Wild pig

wild pig
wild pig (Sus scrofa)
systematics
Unterstamm: Vertebrate animals (Vertebrata)
class: Mammals (Mammalia)
order: Paarhufer (Artiodactyla)
family: Genuine pigs (Suidae)
kind: Sus
kind: Wild pig
scientific name
Sus scrofa
Linnaeus, 1758

wild pig (Sus scrofa) belongs to the family of the old-lay or genuine pigs (Suidae) from the order of the Paarhufer.

Table of contents

appearance

close-to-reality representation of the meeting between a Keiler and a hunting dog - Roman relief from that 3. Centuryn. Chr., Roman-Germanic museum, Cologne.

figure

Keiler.
Keiler.
Head of a wild pig.
In gold of calm Eberzahn - Eastern European gold decoration from the people migration time.

The body of the wild pig works regarded compact and substantial from the side. This impressionby in the comparison to large Körpermasse short and very strongly working legs one does not strengthen. In relation to the body also the head works nearly oversized. It runs out forward wedge-shaped. The eyes lie far above in the head andare diagonally in front arranged after. The ears are small. They are surrounded by an edge of zottiger bristles. The short, compact and little mobile neck is recognizable only if wild pigs carry their summer skin. In the winter skin the head seems direct into the trunkto change over. From the forehead to over the backs runs a comb of long bristles, which can be set up.

The body height decreases to the hind legs. The body ends to that in a tail down-handing up to the heel joints, is very mobile andby oscillating motions or by raising the tendency of the wild pig signals. From the front regarded the body works narrowly.

The male animal lets itself be differentiated by the female - during lateral view - well at the form of the lip. During itwith the female straight runs, works it with the male to the forehead eingedellt.


dentures

wild pig have strong dentures with 44 teeth, in each Kieferhälfte of three Schneidezähne (Incisivi, ABC „I “), a Eckzahn (Caninus,ABC „C “), four Prämolaren (ABC „P “) and three molecular ones (ABC „M “).

The upper (Haderer) and lower Eckzähne (rifles) of the male curve upward, with females arise this only to small extent with older animals. The Eckzähne serve as impressing organs.

The lower Eckzähne of the male can reach a length of up to 30 cm in exceptional cases. With normal attained full growth males they have usually a length of 20 cm, of those however rarely more than 10 cm from thatKiefer rise up. With the male upward curved the Eckzähne of the Oberkiefers are substantially shorter.

See also: Tooth formula

skin

skin of attained full growth and before-year old animals

the skin of the wild pig is dark grey in the winter to brownwith long boron-risen cover hair and short fine woolly hairs. It serves above all the heat regularization, since the air space included between the hair prevents a too strong delivery of the body warmth. The smooth cover hair prevent that the skin hurts when roaming across Gestrüppbecomes. The woolly hair covers the entire body with exception of some head portions and the lower part of the legs.

In the spring that loses wild pig the long, close winter hair and has a short, woolly hair-free summer skin with lightcolored hair points. The skin change finds in onePeriod of approximately three months instead of and begins in Central Europe in the months April until May. Wild pigs work in the summer skin substantially slimmer. Vorjährige of wild pigs begin already at at the end of July or Anfang August with the change to the winter skin. With attained full growth wild pigsthe change begins to the winter skin only in September. In November the skin change is final.

Gefleckte of wild pigs

in free-living wild pig populations arise again and again to individuals, who exhibit black-brown to black marks of different size on brighter reason. Become occasionalobserves even black-and-white gefleckte wild pigs. When investigations in the GDR into the 1970er years arose Fleckungen with approximately three of one hundred wild pigs. The Fleckung is rezessiv left. These colouring is attributed to the fact that house pigs long time as pasture pigs heldbecame and thereby crossings between wild and house pigs came.

Polish investigations from the same period showed that strongly black-and-white colored wild pigs have a higher number of deaths rate compared with their normally colored kind comrades, there with them the heat regularization lesswell works.

skin of the young animals

freshness born wild pigs have a lightyellow-brown skin, which usually exhibits four to five yellowish longitudinal strips reaching from the Schulterblättern to the hind legs. On the shoulder portion as well as on the hind legsthe animals are gefleckt. The strip form and the Fleckung are so individual that young animals can be identified clearly. Their cover hair is still substantially softer and more wolliger than with older animals and protects the animals in relation to humidity less well. This young animal skinabout three to four months one carries, before the animals get gradually in-colored brownish youth skin. It is more grobhaariger than the young animal skin, however still softer than that attained full growth animals and has also less well developed woolly hairs. Develop in Central Europethe young animals in October and November their first Winterkleid, which also increases then the grey to black colouring of attained full growth animals shows.

body weight and body size

weight and body length of wild pigs are dependent on the geographical spreading very different.As rough rule it can be considered that Körpermasse and body size of the south increase northward. Wild pigs are perfectly attained full growth starting from their fifth Lebensjahr; in Central Europe females have then a head fuselage length from 130 to 140 cm and to weigh between 55 and 70kg. Males reach a length from 140 to 150 cm and weigh between 80 and 90 kg.

