the enterprise of the Viennese streetcar (also Bim called) looks in Vienna on a long tradition back: Already to 4. October 1865 drove the first Pferdetramway Vienna from the Scot gate to Hernals. Around a more efficient enterprise to make possible became to 27. October 1883 the first Dampftramwaystrecke opens. Enterprises becomes the streetcar of the Viennese lines, which are completely in the possession of the city. The track width amounts to as also with the iron and underground 1435mm.
Table of contents
|the 33 (40) Viennese strassenbahnlinien|
|D||south station - nut village, Beethovengang|
|J||Karl place, bad village first race - Ottakringer road, earth chest lane|
|N||Prater main avenue - Floridsdorfer bridge, Friedrich angel place|
|O||Raxstrasse, Rudolfshügelgasse - Praterstern|
|1||ring - dock - ring (in the clockwise direction)|
|2||ring - dock - ring (against the clockwise direction)|
|5||Praterstern - west station|
|6||castle lane, town hall - central cemetery 3. Gate|
|9||Gersthof, barrier tear road - west station|
|10||thorn brook, Güpferlingstrasse - Hietzing, Kennedybrücke|
|18||castle lane, town hall - slaughter house lane|
|21||Sweden place - Praterkai|
|25||Aspern, upper village route - Leopoldau|
|26||Kagran - Strebersdorf (Vienna), Edmund Hawranek place|
|30||Floridsdorf - Stammersdorf|
|31||Scot ring - Stammersdorf|
|33||Josefstädter road - Floridsdorfer bridge, Friedrich angel place|
|37||Scot gate - high one control room (Vienna)|
|38||Scot gate - Grinzing|
|40||Scot gate - Gersthof, harsh hitting a corner race|
|41||Scot gate - Pötzleinsdorf|
|42||Scot gate - Antonigasse|
|43||Scot gate - Neuwaldegg|
|44||Scot gate - thorn brook, Güpferlingstrasse|
|46||Dr. - Karl racer ring - Joachimsthalerplatz|
|49||Dr. - Karl racer ring - Hütteldorf, Bujattigasse|
|52||west station - tree garden|
|58||west station - under pc. Veit, Hummelgasse|
|60||Hietzing, Kennedybrücke - Rodaun|
|62||Kärntner ring, opera - Lainz, cloud PUCB suppl. road|
|65||Kärntner ring, opera - Stefan Fadinger place|
|67||petrol rehearsing place - cure center Oberlaa|
|71||Schwarzenberg place (thrust ore ring) - Kaiserebersdorf, would tin-suppl.-eat|
|special lines, module lines|
|E||Scot ring - Gerasdorfer road|
|O||stadium - Raxstrasse, Rudolfshügelgasse|
|5||stadium - west station|
|29||stadium - Floridsdorf|
|43||stadium - Betriebsbhf. Hernals|
|45||stadium - Joachimsthalerplatz|
|81||Praterstern - Elderschplatz|
the Viennese streetcar has a total track length of 188 km, with which Vienna after pc. Petersburg (approx. 288 km) over the second largest route network of Europe and the third biggest of the world (Melbourne: 238 km) orders. Cologne orders at 188,5 km total track length over in approximately equal long route network, however only since the assumption of the Cologne-Bonn railway. The length of the total linear network arises as a result of that adds the route distance of each individual strassenbahnlinie and amounts to for the 33 main lines 231.7 km.
the first forerunner of the streetcar in Vienna was the Brigittenauer railway, which led from 1840 to 1842 from the Danube channel to the Vergnügungsetablissement Kolosseum at the end of the hunter route in the Brigittenau.
For the building of a Pferdetramway in Vienna several companies applied, from those itself Schaeck Jaquet & complete ones. to intersperse could. To 4. October 1865 could be taken up the enterprise between Scot gate and Hernals, to 24. April 1866 was extended the distance to thorn brook. In the consequence the municipality Vienna tries to induce also different enterprises to the building from streetcar distances to. Because of the hard conditions, however all applicants (also Schaeck Jaquet) unite, so that the Viennese educated now Tramwaygesellschaft remained as exclusive enterprise. She built largest part of the Viennese of streetcar net in the consequence.
As a competitor 1872 educated themselves the new Viennese Tramwaygesellschaft, which could remove however provisionally their net only in the suburbs.
To 28. Jänner 1897 drove for the first time an electrical streetcar on the tracks of the today's line 5, also favoured by the smaller noise and smelling nuisance in the comparison to the Pferdetramway and Dampftramway the electrical streetcar became generally accepted on a long-term basis. 1903 drove the Pferdetramway last, the Dampftramway however could still to 1922 their services on some distance branches perform.
to 1910 were delivered - still in the tradition of the horse route course, where the direct contact of the driver with the linked up horses was necessary - excluding streetcar cars, their platforms (and/or. Flight compartments) were vitreous, speak: no windows protecting against cold weather and wind had. It lasted until 1930 to the flight compartments and platforms of all streetcar cars over protecting windowpanes ordered.
During the 1. World war was increasingly more difficult the enterprise to accomplish. Starting from 1916 partial women had to take over the work of the men engaged to the military, and due to which hard basic conditions of this time the enterprise had is partly also adjusted.
The fact that Viennese already experienced the streetcar net its largest expansion at 292 kilometers of distance in intermediate wartime appears at first sight amazingly. But one must here also mention that Vienna already experienced around the turn of the century also over 2 million inhabitants its largest number of inhabitants, which only after that 1. World war noticeably to sink began, on approximately 1.5 million during the census of 1991. (Since that time the number of inhabitants rises again easily.)
