Table of contents
William Steinitz as thirteen-width units child of a ärmlichen Prager craftsman family was born. It had from birth to a becoming lumpy foot andused a going support. Already as a child it was considered as one of the best chess players in Prague.it pulled 1858 to Vienna, in order to study on poly-technical Institut mathematics. A time long it financed its study by journalistic work for the Constitutionelle Austrian newspaper,for which it provided parliament reports. Soon however it turned out for Steinitz that with that games of chess in Viennese coffee houses far more moneys was to be earned. By its successes he attained fast international admittingness.
it took London in London on its first international tournament part and achieved the 6. Place. Thereupon it moved to London, since England was considered at that time as Mekka of the chess players. Steinitz denied its living costs by play around employment in the Londoner coffee houses.
Steinitz played itself in the next years upward: directly after thatLondoner tournament it defeated the Italian Dubois in a match with 5,5-3,5 (+5-3=1), 1863 struck it Joseph Henry Blackburne with 8-2 (+7-1=2). In the same year it won against Deacon 5.5-1.5 (+5,1=1) and Mongredien with 7-0 (+7-0=0). To the turn of the year 1863/1864 it struck Green 8-1 (+7-0=2).Subsequently, it triumphed superior in two tournaments:Dublin 1865 and London 1866.
large successes of Steinitz in England caused the there chess enthusiasts, a match between it and the Prussian world class player Adolf Anderssen one, thanunofficial world champion applied to organize. In the year 1866 the two chess masters in London met one another: after embittered fight (no portion ended remis!) Steinitz with 8-6 (+8-6=0) came out as a winner.
From now on the chess world regards Steinitz as a world-wide best chess master. It demonstrated its superiorityin the following years repeats very impressively: 1866 it struck Henry Edward Bird 7.5-5.5 (+7-5=1), Blackburne 1870 with 5,5-0,5 and 1872 Johannes Hermann Zukertort with 9-3 (+7-1=4). Steinitz actually won at that time each match, which he played, but a tournament victory remained for a long time refused for him: 1867 in Paris became it third (behind Ignaz of Kolisch and Gustav smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Ludwig Neumann, in Dundee 1867 second (behind Neumann), just like in Baden-Baden 1870 (behind Anderssen). Only in London 1872 and Vienna 1873 he could achieve its first tournament victories.
Steinitz played after its VienneseTriumph three years neither tournaments nor matches, but 1876 provoked it again Blackburne. Steinitz achieved expected victory against the Britisher one at this value of nobody: it struck Blackburne 7-0 (+7-0=0). Thereupon it withdrew itself for some years from the tournament and match chess.
Itthe chess column transferred in the The Field, which provided together with the play around employment against amateurs in the Londoner Cafés a sufficient getting along for it. He dedicated much time to the analysis. As correspondent it visited different tournaments without to play: and. A. Paris 1878 and Berlin 1881.
1882 it returned to six-year absence (one sees 1876 from the match against Blackburne starting from even after 9-jähiger absence) to the arena: he took part in the tournament in Vienna, where he became more divided first with Szymon Winawer. In the year after it becamewith the large tournament of London second behind Zukertort, which won the best tournament of its life with 3 points projection/lead.
In the same year Steinitz the place gave up with the The Field and accepted an invitation into the USA , which contained its settlement there at the same time.
after 21 years in England moved to Steinitz into the USA and became American citizen.
As a in demand guest in different US-American clubs, as also on Cuba, as well as editor of different chess columns into US-American newspapers, Steinitz had a sufficient income. It is oneMultiplicity at simultaneous, blind, opportunity and match portions from its American time delivers.
From 1885 to 1891 it led internationally the Chess of magazines, a chess newspaper recognized world-wide. By the principle-firm defense of its opinions Steinitz over-threw itself however with many its reader and Bewunderer, from thoseit was nevertheless financially dependent. For these reasons (subscribers jumped düpiert off, Steinitz' occurrence were rejected and it to appearances into the clubs invited more rarely) it was forced later to reset its newspaper.
In the year 1886 as Steinitz itself still large popularity inthe USA pleased, was sponsor and Mäzene, who wanted to organize a match around the Championship OF the World in the USA. The superior winner of the tournament of London 1883, Johannes Hermann Zukertort was invited and crossed to the match, that as the first official match overthe chess world championship applies, also the Atlantic.
