of the Viennese congress (18. September 1814 to 9. June 1815) was a conference of all political powers of Europe, itself on the occasion of the defeat of the napoleonischen France in the preceding spring to the new design of the political map of theContinent in the sense of the legitimacy principle met. Director/conductor of the congress was prince of Metternich.
It is regarded as beginning of the metternichschen restoration. The negotiations were also continued, as Exkaiser Napoleon I.from the exile and its power returned to Francein March 1815 restored. The final act of the congress was signed nine days before Napoleons' final defeat with Waterloo.
Most important participants of the congress were prince of Metternich for Austria, the Prussian prince of hard mountain and Zar Alexander I.of Russia, thoseas well as to the holy alliance so mentioned Viscount Castlereagh for England and Talleyrand for France united.
Table of contents
work on] main results
- of the congress France from 1795 - 1810 annektierten areas back, remains however great power in the borders of 1792.
- Russia increased its territory at expenseof Poland. Large parts of Napoleon I. controlled Polish area the Zar the duchy of Warsaw as “kingdom of Poland” (” congress Poland “) had incorporated. Galizien goes at Austria, with exception of the Republic of Krakau.
- Prussia does without upPoland, receives however the area around floats and shifts its range to the west. It wins Westphalia and the Rhine country.
- The number of the member states in Germany is substantially made smaller, a process, which was already introduced by the realm deputation main conclusion 1803. Thatloosens German federation of sovereign states develops and discharges as Basic Law the German federal document. It is an also direct component of the Viennese congress document.
- Also Austria acquires areas in addition, primarily the former Republic of Venice, conquered by France 1797. In additionAustria Tirol , Salzburg and the Innviertel received. It is rather weakened however by the enlargement of the imperial neighbours.
- In former times the Austrian controlled southern Netherlands (into for instance today's Belgium) are incorporated the north Netherlands and to form thereby the unitedKingdom of the Netherlands.
- The German States of Bavaria and Hanover are increased, during Saxonia as it were as punishment for its former alliance with France of nearly two thirds of his territory and 40% its inhabitant in the northern and eastern areas onPrussia and the Thuringian possessions Saxonia Weimar iron oh lose on.
- Denmark delivers due to its support for Napoleon Norway at Sweden . See for this: The Veltlin at
- Austria and Konstanz loses peace of Kiel Switzerland to the Grand Duchy of bathing, receives howeverbut of France a part of Savoyen and thus a connection to the Waadtland, and of Austria the county Rhäzüns in grey federations. Within the new borders the oath comrades argue about the canton borders. Thus the canton lost Berneits areas in the Aargau and Waadtland, but they got the law, the earlier diocese Basel. The law conflict developing from it persisted up to the establishment of the independent canton law in the year 1977 .
- Acknowledgment of the always-lasting neutrality and inviolabilitySwitzerland and its borders as well as its independence from each strange influence. This international acknowledgment forms to today the determining basis for the Swiss foreign policy.
In most other points the congress looked for a return to the Vorkriegsgrenzen of 1792and a re-establishment of the rule of the conservative monarchies of Europe - including a repaired French Bourbonen dynasty, their king Ludwig XVIII. becomes.