Wild pigs in Astrachan, in the protected area of the Beresina and in the Caucasus become clearly larger and heavier. Males know here a body length up to200 cm and a weight up to 200 kg reach.

spreading

attained full growth wild pig.

natural circulation area

wild pig is in completely Eurasien as well as in Japan and in parts of the southasiatic island world in approximately 20 Subspecies common game animal. In North Africa it was common until few centuries ago along the Nile valley to south of Khartum as well as north the seeing era. Meanwhile that is considered to wild pig in North Africa as rare. In former times of the south Turkey until Palestine occurring subspecies Sus scrofa libycus as well as in former times the subspecies Sus resident in Egypt and the Sudan scrofa barbarus are considered as become extinct.

Within the natural circulation area that is missing wild pig into that Mongolian - to Chinese deserts, the comb situations of the Himalaja as well as the high mountain situationsthe alps, the Caucasus, the Pamir and the Altai - mountains. The spreading area changed several times in the course of thousands of years. During the pleistozäen cold times the circulation area shifted several times in eastern and southern direction and during heat periodsagain in western and northern direction expanded.

In the last centuries the spreading of the wild pig changed particularly due to human interferences. With the expansion and intensification of the agriculture also the Bejagung of the wild pig increased, so that for examplethe kind in England already at the beginning 17. Century was exterminated. In Denmark one hunted the last wild pigs at the beginning 19. Century, until 1900 there were no more wild pigs also in Tunesien and the Sudan, and also in Germany as well as in Austria, Italy and Switzerland far parts were wild pig-free. Among the German regions, in which into the 1940er years of wild pigs were no longer represented, rank for example Thuringia, Saxonia, Schleswig-Holstein, bathing and Württemberg.

recuperation of the circulation area

in 20. Century wild pigs far parts of their original circulation area back-captured again. So are for example into the Italian Toskana, which long time due to the intensive agricultural management was wild pig-free, into the 1990erYears again wild pigs immigrated.

Particularly well the area extension in Eastern Europe documented. Around 1930 there were for example in the sump forest areas of white Russia, the Ukraine, Lithuania and Lettlands still wild pig existence. From there from common itself the kind at first along thatRiver valleys of Daugava (German: Düna), Dnjepr and Desna as well as later also along the Oka, Volga and the Don. Around 1960 wild pigs already were from pc. Petersburg to Moscow again spreads; around 1975 they reached Archangelsk to Astrachan. Also in Finland wild pigs moved.

Something similar carried out itself also westward. To the 1970er years were there in Denmark and Sweden again wild pig occurrences, whereby these decreased/went back however to animals broken off of game enclosures.

The population development of the latterDecades becomes clear also at the hunt distances. Thus in Germany in the years 2000 to 2003 more for the first time in each case than 500,000 wild pigs were hunted. Into the 1960er the annual hunt distance was appropriate for years still with under 30.000 animals.

Penetrate into the urban habitat

the adaptability of the wild pigs points oneself particularly clearly to Berlin. Wild pigs captured the close-to-the-city forests there as habitat and to penetrate today also into the suburbs. Occasionally it leads its way tointo the city center. So 2003 two wild pigs had to be shot in May, which emerged on the Alexanderplatz.

The existence of wild pigs approximately around Berlin becomes meanwhile estimated on 10.000 animals. In the direct city feel for estimations of the citizens of Berlin forest administrationapproximately 4,000 animals probably. They penetrate in the gardens and park and arrange there z. T. considerable damage on. It by ton Berne also garbage cans after meal remainders. The intelligent animals register very fast that in populated areas no Bejagung threatens them, andbecome occasionally even day active. So citizens of Berlin city parks are to be observed in broad daylight playing young animals into some. The citizen of Berlin senate issued a strict feeding prohibition, in order to prevent that still more wild pigs into the city are lured.

A-patriated wild pig existence

of wild pigs on the area of Cape Canaveral, in Florida are wild pigs Neozoen.