Steinitz, which the played portions for its internationally Chess analyzed magazines during the current fight, struck Zukertort with large projection/lead. It lagged behind in the first match section with 1-4, but recovered it in the center of the match andZukertort, which finally broke down physically and psychologically, with 12,5-7,5 (+10-5=5) struck. Steinitz was considered now also officially as a world champion (champion OF the World).
As kämpferischer spirit Steinitz did not rest itself on the once acquired Lorbeeren: it recruited with the American chess friends supportfurther matches. As long as he was world champion, Steinitz played all its matches around the world championship in the new world:it won 1889 on Cuba (in Havanna) against the Russian Mikhail Tschigorin, against whom it before lost both portions in London 1883, with 10,5-6,5 (+10, - 6=1).Around the turn of the year 1890/1891 he played 1892 in New York town center against the Hungary Isidor Gunsberg, which he defeated with 10,5-8,5 (+6-4=9) , played it again with Tschigorin, Cuba. This time its victory was everything else as safe: the final result of 12,5-10,5something is deceptive about the combat process, since Tschigorin from many well standing portions got only few points.
Steinitz' of last challengers was the young German Emanuel Lasker, which was since 1892 in the USA. Club inthe USA and Canada organized 1894 the match: the 58-jährige Steinitz was subject to the 26-jährigen new world champion clearly with 7-12 (+5-10=4).
Steinitz' absolute will to back-conquer its title led it again to new energy and it participated in different tournaments in the 90's. Although itno more tournament won, obtained it up to London 1899 in each tournament a price. Its best result from this last creative period was the second place with the pc. Peter citizen four-master tournament 1895/1896 (behind Lasker).
Lasker gave to the turn of the year 1896/1897 in Moscow one to SteinitzRevenge possibility. Steinitz was missing however already the energy, in order to be able to exist against the young world champion. It was subject with 4,5-12,5 (+2-10=5).
The loss of its title impaired Steinitz' psychological condition to a considerable degree. Still in Moscow, after the loss of the match, it worsened so that oneit briefly in treatment to bring had. He recovered no longer from this impact and died forbidding third and already from material emergency drawn few years later in New York.
contribution for developmentchess
Steinitz Steinitz large earnings/services in its thorough analysis of the principles of chess. He understood himself as a founder of a modern school, whose trailer played systematically according to principles. In contrast to it stood the romantic school, which marked the master players before Steinitz.These played sharply on attack and trusted on intuition and genius of the chess master. Steinitz aimed to disprove the positional too little justified structure of portion of these players by strictly positional play.
Steinitz actually fascinated the chess public in the first years of its career with romantic chess, thatit controlled in the best way. After he had come however into contact with the play way of the English masters, who expressed themselves rather in closed openings and portions solidly put on, its attention was directed on the hidden regularities of the chess strategy. It analyzed with the utmost care the master portions of the past andits present, and published his realizations. It led its chess columns with large work expended. Its references to the principles recognized by him it communicated already to the readers of the Field and published its internationally Chess of magazines, but it 1889 the text book The decaying Chess Instructor,a work, in which it its modern trend school described more near and everything of it developed discovered principles, which are today common property/knowledge of all chess players.
Steinitz was understood first only about few. It used its realizations in its own portions, but appeared these its contemporaries asbizarr and darkly. It fell most heavily to recognize the ideas behind Steinitz' courses and many pulled it into the ridiculousness. Only with the generation of Emanuel Lasker and Siegbert Tarrasch appeared Adepten, which in it that newer one recognized, which was actual he. Laskerstated Steinitz with its own weapons to have struck.
Among the most important factors, which permit a position estimate only, Steinitz ranked:
- the material relationship
- the effective force of the figures
- the effective force of the farmers
- stationing the farmers
- the king position
- the interaction of all figures
on it constructing it recognized the followingPrinciples of the strategy:
- there is an equilibrium in the position
- only if this equilibrium is disturbed, is a sharp attack justified
- attacks must against the weak points of the opponent is led
- the defense must be as economic as only possible
these formulations to have their validitykeep until today.
Steinitz contributed many ideas to the theory of the opening .
