William Hankel

William Hankel (* 10. January 1929 in long-drove Professor with Danzig) . Dr. rer. pole., are a German economist and currency specialist.

Table of contents


Hankel began its career 1952 with the bank of German countries, the forerunner of the German Federal Bank. Later it changed in the Federal Ministry for economic co-operation and development (BMZ). A further change brought it in the Foreign Office. From 1959 to 1967 Hankel spent national economy and planning of the kreditanstalt fuer wiederaufbau as director and a director/conductor of the department. it changed 1967 into the Federal Ministry for economics (BMWi) of Professor. Karl Schiller as directors/conductors of the department of money and credit and became one of its closest coworkers. It was considerably involved in the development of the federal government notes and led the futures exchange in Frankfurt/M. . From 1971 to 1972 it stood as a president at the point of the hessian Landesbank (Helaba) and received at the same time to 1971 a Honorarprofessur at the Goethe university in Frankfurt/Main for currency and development policy. From 1974 to 1975 Hankel took over a Gastprofessur at Harvard University. From 1975 to 1976 a Gastprofessur followed at the Konrad Adenauer chair of the Georgetown University in Washington (D.C.) . Between 1978 and 1981 erl a Gastprofessur at the Bologna Centre had for advanced internationally Studies of the John Hopkins university. A Gastprofessur followed Berlin at the center of science . From 1990 to 1991 Hankel received a Gastprofessur at the technical University of Dresden. From 1991 to 1992 it held a donation chair of the German Federal Bank for international monetary policy at the free University of Berlin .

Besides Hankel received consulting orders of the society for technical co-operation (GTZ) in the united Arab emirates and Saudi Arabia from 1977 to 1979, in South Korea 1980, in Egypt 1981, in the Dominican republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica and Nicaragua 1982, in the People's Republic of China 1988, in Jordanian ones from 1989 to 1991, in Yemen 1992, in Russia 1994 to 1995 and in Georgien from 1998 to 1999 and as consultants of the World Bank. Until 1995 Hankel developed a training centre for bankers in the westsibirieschen Tjumen with support of the European union .

euro critic

Hankel belonged for years to the euro critics, because he the opinion is, the euro was introduced überhastet into heterogeneously developed national economies, without those was caused according to its opinion necessary political union under these states. It derives from it that it will come with the pressure unfolded on the part of the Einheitswährung to substantial distortions on the national job markets and with the national finances of the state, with which the investments into „the cheap wage countries “of the euro zone moves away, which experience a reduction of the rate of interest by the Europeanuniform interest, while the interest advantage of DM, which the high labour costs level compensated, was lost in the uniform euro area, so that only by a substantial structure reconciliation between the euro-participation states was to be adjusted the distortions. Or, in order to express it differently: Because Germany had a so high rate of saving compared with its European neighbours, in this country interest for investment loans of the middle class was clearly lower than with its neighbours. With the European Einheitswährung the Germans lost their competition advantage, which compensated its competitive disadvantage wage and tax level substantially. After „the currency veil was taken away “by the euro, the capital in the low wage and - moves away tax countries of the euro zone. Not alone the globalization pressure intensifies the competition, but in particular the competition pressure within the euro zone. Hankel holds out to the euro proponents that small high-wage countries Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, similarly as Germany a developed welfare state it does not have Denmark, which do not participate in the euro and tendentious before the same demographic problems as Germany, but the problems can noticeably more easily loosen, but the euro-countries France, Italy and the Netherlands only over the dismantling of their welfare state and wage lowering rounds with the countries of the euro zone with high growth, as Spain, Portugal and Ireland subsidize by the interest advantage of the euro into competition to step to be able. While these principal-weak euro countries follow their obligations tendentious by inflation to the reduction of debts, suffers financially strong Germany at the associated exportation of capital, which lets in this country costs of the debt service rise. The again and again endeavored obligation to the reduction of debts, in this country of the Mainstream, analyzes Hankel: Debts can be only in relation to the fortune purchased thereby high or low, the gross domestic product are in addition the wrong base factor.

The demographic development endeavored again in Germany at the latest since the introduction of the agenda always 2010 entzaubert Hankel logically: Whether the vocationally active generation for an increasing older generation is asked by pension contributions or by rents, leases and interest to the cash, considerably as distribution mass of the total population in each case the quantity of goods and services, produced by the vocationally active generation, is available. Pension contributions, like renting and interest incomes are only different distribution ways. “incoming goods owe it ton of ourselves “were already into the 1980er years the realization in the indebtedness debate at that time. With good reason it refers to the controversy between Konrad Adenauer and Ludwig Erhard concerning principal or reallocation-financed pension. When Erhard understood, which was practically complete with one accepted completely principal-covered old age pension insurance also the capital market in their hand, he decided fast for the this very day current allocation procedure.

Therefore Hankel with professors Wilhelm Nölling, 1997 complaint at the Federal Constitutional Court against the contract from Amsterdam to the introduction of the euro, had submitted Joachim Starbatty and Karl Albrecht pit cutter which was however not successful.