Wild pig became at the beginning 20. Century in-patriated for hunt purposes in the USA, where it mixed itself partially with wild ores striking pigs, thosesince beginning 16. Century in the southwest of the United States (particularly in Texas) lived. By this mixture there is no clear demarcation between house pig and wild pig in North America today. However animals, some relatively high seem themselvesWild pig portion have opposite pigs with high house pig portion to implement, particularly since the existence are bejagt often sharply. Among the US states with a high wild pig existence California, Georgia , Alabama , Arkansas, Oklahoma, Arizona rank Florida, South Carolina , and Louis IANA.

Also in South America there are in-patriated wild pig existence. There in Argentina wild pigs were in-patriated around 1900 and live between that 40. and 44. Degree of latitude.

There are wild pig existence, which partially likewise mixed themselves with the house pig, in addition alsoon New Zealand and in Australia as well as on Hawaii, Trinidad and Puerto Rico. In Australia that became wild pig at the beginning 19. Century imported, in order to fight among other things queues there. Today wild pigs in Australia are considered as troubles -they kill for example regularly newborn lambs and are considered therefore as agricultural parasits.

habitat

of wild pigs are able to adapt to most different habitats. To it it contributes itself that that is wild pig an expressed Allesfresser, fast new food nichesopens. Wild pigs have entrance to food, which is not to other large mammals at the disposal by the ability to break the soil open. With their strong dentures they are even able to break hardshelled fruits open such as coconuts. In addition wild pigs are excellent float andhave a good thermal insulation, so that they can adapt also to humid areas. Due to this ability rank both borealer coniferous forest, schilfbewachsene Sumpfgebiete and evergreen rain forest among the habitats, which can be settled by the wild pig.

Their northernSpreading is limited by the fact that over longer time frozen soil makes it impossible for them to arrive at underground food reserves. In addition high snow obstructs its progressive movement and thus its food search. Therefore wild pigs are missing also in high mountain situations.

Develop in climatically moderated Central EuropeWild pigs the highest yield in leaves and mixed woodlands, which have a high portion of oaks and beeches and in those it swampy regions as well as gives point-similar clearing.

The subtropical and tropical climate conditions fit themselves wild pigs by a reduction of the hair dresson; there they form in addition no hypodermis fat, which serves them in the northern circulation area as thermal insulation. In hot regions wild pigs are dependent on sources of water, deserts therefore by them are not settled.

belong

to nutrition acorns to the favourite food of wild pigs.

Wild pig through-roots the soil with the food search for edible roots, worms, Engerlingen, mice, snails and mushrooms. Wild pigs eat sheets , impulses and fruits of numerous wood plants, herbs and grasses from the Kalmus beside aquatic plants as for example also. AsAllesfresser accept it also carrion and wastes. It was observed that wild pigs break buildings of rabbits open, in order to eat the young rabbits. Occasionally them also eggs and young birds of soil-breeding birds fall to the victim. On drying-pleased lakes they eat even from shells.

A specialThe fruits of oaks and beeches play role in the European circulation area in the food of wild pigs. In years, in which these trees carry particularly well (so-called „mast years “), live wild pigs for months predominantly on beech nuts and acorns. In the asiatic area appliessomething similar for the seeds of different Zirbelkieferarten.

To the preferential vegetable food also the roots of eagle fern and Weidenrö belong in Central Europe. Depending upon season also the roots have a larger portion of shrub-vienna-threshed , queue Knöterich , way Erich and Sumpfdotterblumenat their food. Wild pigs feast in addition gladly on clover and eat the aboveground plant parts of sweet grasses, Ampfer, Giersch, eagle fern and meadow Bärenklau as well as oak leaves.

Also because of the agricultural damage, which wild pigs cause, they were bejagt intensively. Detail of a wheel lock rifleof approx. 1600.

Wild pigs can cause substantial damage on agricultural effective areas. They eat all arable crops, which are cultivated in Central Europe in the agriculture. With potatoes they differentiate thereby even between individual sorts and eat particularly gladly early potatoes. Wild pigs through-root alsoGetreidefelder and cause a larger damage than by with their Wühlerei regularly the food. Also the damage, which arranges it for example in landscape parks, is above all rooting damage. They dig thereby whole meadows and discounts on the search for flower bulbs over.

Large agricultural damage arises above all if oaks and beeches set not sufficiently fruit and therefore prefers the wild pigs on the agricultural field corridors on food search to go. This is the principal reason, why wild pigs were so strongly bejagt,that they were missing in parts of Europe over centuries. It is assumed that the already in the Bronzezeit provable fences of fields represented the attempt to keep wild pigs away from the fields.

