 5, 1996

see also


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