Viennese congress

Wiener Kongress
Viennese congress

of the Viennese congress (18. September 1814 to 9. June 1815) was a conference of all political powers of Europe, itself on the occasion of the defeat of the napoleonischen France in the preceding spring to the new design of the political map of theContinent in the sense of the legitimacy principle met. Director/conductor of the congress was prince of Metternich.

It is regarded as beginning of the metternichschen restoration. The negotiations were also continued, as Exkaiser Napoleon I.from the exile and its power returned to Francein March 1815 restored. The final act of the congress was signed nine days before Napoleons' final defeat with Waterloo.

Most important participants of the congress were prince of Metternich for Austria, the Prussian prince of hard mountain and Zar Alexander I.of Russia, thoseas well as to the holy alliance so mentioned Viscount Castlereagh for England and Talleyrand for France united.

Table of contents

work on] main results

In most other points the congress looked for a return to the Vorkriegsgrenzen of 1792and a re-establishment of the rule of the conservative monarchies of Europe - including a repaired French Bourbonen dynasty, their king Ludwig XVIII. becomes.

diagram & overview of the Viennese of congress

Grafische Übersicht des Wiener Kongresses

the most important on thatCongress represented envoy of the European courts

Prussia:

Austria:

Great Britain:

France:

Russia:

Bavaria:

Württemberg:

Hanover:

  • George count to Münster (1766-1839)

Saxonia:


during the congress circulated to that in Vienna a joke, despite its exaggeration of some overa few important participant of the congress states:

  • Zar Alexander I of Russia: He loves William of
  • Prussia for all Friedrich: It thinks for all.
  • Friedrich of Denmark: It talks for all.
  • Maximilian of Bavaria: He drinks for all.
  • Friedrich ofWürttemberg: He eats for all.
  • Emperor Franz of Austria: It pays for all.

consequences of the Viennese of congress

the “new " order of Europe by the Viennese congress, those in the reason a back meditation on the conditions before Napoleon and before that French revolution from 1789 was, did not remain not durable on a long-term basis in such a way. Despite that the congress the following restoration, the suppression national and liberals, as well as democratic efforts, the ideas of civil rights and national self-sufficiency in the middle class had themselves by the FrenchRevolution and Napoleon's code civil also after the wars of liberation against Napoleon determined.

In the years after the congress it came itself again and again to demonstrations, rebellions up to revolutions and wars, both against the relating to domestic affairs andalso the intergovernmental regulations of the Viennese of congress arranged.

Into France it came 1830 with the liberal July revolution, which also effects on neighbour states had, where it partly led after additional rebellions to conditions, for the fall 1824 assigned Bourbonenkönigs Karl X. and to the appointment of the citizen king Louis Philippe to the French throne. This was for his part fallen 18 years later with the February revolution 1848, after he had approximated increasingly the policy of the holy alliance. After Louis Philippe became 1848 in France the second republic proclaimed.

Poland never resigned themselves to the allocation of their country between Russia, Austria and Prussia. In nearly regular intervals it came again and again in the Polish provinces of these three statesnationalPolish rebellions against the respective foreign rule.

In the states of the German federation a liberal and a national movement grew up despite substantial repression and censorship measures, who finally led in the March revolution from 1848/49 to the overcoming of the metternichschen system.

Despite the letztlichenStriking down the March revolution was established the idea of an all-German state thereafter also in conservative circles. Following the GermanDanish war 1864, the German war 1866 and the French-German war 1870/1871 1871 became the German empire under Prussian guidance as SmallGerman solution (i.e. without Austria) proclaimed.

In the Italian states and provinces again the different rebellions of the Risorgimento (=Wiedererstehung) flashed after 1815 to always 1870; with the goal of an agreement of Italy, those finally between 1861 and 1870 alsoin wars against Austria, revolted themselves the Italian national revolutionary was fought for against the supremacy of the Austrian having citizens in north Italy and the Spanish Bourbonen in South Italies .

In Switzerland the restoration with the federal contract followed by at the existenceSwitzerland interested powers. This very simple Basic Law should form the state-legal basis of the confederation to 1847.

literature

  • Henry A. Kissinger: The equilibrium of the great powers. One-eat publishing house, Zurich 1990 ISBN 3717580620
  • Anselm Doering Manteuffel: Of the VienneseCongress to the Paris conference. Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht, Goettingen 1991 ISBN 3525363133
  • Elizabeth Fehrenbach: Of the Ancient regime to the Viennese congress. Oldenbourg, Munich 2001 ISBN 3486497545
  • Alexandra of Ilse man: The policy of France on the Viennese congress. Reinhold shopkeeper publishing house, Hamburg 1996 ISBN 3896220055.

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