Wild pigs eat however also harming insects, the one part of their development timespend in the soil. In fully forest stands struck by such insects wild pigs develop an intensified rooting activity.

progressive movement and quiescent behavior

paces

resting wild pigs load usually all four legs equally. In the step speed is the normalProgressive movement form the cloister, with which diagonally in each case opposite front and Hinterläufe present are almost at the same time forward set. Front and hind leg leave only then the soil if the respective other leg already touched down. The animals can do thereby 3until 6 km in the hour put back.

In the Trab rear or Vorderbein already leaves the soil, before the respective other leg touched down. Wild pigs can maintain and put this Trab over a very long time thereby 6 to 10 kmper hour back. In the gallopp wild pigs flee, if they are up-frightened. Attained full growth animals put meters back with each gallopp jump up to two, however wild pigs can maintain this pace not for a long time. They fall also with an escape fast into the Trabback.

In addition wild pigs can swim and be able very well thereby longer distances to put back. They move thereby their legs similarly as with the Trab and only parts of the front and upper head rise up out of the water.

quiescent behavior

Ruhende Wildschweingruppe.
resting group of wild pigs.

rest positions

wild pigs spend a large part of their daily resting. At which time of day they do this, is dependent on the respective environmental condition.

For resting they use gladly special quiescent places, which use them both individually and together. DOS end of wild pigslie usually with stretched legs, by resting either on the belly and the front and hind legs forward or in the back stretch. Typical is also the side situation, with which the legs of rectangular are abgestreckt. Those would chew-succumb, with thatthe legs to be nicked and those the typical quiescent position for example for deer is, occurs with wild pigs only for short time.

Scrubbing the body at trees belonged to the typical behavior repertoire of wild pigs and is to be attributed to the fact that her due totheir short and immovable neck able are not to deseam themselves with the help of their dentures and release from harming insects to. In addition they lean to a trunk and rub by easy bending and stretching movements their body against it along.To scrubbing their Unterkörpers wild pigs place themselves over stumps and rub against it.

The Suhlen in mud laughter belongs likewise to the typical behavior repertoire of wild pigs. Particularly in the summer it serves the heat regularization. By the mud skin parasites become in totally enclosed; the drying mud layermade more difficult in addition Stechinsekten stinging.

In the proximity of the Suhlen one finds the mark trees in such a way specified, at which wild pig scrubs itself after the Suhlen. These trees exhibit frequently clear traces. In the case of intensive use of such trees is then thoseCrust in subranges threadbare.

reproduction

mating time

female young animals know - is if to them sufficiently food at the disposal - already in their first Lebensjahr become sex ripe. Male animals are usually only in secondLebensjahr reproductionable. One observed exceptions of this rule so far only in the USA, where wild pig populations are strongly mixed with house pigs.

The mating time depends on the respective climatic conditions; in Central Europe it mostly begins in November and ends inJanuary or February - the high point is in December. To mating it can come also outside of this time - some authors attribute such a mating readiness outside of the typical time to house pig influence. Females, the one abortion experienced or of thementire throw after the birth died briefly, can be again receipt sneeze ready.

The beginning of the mating time is introduced by the attained full growth and einzelgängerisch living males, which begin their summer A CONDITIONs abandoned and to follow the females.

advertisement andMating

meets a male in the mating time on females, beriecht it these in their genital region. If the female is receipt sneeze ready, it pushes it easily into the ventral side, against the flanks or to the neck lower surface and circles it. If the female itself, follows the male extracts from that from it and tries to maintain the body contact by putting or to its flanks pressing its head on the back of the female. This so-called driving can drag on over longer time. If the female not yetmating, attacks it is the male occasionally. The male tries then to calm the female down by Nasonasal contact and Anhauchen. If the female does not want to kopulieren, it can discharge quiekende defense sounds. If it is not differently possible, it extracts its Analregion throughPut or - put.

For mating the female spreads the Hinterläufe rigidly to the rear and turns the tail laterally away. The male rides up, whereby it puts the head on its backs. In this position both animals remain usually five minuterainless, before they separate again.

A female kopuliert during the mating time about six to seven times.

male fights

meetings during the mating time male, which competes around females, it comes one on the other usually to hierarchy fights, those stronglyrun off ritualisiert.

To the Imponiergehabe of meeting one another males belong among other things Scharren with the hind legs, spraying urine as well as sharpening the Kiefers. When sharpening the lower jaw is rapidly laterally back and forth pushed. The Eckzähne of the upper andthe lower jaw sharpen thereby together. With increasing excitation this changes into chewing movements or Kieferschlagen, with which upper and lower jaws are up and are pushed to according to. Frequently thereby saliva foam at the muzzle of the males forms. The long bristles are simultaneous of theComb set up, the head is lowered. In the impressing run circle themselves the two males, which changes frequently into shoulder fights.