After it a variant of the Spanish portion is designated, after 1. e2-e4 e7-e5 2. Sg1-f3 Sb8-c6 3. Lf1-b5 d7-d6 develops. Later one switched usually the courses 3. ...a7-a6 4. Lb5-a4, before one then 4. ... d7-d6 played (Steinitz defense improved). The idea is that white can come into a well-known case of opening, if it now the positional desirable course 5. d2-d4 plays: 5. ... b7-b5 6. La4-b3 e5xd4 7. Sf3xd4 Sc6xd4 8. Dd1xd4c7-c5 9. Dd4-d5 Lc8-e6 10. Dd5-c6+ Le6-d7 11. Dc6-d5 c5-c4 and white loses a figure.
In the French defense becomes the Zugfolge 1. e2-e4 e7-e6 2. d2-d4 d7-d5 3. Sb1-c3 Sg8-f6 4. e4-e5 as Steinitz variant designates.
Steinitz invented also a Gambit in the Viennese portion: 1. e2-e4 e7-e5 2. Sb1-c3 Sb8-c6 3. f2-f4 e5xf4 4. d2-d4. There after 4. ... Dd8-h4+ 5. Ke1-e2 the white king its castling right loses, it by many of its contemporaries for was not kept correct. Steinitz kept up however at its opinion and defeatedthis variant Zukertort in the last portion of the world championship fight 1886.
Its persisting in variants, which correct he considered, brought in however also occasionally defeats for it. 1890 placed its estimate of two variants to Tschigorin in the Evans Gambit and two-Springer play in the Nachzuge in question and demanded itto a match up, in order to clarify the diversity of opinion on the chessboard. This was done then via two remote portions delivered by means of telegraph, which Tschigorin both won.
list of the tournament and match results
|tournament of the Viennese chess company||Vienna||unknown||3. Place|
|tournament of the Viennese chess company||Vienna||unknown||2. Place|
|tournament of the Viennese chess company||Vienna||31.5/34 (+30-1=3)||1. Place|
|international tournament on the occasion of the world exhibition, at the same time 5. Congress that British Chess Association(BCA)||London||7.5/15 (+6-5=3)||6. Place|
|match against Serafino Dubois||London||5.5/9 (+5-3=1)||Steinitz wins with 5,5-3,5|
|match against Joseph Henry Blackburne||London||8/10 (+7-1=2)||Steinitz wins with 8-2|
|match against Frederic Deacon||London||5.5/7 (+5-1=1)||Steinitz wins with 5,5-1,5|
|match approximately Valentine Green||London||6.5/7 (+6-0=1)||Steinitz wins 1 with|
|1865||congress of chess||Dublin 4.5/5 (+4-0=1||). Place|
|match against Adolf Anderssen one||London||8/14 (+8-6=0)||Steinitz wins 9.5/17 (+7-5=5) Steinitz with 8-6 and|
|is considered from now on than world-best player||match||against Henry Edward Bird||London wins also1867|
|against George Brunton drill Dundee||4/6||(+3-1=2) Steinitz||international tournament wins 9,5-7,5|
|on the occasion of the world exhibition Paris 17.5/22||(||+16-3=3) 3 with||4-2. Place|
|congress of chess||Dundee||7/9 (+7-2=0)||2. Place|
|international tournament||Baden-Baden||12.5/18 (+11-4=3)||2. Place|
|international tournament||London||7/8 (+7-1=0)||1. Place|
|Handicap tournament||London||1.5/4 (+0-1=3)||Steinitz separated in the 2. Round against Johannes Hermann Zukertort out. (The only portions played by Steinitz without default.)|
|match against Johannes Hermann Zukertort||London||9/12 (+7-1=4)||Steinitz wins international tournament|
|9-3 1873 on the occasion of the world exhibition||Vienna||22,5/27 (+20-2=5)||1. Place|
|match against Joseph Henry Blackburne||London||7/7 (+7-0=0)||Steinitz wins international tournament|
|22/34 (||+18-8=8||) 1 with 7-0||1882. - 2. Place (with Szymon Winawer)|
|1. Match against Dion Martinez||Philadelphia||7/7 (+7-0=0)||Steinitz wins with 7-0|
|2. Match approximately Dion Martinez||Philadelphia||4.5/7 (+3-1=3)||Steinitz wins with 4,5-2,5|