1938, after the connection, was changed over streetcar traffic by left to right traffic. During 2. World war, so long Vienna still remained exempted from fighting, experienced the streetcar enterprise its transport maximum output. On at that time still more extensive route network 1943 nearly 732 million passengers were carried. 18,000 persons found with the Viennese streetcar work. To end of war however, and Vienna von Kampfhandlungen any longer spared remained, was not a majority for that altogether 4,000 streetcar cars more or less damaged. Approximately 400 of it was irreparable. The re-establishment of the route network should to approx. 1950 persists, some short distance sections any longer in enterprise was not taken.
Into the 50's-years the net was still throughout served repaired and partly cars provided with new superstructures with the old, since only starting from 1951 new could be purchased. These motor vehicle types had been procured however throughout in series of small number of items, since starting from 1955 the complete abolishment of the streetcar went around also in Vienna as verkehrsplanerische vision and was only zögerlich transacted investments therefore.
goods beginning to center 20. Century private cars still the exception, there simply too expensively for the largest part of the population, the call became loud after a auto+fair city with the increase of the motorized individual traffic in the post-war period. The rail traffic on the road was pursued thereby as “traffic hold-up” regarded (the term traffic referred thereby only to the automobile), the complete misalignment of public traffic on the subway and buses as vision of the future.
1958 were tested with the conversion of the short line 158 the practice fitness of the bus as replacement for the Tram, starting from 1960 took place the continuous conversion of lines with routings via close road courses in the closely blocked area within the Viennese of belt, most well-known example the line 13 from the south station to the when first race. In addition, individual distances at the periphery and beyond the city boundary in surrounding municipalities were replaced by Buslinien.
The realization that the planned abolishment of the streetcar would not be by the rather lengthy building of the planned Ubahn net short term project in particular, led with starting from 1959 the built six-oh-triumphs steering rubbing cars of the types “E” and “E1”, from which to the year 1976 altogether 427 copies were built, to a change of generations in the vehicle park, aligned to longevity.
With the building of the Viennese Ubahn it came to further partly extensive distance attitudes in the streetcar net, parallel guides with the underground also on short sections is intended. Since this planning policy is still converted also today, is to be counted on the development of the Ubahn net also further on quiet putting in the streetcar enterprise. The means of transport streetcar are questioned to however no more actually in Vienna today.
for reasons of economy was begun into the sidecar at 1964, and in the motor coaches at 1972 to use no more Schaffner. But not least for personnel-political reasons it still lasted until 1996, until the last Schaffner (on the line 46) terminated its service.
Already 1995 used Vienna the first Niederflurwagen, mentioned “ULF “(Ultra Low Floor = extremely low soil). These by Simmering Graz Pauker (today Siemens) and Elin of together developed and manufactured vehicles prove the lowest entrance height with 18 cm world-wide. If necessary the Einstiegstufe can be even extended and lowered to 10 cm. In Vienna at present (April 2006) approximately 150 copies in two variants are in use.
Over the long streetcar tradition in Vienna one can itself nowadays at weekends and holidays from 9 to 16 o'clock from May to Octobers in the Viennese streetcar museum at the Ludwig Koessler place in the 3. District on an exhibition surface of 7.500 m ² inform.
See also: List of the distance openings
numbering of the lines
around the route network to arrange clear, became it necessarily to mark to the passengers the Laufweg of the cars. In the year 1907 today in principle the still valid order came into force. According to the organization of the city into the individual districts and the process of the most important traffic routes following arrangement seemed at that time most appropriate:
- Round lines (tangential lines) - group of numbers 1 to 20
these operate in circular sections around the city center.
- Radial lines - city out or city inward operates
group of numbers 21 to 82 these from the city center. On the basis of the so-called “management line” those the axle exhibition road - Praterstrasse corresponds, takes place the numbering against the clockwise direction in ascending order.
Numbers over 100 were reserved some former Dampftramwaystrecken to the outskirts of a town, those partially also in surrounding municipalities in Lower Austria led out and to approx. End of the 60's-years were adjusted. Up to the year 1967 z existed. B. still the line 360, which led as continuation of the line 60 from wall across Perchtoldsdorf and Brunn to Mödling.
- Passage lines - the connection between
a round line and or two radial lines under driving on a section of the struggle race manufacture group of letters of A to Z this. The designation begins likewise on the basis of the management line against the clockwise direction in ascending order. Passage lines, which drove on a section of the resting route, kept letters with the index “2” assigned, to z. B. E 2 or H 2. (In the Viennese colloquial language “two-lines” mentioned.)
Besides were still further distinguishers, how K for lines, which drove over the dock Danube channel or R for lines over the ring, introduced.
with the introduction and expansion of the urban motorbus net this system somewhat watered and nowadays exist some Inkonsequenzen. To the better distinction to the streetcar net motorbus lines lead a letter (A or B) for several years behind the line designation
signaling the lines generally originally took place in the form of black painted washers with a diameter of 35 centimeters, of which the letters of the respective line were low-cut. These were attached to the roof signals of the motor coaches provided with a frosted glass disk and exhibited thus at day and night good legibility.
Starting from the year 1949 two-view roof signals so mentioned were used, which were readable from the side also. This mechanism proved in such a manner well that it is used still into our days. The type E2 had Brosebänder, it have possibly the best legibility of all announcements. With the ULF large matrix displays are used, which are badly readable under many conditions by reflections (daylight, road lighting) on the lying in front of it windshield however.
the vehicle park of the Viennese streetcar covers 544 motor coaches, about which 152 ULF Niederflurstrassenbahnen are, and 301 sidecar. Conditions: April 2006.
Wolfgang emperor, the Viennese streetcars, publishing house GeraMond, 2004, ISBN 3-7654-7189-5