Up to then none of the animals took flight, it comes then to the genuine fight, with which the animals use their lower jaw hitting a corner teeth,in order to strike also sideways arranged blows against belly and body side. The animals violently bleeding injuries can cause themselves. To the end of the fight it comes only if one of the animals flees.

birth of the young animals

of young animals alsoFemale.

The stretcher time of the females amounts to about 114 to 118 days („three months, three weeks and three days “). The young animals come into Central Europe usually in the time of March until May to the world.

The female selects thereby before the birthcarefully a birth nest out. These nests are frequently exposed toward the south, so that they are warmed up by the sun. In swampy regions the female looks for elevations, so that the nest is drying. It pads the nest with grassout and afterwards a kind builds roof. Females on the average bring about seven young animals to the world. During the birth the female usually lies in the side situation.

During the first life days cold weather and wetness-sensitive young animals the female remains usually inBirth nest. Depending upon climatic conditions the female leaves the nest with its young animals after until three weeks.

Females defend their young animals energetically. It can come also to attacks on humans.

The number of deaths under the young animals is very high. Itdie above all if it comes during its first three life weeks to cooling break-downs and wetness periods, since its heat regularization is not yet fully trained. The number of deaths depends also on how much Fressfeinde in the area live. In robbery-animal-free areas dies on the averagea quarter of the young animals in the first Lebensjahr, whereby most animals end in the first life month. In regions, in which wolves, bears and Luchse divide the habitat with the wild pigs, only about 30 of 100 young animals survives the first year.

social behavior

Weibchen mit Jungtier.
females with young animal.

Wild pigs live together in nut/mother families, in the Harem or in groups of before-year old animals. Einzelgängerisch live in particular male animals.

The most typical form of living together is the nut/mother family, which consists of a female with its last new generation.The female new generation of the previous year remains occasional with the nut/mother and leads then every now and then already own new generation. The original nut/mother is in such a kinship federation the guidance animal. Stranger of wild pigs are not taken up usually to such a group.Meetings different nut/mother families or kinships one on the other, protect them from each other distance. These groups break apart, if the food offer is not sufficient, if they are apart-blown up by hunt or other disturbances or if the guidance animal dies. Due to the high number of deaths of the young animalsvary the group strengths very strongly. Groups of more than 20 animals are in Central Europe exceptions.

The before-year old males are driven out by the female from the group and to live then usually for at least one year in their own federation. Alsohere it does not come along to unions before-year old animals from other groups. The hierarchy between the individual animals of such a group is since the young animal time expenditure-fights.

Starting from the second Lebensjahr males pull usually as loners by the district. During the mating timefrom November to January they follow individually nut/mother families or groups. The contact between the male and the group remains however loose - it does not rest in the common camp and the guidance female leads the group.

Leave themselves occasional alsoGroups of before-year old animals observe, in which male and female animals live together. They arise if the nut/mother female were shot either or a natural death died. Such atypical groups dissolve in the next mating time.

Fressfeinde

to the natural enemies of the wild pig count tigers, wolf, brown bear and Luchs. Both in addition fox , game cat and the eagle owl strike occasionally young animals.

For wolves wild pigs represent a main booty, whereby the portion depending uponHabitat varies. In the case of investigation an accomplished at the beginning of the 1980er in northEuropean Russia 47% the Wolfsexkremente of wild pig remainders contained years. Into other regions of Russia similar investigations came to the result that wild pigs in the spring and summers up to 80%and in the autumn 40% of the booty constitute. With the hunt wolves rush the group of wild pigs over longer stretching and try to separate an animal from the group. Above all young animals and before-year old animals fall the wolves to the victim. Attained full growth one Wild pigs are - if it into the tightness to be floated - quite able to defend themselves wolves opposite.

After investigations in Eastern Europe brown bears hunt wild pigs if other food reserves are not to them at the disposal or if it due toinsufficient fat reserves into the winter sleep do not purge. They beschleichen then the wild pigs resting at night in the nest or attack them in their Suhle. In the winter they in addition, ill and weakened animals pursue over far distances.

Eagle owls strike occasionally young animals.