Hankel lives in king winters.


  • Zimmerman, Louis Jacques; Hankel, William: History of the theoretical political economy, federation publishing house 1954
  • Hankel, William; Branch, Gerhard: Economical basic questions of the social reform, federation publishing house 1956
  • Heilbroner, Robert Louis; Hankel, William: Hunt for wealth, federation publishing house 1960
  • Hankel, William: The second Kapitalverteilung - a free market way of long-term financing politics, scarce 1961
  • Zimmerman, Louis Jacques; Hankel, William: Poor and rich countries, federation publishing house 1963
  • Hankel, William: Matters of time of the credit and finance, scarce 1964
  • Hankel, William: Experiences with German capital aide, Hoffmann & Campe 1967
  • Hankel, William: Monetary policy - monetary value stabilization, currency integration and saver protection, Kohl hammer publishing house 1971
  • Hankel, William: The way out of the crisis, Econ publishing house 1975
  • Hankel, William: Hero legends of the economy - or beautiful sound economic world, Econ publishing house 1975
  • Hankel, William: World economy - of the prosperity of the nations today, Econ 1977
  • Hankel, William: Prosperität in the crisis - an analysis of the economic policy in the energy crisis by the example of Austria: Active Binnenbilanz by passive external balance, vienna Munich Zurich Innsbruck, 1979
  • Priebe, Hermann; Hankel, William: The agrarian sector during the development process - with examples from Africa, Campus publishing house, 1980
  • Hankel, William: Golden times führ´t I in Caesar and his Wirtschaftsimperium, Fischer paperback publishing house 1980
  • Hankel, William; Isaak, Robert: The modern inflation - a case for Exorzismus or presentation?, Federation publishing house 1981
  • Hankel, William: The handicraft, reports from the job market and occupation research puts 1984 Hankel,
  • William to the money Alchimisten; Kupky, Helmut: Reciprocal heading - from the debt crisis to full employment, settler 1984, ISBN 3-8868-0114-4
  • Hankel, William: Prosperität in the crisis, Molden 1984
  • Hankel, William: John May pool of broadcasting corporations Keynes - the decoding of capitalism, Piper 1986
  • Hankel, William: To caution, our money - everyone its own banker, restaurant economics long-Mueller/ago-bend 1989, ISBN 3-7844-7245-1
  • Hankel, William; Sander, Harald: Contributions for the analysis of the debt crisis and its fight 1989, ISBN 3-9272-7606-5
  • Hankel, William: A Mark for Germany, Bouvier publishing house 1990, ISBN 3-416-02259-9
  • Hankel, William: Caesar - world economy old Rome, Ullstein publishing house 1992, ISBN 3-5483-4882-3
  • Hankel, William: Dollar and ECU - key currencies in the contest, Fischer paperback publishing house 1992
  • Hankel, William: The seven death sins of the combination - ways from the restaurant disaster, settler 1993, ISBN 3-8868-0484-4
  • Hankel, William: The large money theatre - over DM, dollar, rouble and ECU, German publishing house 1995
  • Hankel, William: The economist Friedrich cunning - misjudged into all eternity?, in: South German newspaper, 29. November 1996
  • Hankel, William: From the war child to the currency king - a Portrait US Dollar, in: NZZ Folio 8/1997
  • Hankel, William: Way out of the Globalismusfalle - economic policy in the globalism, yearbook for work & technology 1997, Friedrich Ebert donation
  • Hankel, William: Of Europe size size of, contribution from the row “politics and contemporary history”, 2000
  • Hankel, William; Pit cutter, Karl Albrecht; Starbatty, Joachim: The economist as politicians - Europe, money and the social question, anniversary publication to 70. Birthday William Nöllings, Lucius & Lucius 2003, ISBN 3-8282-0267-5
  • Hankel, William; Nölling, William; Pit cutter, Karl Albrecht; Starbatty, Joachim: The euro-complaint - why the monetary union must fail, rororo up-to-date 22395 1998, ISBN 3-499-22395-3
  • Hankel, William; Nölling, William; Pit cutter, Karl Albrecht; Starbatty, Joachim: The euro-illusion - is Europe to be still saved? rororo up-to-date 23085 2001
  • Hankel, William: The prophet does not apply for anything in the own guild. To 100. Birthday by George Simmels philosophy of the money, Suhrkamp 2001
  • Hankel, William; Emmerich Frit, Angelika: Revolution of the health insurance. Principles, theses and law, Hans book publishing house 2002
  • Hankel, William; Emmerich Frit, Angelika; Scherer, Andreas's G.; Filter old, Dagmar I.; Wartha, Udo: Legal questions of the world economy, 2002
  • Hankel, William: The Januskopf of the globalization 2002
  • Hankel, William: The capital market is the problem - not the welfare state, in: Frankfurter Rundschau, 23. October 2004
  • Hankel, William: The euro and the European Union extension to the East: German Staatsräson is the welfare state, not the European monetary union, in: The new society - Frankfurt ones of numbers 51/2004

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