|match against Alexander Sellman||Baltimore||3.5/5 (+2-0=3)||Steinitz wins with 3,5-1,5|
|match against George Henry Mackenzie||New York town center||4/6 (+3-1=2)||Steinitz wins with 4-2|
|match against Celso Golmayo Zupide||Havana||8.5/10 (+8-1=1)||Steinitz winswith 8,5-1,5|
|international tournament||London||21.5/32 (+18-7=7)||2. Place|
|match against Alexander Sellman||Baltimore||3/3 (+3-0=0)||Steinitz wins with 3-0|
|match around the world championship against Johannes Hermann Zukertort||New York town center/pc. Louis/new Orleans||12.5/20 (+10-5=5)||Steinitz wins with 12,5-7,5|
|match against Andreas Vasquez||Havana||5/5 (+5-0=0)||Steinitz win with 5-0|
|match against Celso Golmayo Zupide||Havana||5/5 (+5-0=0)||Steinitz win with 5-0|
|match around the world championship against Mikhail Tschigorin||Havana||10.5/17 (+10-6=1)||Steinitz win with 10,5-6,5|
|match around thoseWorld championship against Isidor Gunsberg||New York town center||10.5/19 (+6-4=9)||Steinitz wins 12.5/23 (|
|) Steinitz with 10,5-8,5 1892 match around||the world championship against Mikhail Tschigorin||Havana wins with 12,5-10,5|
|match around the world championship against Emanuel Lasker||New York town center/Philadelphia/Montreal||7/19 (+5-10=4)||Lasker wins international tournament New York town center 8.5/10|
|(+8-1=1||) with||12-7 and becomes world champion||1. Place|
|international tournament||Hastings||13/21 (+11-6=4)||3. Place|
|international tournament||pc. Petersburg||9.5/18 (+7-6=5)||2. Place|
|match against Emanuel of boat operator||Rostow at the Don||6.5/11 (+6-4=1)||Steinitz wins international tournament|
|Nuremberg 11/18||(||+10-6=2) with 6,5-4,5||6. Place|
|revenge match around the world championship against Emanuel Lasker||Moscow||4.5/17 (+2-10=5)||Lasker wins national tournament|
|Thousand Iceland” New York town center 3/5||(+2-1=2||) 1 with 12,5-4,5||1897. - 2. Place (with Samuel Lipschütz)|
|International of “emperor anniversary” - tournament||Vienna||23.5/36 (+18-7=11)||4. Place|
|11. Congress of the German chess federation (FCB)||Cologne||9.5/15 (+8-4=3)||5. Place|
|international tournament||London||10.5/26 (+7-12=7)||10. - 11. Place (with William Cohn)|
- Ludwig brook man: Chess master Steinitz, a life picture of the first world chess master, represented ina complete collection of its portions, Bd. 1-4, Ansbach 1910-1921; Olms reproduction: Bd 1-2. (ISBN 3-283-00080-8), Bd. 3-4 (ISBN 3-283-00081-6)
- simmer Pickard (Hg.): The Games OF William Steinitz, roofridge World Chess champion, Dallas 1995 (ISBN 1-886846-00-6)
- short Landsberger: WilliamSteinitz, Chess champion: A Biography OF the Bohemian Caesar (McFarland, 1993) (ISBN 0-89950-758-1) - the author Landsberger is a Ur-Grossneffe of William Steinitz
Web on the left of
| | * Literature of and over William Steinitz in the catalog of the DDB
- Steinitz, in: Meyers encyclopedia, 4.Aufl. 1888-90, Bd. 15, S.268
- William Steinitz
- William Steinitz: Researcher, artist, chess player
- William Steinitz, detailed description with sources
- 30 crucial positions of its plays (of English)
William Steinitz | Emanuel Lasker | José Raúl Capablanca | Alexander Aljechin | Max Euwe | Mikhail Botwinnik | Wassili Smyslow | Mikhail Tal | Tigran Petrosjan | Boris Spasski | Robert James Fischer | Anatoli Karpow | Garri Kasparow | Vladimir stuff NIC
- FIDE world champion since 1993:
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of important chess players from Böhmen|
|DATE OF BIRTH||17. May 1836|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Prague|
|DYING DATE||12. August 1900|
|DYING PLACE||New York|