Luchs,Fox, game cat and eagle owl have a subordinated role compared with wolf, Siberian tiger and brown bear only as booty grip arms. They hunt above all freshly born or weakened young animals. It is reported by the fox that he follows females with young animals occasionally, overto erjagen young animals possibly staying.

life expectancy

physical wild pigs are attained full growth in the age of five to seven years; however only few individuals reach this age. The number of deaths under young animals is so high particularly that on the average less than10% of newborn wild pigs the fourth Lebensjahr reach. Physically matured wild pigs constitute therefore only a small part of the wild pig population. Only few animals become still older. In shank against it wild pigs achieve a substantially higher age. Wild pigs, those are occupied that21. Lebensjahr reached.

evolution and systematics

the oldest well-known fossil finds, which can be assigned clearly to the wild pig, originate in Europe from the late Miozän (approximately 6 million years ago) and in North America from the early andmiddle Pleistozän (approximately 1.8 million years ago).

Within the kind Sus is those the wild pig next relatives kind to very large probability dwarf wild pig (Sus salvanius). All further Sus faces these two kinds - kinds than “Pustelschweine”.Their family relations are however still to a large extent unsettled, three kinds in the last years as new kinds were recognized, further are only assumed. At this time it concerns thereby the beard pig (Sus barbatus), the Javani Pustelschwein (Sus verrucosus), the Philippine Pustelschwein (Sus philippensis), the Visaya Pustelschwein (Sus cebifrons) and the Sulawesi Pustelschwein (Sus celebensis).

subspecies of the wild pig

due to the far spreading of the wild pig becomes a large number ofSubspecies differentiated. The subspecies are differentiated on the basis the Basilarlänge of the head and the relative importance of the Tränenbeins. The length of the Tränenbeins decreases its height from the west eastward and increases. The entire head becomes shorter and higher thereby. Thosein addition northern and more northwest kinds have an increasingly closer and longer Behaarung. On islands living wild pigs are generally smaller.

As subspecies become and. A. differentiated:

  • Sus scrofa scrofa - the Nominatform, those in west and Central Europe up to that Pyreneeses and Alpen as well as up to the northwest of the Slowakei is common. It was scientifically described 1758 by Carl von Linné.
  • Sus scrofa castillianus - is the subspecies spread on the iberischen peninsula.
  • Sus scrofa meridionalis - was on Korsika and Sardinien resident subspecies. It is considered meanwhile as exterminated.
  • Sus scrofa majori - the subspecies spread on the Italian peninsula. It is relatively small and dark. In the north of Italy it is meanwhile displaced by the subspecies scrofa.
  • Sus scrofa barbarus- meanwhile rare the subspecies, which was common in Morocco, become , Algeria and Tunesien originally.
  • Sus scrofa sennaarensis - was the wild pig subspecies exterminated meanwhile, which was resident in Egypt and in the Sudan.
  • Sus scrofa libycus - was ofsouth Turkey until subspecies spread Israel and Palestine. It is also exterminated by Bejagung.
  • Sus scrofa attila - is the subspecies resident in South-east Europe, which becomes larger and heavier than the Central European subspecies.
  • Sus scrofa nigripes - is thoseCentral Asian subspecies.
  • Sus scrofa sibiricus - the subspecies living in the Baikalgebiet as well as northern Mongolia. It is considered as a relatively small subspecies.
  • Sus scrofa ussuricus - „Ussuri wild pig in such a way specified “, which ranks among the largest subspecies.
  • Sus scrofa leucomystax- is in Japan living wild pig.
  • Sus scrofa cristatus - is the wild pig living in India and Indochina, which have a shortened face head.

humans and wild pig

wild pig and house pig

archaeological findings leave opena Domestikation of the wild pig in the first half 8. Millenium v. Chr. close - here young animals of a dark-membranous house pig race are to be seen.

In the large circulation area of the wild pig it came several times independently to the Domestikation. The Domestikation of theWild pig similarly as with sheep and goats with a reduction of the size accompanied. Archaeological finds of pig bones, which lie clearly below the range of variation of Wildchweinknochen, are therefore regarded as voucher for a Wildschweindomestikation. The oldest secured vouchers for oneOne found Domestikation in the southeast of Turkey. In frühneolithischen settlements from the first half 8. Millenium v. Chr. excavations brought pig bones to the day, which differ clearly in their relative importance from the wild pig. In the Iraq and forSafe vouchers on 7000 v. date Europe. Chr.

Independently of it the Domestikation of the wild pig in China took place, where the oldest bone finds on a domestic animal attitude of the wild pig in 6. Millenium before Christ refer to. In Thailand archaeological findings leave the Domestikationon 4. Millenium before Christ date.