diagram & overview of the Viennese of congress
the most important on thatCongress represented envoy of the European courts
- Karl August prince of hard mountain (1750-1822)
- baron Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835)
- Baron Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859)
- Karl August Varnhagen of Ense (1785-1858)
- Klemens Wenzel prince of Metternich (1773-1859)
- Friedrich ofGentz (1764-1832)
- Adam von Müller (1779-1829)
- Franz Anton count von Kolowrat Liebsteinsky (1778-1861)
- Robert Stewart, 2. Marquess OF Londonderry and Viscount Castlereagh (1769-1822)
- Arthur Wellesley, 1. Duke of Wellington (1769-1852)
- Robert bank Jenkinson, 2. Earl OF Liverpool (1770-1828)
- GeorgeHamilton Gordon, 4. Earl OF Aberdeen (1784-1860)
- Henry John Temple, 3. Viscount Palmerston (1784-1865)
- Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796-1862)
- John George Lambton, 1. Earl OF Durham (1792-1840)
- Charles Maurice de Talleyrand - Périgord (1754-1838)
- Alphonse de Lamartine (1790-1869)
- Vicomte François Renéde Chateaubriand (1768-1848)
- Marie Joseph Motier, Marquis de La Fayette (1757-1834)
- Jean Anthelme Brillat Savarin (1755-1826)
- Karl Robert count von Nesselrode (1780-1862)
- count Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831)
- Heinrich Friedrich Karl realm baron of and to the stone (1757-1831)
- Count Maximilian Josephof Montgelas (1759-1838)
- George Ernst Levin count von Wintzingerode (1752-1834)
- George count to Münster (1766-1839)
- Detlev count von Einsiedel (1773-1861)
during the congress circulated to that in Vienna a joke, despite its exaggeration of some overa few important participant of the congress states:
- Zar Alexander I of Russia: He loves William of
- Prussia for all Friedrich: It thinks for all.
- Friedrich of Denmark: It talks for all.
- Maximilian of Bavaria: He drinks for all.
- Friedrich ofWürttemberg: He eats for all.
- Emperor Franz of Austria: It pays for all.
consequences of the Viennese of congress
the “new " order of Europe by the Viennese congress, those in the reason a back meditation on the conditions before Napoleon and before that French revolution from 1789 was, did not remain not durable on a long-term basis in such a way. Despite that the congress the following restoration, the suppression national and liberals, as well as democratic efforts, the ideas of civil rights and national self-sufficiency in the middle class had themselves by the FrenchRevolution and Napoleon's code civil also after the wars of liberation against Napoleon determined.
In the years after the congress it came itself again and again to demonstrations, rebellions up to revolutions and wars, both against the relating to domestic affairs andalso the intergovernmental regulations of the Viennese of congress arranged.
Into France it came 1830 with the liberal July revolution, which also effects on neighbour states had, where it partly led after additional rebellions to conditions, for the fall 1824 assigned Bourbonenkönigs Karl X. and to the appointment of the citizen king Louis Philippe to the French throne. This was for his part fallen 18 years later with the February revolution 1848, after he had approximated increasingly the policy of the holy alliance. After Louis Philippe became 1848 in France the second republic proclaimed.
Poland never resigned themselves to the allocation of their country between Russia, Austria and Prussia. In nearly regular intervals it came again and again in the Polish provinces of these three statesnationalPolish rebellions against the respective foreign rule.
In the states of the German federation a liberal and a national movement grew up despite substantial repression and censorship measures, who finally led in the March revolution from 1848/49 to the overcoming of the metternichschen system.
Despite the letztlichenStriking down the March revolution was established the idea of an all-German state thereafter also in conservative circles. Following the GermanDanish war 1864, the German war 1866 and the French-German war 1870/1871 1871 became the German empire under Prussian guidance as SmallGerman solution (i.e. without Austria) proclaimed.
In the Italian states and provinces again the different rebellions of the Risorgimento (=Wiedererstehung) flashed after 1815 to always 1870; with the goal of an agreement of Italy, those finally between 1861 and 1870 alsoin wars against Austria, revolted themselves the Italian national revolutionary was fought for against the supremacy of the Austrian having citizens in north Italy and the Spanish Bourbonen in South Italies .
In Switzerland the restoration with the federal contract followed by at the existenceSwitzerland interested powers. This very simple Basic Law should form the state-legal basis of the confederation to 1847.
- Henry A. Kissinger: The equilibrium of the great powers. One-eat publishing house, Zurich 1990 ISBN 3717580620
- Anselm Doering Manteuffel: Of the VienneseCongress to the Paris conference. Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht, Goettingen 1991 ISBN 3525363133
- Elizabeth Fehrenbach: Of the Ancient regime to the Viennese congress. Oldenbourg, Munich 2001 ISBN 3486497545
- Alexandra of Ilse man: The policy of France on the Viennese congress. Reinhold shopkeeper publishing house, Hamburg 1996 ISBN 3896220055.