The Domestikation led in Central Europe to pigs, which in the Middle Ages frequently only Widerrist - height of 75 cm had. In their appearance - Körperbehaarung, elongated head, Stehmähne sealed - they resembledhowever still very the wild pig:

„Up to 18. Century did not deviate the life of the European house pigs fundamentally from that of the wild pigs. By the attitude conditions they were not shielded against climatic Unbilden. Their fodder had they predominantly in the forestseven search, and they got only wastes course-fed. Besides occasionally a Keiler might have penetrated enclosures in it, in order to cover a sow. The consequence was that house pigs hardly differed up to this time in the type from wild pigs. Itwere langbeinige slim animals with long stretched head and a clear bristle comb on the back. Still around 1800 the battle age of pigs in Germany amounted to 1 ½ year; their weight was at that time with 50 kg. “ (Sambraus, S. 277)

The today's house pigs,as for instance those Swabian Hälli land pig or the German noble pig, are relatively modern breeding. They developed, after practice the acorn mast was increasingly stopped. The first modern pig race developed around 1770 in England.

wild pig as game

Wild pig hunt (Wandmalerei in the Lepâkshî temple in Hindupur, south India, around 1540)

male wild pigs by hunters Keiler are called, a strong, older Keiler starting from the fifth or sixth Lebensjahr is designated than bass or main pig. The female animal is called brooks, the young animalboth kinds of sex calls one from its birth to following 31. March Frischling; the hunter calls it also frog. Starting from that the birth the following 1. April become more exact young wild pigs as defectors, than defector brooks and/or. Überläuferkeiler, designates.

ThatWild pig belonged to the most important game of humans of the Mesolithikums. Due to archaeological findings is one the conviction that wild pigs in Central Europe constituted about 40 to 50% of the booty. Our ancestors used drop pits and hunted with arrow and elbow those easilyyoung animals which can be hunted and before-year old animals.

The hunt for an attained full growth Keiler represented a courage sample. A hurt attained full growth wild pig attacks also humans and in particular the male animals is able with her long Eckzähnen humans fatal injuries to attach.It quite applied therefore as royal courage sample to go only with Saufeder in such a way specified - a short Speer - on wild pig hunt. The successful hunt of Karl of the large one for a male becomes accordingly also in the pc. Galler handwriting Carolus Magnus et dad Leo from the year 799 appreciative.

As countless paintings and work art-relating to crafts show, the Schweinehatz with horse and hunting dogs was the usual hunt way. At the württembergischen court 17 became at the beginning. Century of 900 large hunting dogs held,with which one went on wild pig hunt. The valuable dogs, which one called also „sow dogs “or „sow packmen “, were protected from the attacks of the wild pigs with broad collars and every now and then even tank shirts. Task of the dogs was it, wild pig so longto rush, to it and it fatigued to a place to then hold, until the hunter killed it from close distance. With this Sauhatzen regularly humans, horses and dogs by attacking wild pigs heavily and every now and then deadly were hurt.

The development thatFeuerwaffen made the hunt for wild pig simpler. There was no more necessity to place itself to a male striking wildly with its Hauern directly. Nevertheless was in particular in the baroque the hunt for wild pig a firm component of the höfischen ceremony. Schweinhatzento horse still the animals belonged however also in so-called rushing or sow gardens before the guns of the höfischen society were floated to the fürstlichen entertainments, frequently. The erjagten animals played thereby quite also a role with the supply thatPopulation with meat. 1669 sold for example „the provisions and smoke house of the hunter yard Dresden of “616 shot animals to the population; in Prussia the citizens of the cities were forced to buy the wild pigs erjagten by the royal yard. Opposite the substantial agricultural stoodDamage, which arranged the wild pigs on the fields. To the farmer it was usually not permitted, to shoot who into its fields of breaking in wild pigs - they were allowed to only protect with clubs their cultivated areas.

This changed with the purge of the Absolutism. Restrictions of hunt on wild pigs were waived and starting from the last third 18. Century in many Central European countries regulations were issued, after which wild pigs were permitted only in zoos or Wildgattern. Center 19. Century was that wild pigtherefore in numerous Central European regions no more do not represent. In addition it contributed substantially that in consequence of the revolution of 1848 the hunting right was bound to the real property. The hunt owner had to replace the developing game damage and this led to a substantialDezimierung of the wild pig existence. The Prussian game damage law of 1891 for example required full reconciliation of the wild pig damage of the person entitled to hunt, if preserving intentions could be subordinated to it. As preserving intention thereby already one rated if the person entitled to hunt did not shoot a female with young animals.

As in the chapter„Spreading “described, were into the 1940er years 20. Century any longer does not settle many regions of Central Europe von Wildschweinen. To the propagation of the wild pig it contributed that in the first postwar years in Germany the hunt was only reduced permitted in particular.

behavior opposite humans

representation of a Sauhatz in the hour book of the duke of Berry

wild pigs originally inhabited all landscapes of Central Europe. As consequence of violent pursuit by humans they are today usually shy and night active. Wild pigs, those because of the better food offerin cities live, lose partially their shyness at humans, since they are practically not bejagt in cities. This goes in particular into and around Berlin so far that the animals beg proper aggressively for fodder. In particular wild pigs should neverare angefüttert, since the animals have a good memory and to come again and again.

Wild pigs in animal enclosures to be held, become very zahm and zutraulich. These wild pigs can be presupposed, an appropriate caution, stroked even.


straightened wild pigs

inPerigord (France) are used particularly to the Trüffelsuche trained wild pigs. In the achziger years in hildesheimer area straightened wild pig arrived at supraregional meaning: The police pig “Luise” was partially better and faster able, hidden explosives and buried drug samplesto find as trackhounds.

wild pigs in the literature

the hunt for militaryful wild pig again and again topic of the literature was. That is enough from the acts of the Herakles, which has to catch the Erymanthi Eber, over that Nibelungenlied and the Greek excessive quantity of the wild pig hunt of the Atalante and the Meleager (held by Peter Paul Rubens also in paintings) up to the representation in the Comic - series „Asterix “.

Already in the narrations of the Homer of the fact is reported howthe Greek goddess of the hunt kind-badly from revenge a wild pig on earth sends, which devastates the fields and wine gardens. Also the Roman poet Ovid described, which damage rooting wild pigs on the fields of the farmers to cause and in thatGermanic Edda hunts for the Keiler Sährimnier, which up-arises on the next morning, the heroes each day in order to be again hunted. Also in fairy tales the heroful fight against wild pig emerges. In the fairy tale of the courageous cutter flax, that those Brothers Grimm delivered, catch by a smart trick schmächtige cutter flax the wild Eber, of which even the hunters are afraid.

In the Comic series „Asterix “, their action in the Gallien of the Roman time around the year 50 v. Chr. under thatDictator Gaius Julius Caesar plays, is considered wild pigs as body food not only the main characters Asterix and Obelix, but all inhabitant of the whole gallischen village, which embitters the Romans resistance carries out. Each booklet of the Comic series ends with the fact that the entire villagewith the common wild pig meal reconciles themselves and celebrates.

In the novel Hannibal of Thomas Harris play wild pigs a role in the revenge plans of Mason Verger, a victim of doctor Lecter. It lets a wild pig race, which blood-run-rose particularly wildly and even is breed,in order to use it as murder weapon against doctor Lecter.

wild pig as a coat of arms animal

Keiler als Wappentier
Keiler as a coat of arms animal
Ausgestopfter Keiler als Wappentier im Rathaus von Wolfsburg-Vorsfelde
of stuffed Keiler as a coat of arms animal in the city hall of wolf castle before field

due to its far spreading emerges black game also as a coat of arms animal . The coat of arms of wolf castle before field showson silver reason a jumping black Keiler over green soil. It is a talking coat of arms, because wild pig the article light the name part forwards in the place name Vorsfelde. Dat forwards is a term on Niederdeut and stands for a lean pig.The coat of arms picture in the today's form emerged for the first time around 1740 . It developed from the Vorsfelder local seal, on which a jumping wild pig is provable already 1483. The assumption as a coat of arms animal is based probably also on that to the frequency of black gameinto the close Drömlingswäldern. Since 1952 stand a real coat of arms animal as stuffed Keiler in a case in the earlier Vorsfelder city hall (today administration office city wolf castle), which was shot in local proximity.

literature

  • Norbert Benecke: Humans andits domestic animals - the history of an millenium-old relationship. Konrad Theis publishing house, Stuttgart 1994. ISBN 3-88059-995-5 (S. 248-260)
  • Lutz Briedermann: Black game. VEB German agriculture publishing house, Berlin 1986. ISBN 3-331-00075-2 (this 539 sides strong work is concerned with almost all aspectsthe wild pig life; it is however very strongly written Lutz tail under the aspect of the Bejagung of the wild pig
  • .): Game sows. Publishing house Paul Parey, o. O. 1980. ISBN 3-4400-8063-3
  • Heinz Meynhardt: Black game report. My life under wild pigs. o. O. 1986. ISBN 3-7888-0270-7 (with many details over the social behavior)
  • Rolf Hennig: Black game. Biology, behavior, preserves and hunt. 6. , examined edition. BLV, Munich, Vienna and Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-405-15380-8
  • Cord Riechelmann: Wild animals in the large city. Nicolai publishing house, Berlin2004.ISBN 3-89479-133-0
  • Hans Hinrich Sambraus: Color Atlas utilizable animal races. Eugen Ulmver publishing house, o. O. 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3219-2

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