William Penn

William Penn (1644-1718)

William Penn (* 14. October 1644 in London; † 30. July 1718 in Ruscombe, Berkshire) created the colony Pennsylvanien in the area of the today's USA, wrote 1693 the essay towards the Present and Future Peace OF Europe.

Table of contents

lives

Penn was born as a son of an admiral of the same name, who belonged to the richest and most influential men of England. Penn became one the most well-knownand most respected speaker of the Quäker. Because of its faith it was offended by its father and taken prisoner in England several times. Despite the discord with its father this used its influence and attained twice the release William Penns (June.). To 16. September 1670 died the father,briefly after Penn had been for the second time released. Before death William Penn (sen.) with its son reconciled itself.1672 married William Penn (June.) the Quäkerin Guglielma Springett. They had three common children: Springett, William and Lätitia (also Letty called).

Despite thatreduced freedom of religion and repeated arrest continued Penn its employment as Quäker and preached religious tolerance and political liberalism. Into the 1670er years developed it a model for a new settlement in North America.

For this it traveled 1671 and 1677 among other things also to Germanyand recruited for the settlement of German Kolonisten in North America. After the death of Penns father settled king Karl II. in the year 1681 a larger money debt, by bequeathing Penn an enormous area in the North American wilderness and appointing him the there governor. The area calledit Pennsylvania. It covered the two today's Federal States Pennsylvania and Delaware. Still in the same year Penn created the capital Philadelphia. It is thus one of the oldest cities of the USA.

Penn tried „the holy experiment “, how he called it, and arranged a system of government, on fraternity and personal liberty for settlers and natives Indian was based. Affected by it, the settlement of German settlers in Germantown, Pennsylvania, by its friend Franz Daniel Pastorius began 1683.

Penns system was with that unusually liberals right to vote and the full freedom of religionits time far ahead. Due to the fact that Penn protected the Indians against alcohol and exploitative white one and to the land contracts of assignment adhered strict, Pennsylvania remained indianischen would spared attack. Penn had intensive contact with the neighbouring indianischen Ethnien, like the Lenni Lenape or the Irokesen, and spoke even its languages.

Altogether Penn spent only some few years in Pennsylvania. Most time exerted itself it in England for its holy experiment, which was always again strongly endangered. Besides it had itself in England around itsFamily care. His Mrs. Guglielma died 1693 after long illness. Its oldest son Springett followed it to 10. February 1696 likewise after long illness into death. Still in the same year Penn married for the second time. Its new wife, Hannah Callowhill, gave him inthe consequence of six children.

Although Pennsylvania became rapid a rich colony, Penn earned hardly somewhat to it. From its financial manager Philip Ford betrogen, were to blame for themselves Penn so strongly that it had some time in the debtor's prison. The following process against Ford cost it much Kraft.

Penn suffered three impact accumulations, which beutelten its health badly. Disappointed and forbidding third died William Penn in the year 1718. Its influence in Pennsylvanien was still noticeable over generations clearly.

To 28. November 1984 explained US-American president Ronald Reagan William Penn and its second wife, Hannah Callowhill Penn, postum to honour citizens of the USA.

essay towards the Present and Future Peace OF Europe

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William Penns plan of a European agreement developed in London during the politically uncertain and strained phase of the years 1691 to 1693. Penns essay achieved a four times edition (1693, 1693, 1696, 1702).

Penn described in the essay, why he had decided, for the establishmentto occur and safety device of the peace Europe. Peace meant in the eyes Penns safety device of the possession conditions, free trade, settlement of industry, general economic upswing by an improved situation concerning orders as well as a promotion of the general welfare and Gastlichkeit during the war apart from death, Gräuel and pauperization forwardseverything strengthens the greed and Hamsterei of the wealthy ones, which to arms a life forces upon as soldier or a thief and no economical use draws. The justice it regarded as a way companion of the peace, those between the parties for the switching was needed and in form to thatLegislation finally rights and obligations defined and retained. The government represented beyond that a necessary means against the Verworrenheit and came out from a general social consent.

The moreover one busy Penn itself with the institutional mechanism of a parliament, confederation of states or - meeting on European level,whereby often the used terms („Parliament OF Europe “, „States OF Europe “, „European Confederacy “, „European League “, „general Diet Estates “, „imperially Parliament “) found a quite arbitrary exchange. They bring up for discussion primarily the possible members and their photograph authorization, the nature of just titles and discussed questions of the presidency and thatRepresentation, the being correct and voting pattern, the presence and agency obligation as well as possible punishing and sanctions. When discussion, negotiation and contract language suggested Penn either latin or French , which would possess both advantages and equally could be accepted.

William Penn referred for the justification of its peace plan explicitly to thosebloody events, which would not to sea have taken place since 1688 for example in Hungary, Flanders, England, Ireland or and by those a human nature be ungerührt can. For the future prevention of such tragedies European-wide peace of emergencies, but supplied Penn is not a general definition its that„Europe “for it represented.

Penn decided for a political-geographical term of Europe, which could be particularly read off from the composition of a general or a state meeting as well as the being correct distribution of the present delegated ones. Therefore the Roman realm 12, France and Spain per 10, Italy should (without the republicVenice) 8, England 6, Sweden, Poland and the general states ever 4, Denmark, Portugal and the Republic of Venice ever 3 as well as Swiss of cantons, the duchy Holstein and Kurland as well as smaller Principalities of ever 1 voice possess, so that the total voices would have amounted to 70. Forthey would have (fair) the case likewise that the Turks and Russian („Muscovites “) would have found as members admission, over 10 in each case delegated ordered, what would have increased the number of voices to 90. Such a meeting would have emphasized Europe in its opinion „“as the part of the world, as„the Best and wealthyest part OF the known World “ admits would be and where „religion and Learning, Civility and kind have their Seat and Empire. “

If changed just titles had made, struck a revision of the composition necessary for Penn an exact examination of all stated requirementsforwards. Just titles would have had existence before the general or state meeting only if them by an unquestionable succession (England, France, Spain), a choice (emperor choice in the realm, Polish Wahlkönigtum), a marriage (Stewartdynastie in England, acquisition of the duchy Kleve by the brandenburgischen cure prince) or by a legalAcquisition (examples from the realm and Italy) were legitimized. Dahingegen would have achieved the European state State of such requirements and title who can be created to reject to be supposed, those by sword and blood (Turkish conquests of Christian areas, conquest of Flanders by Spain, conquest Burgunds, normandy and Lorraine by France)were, since they were morally doubtful, if they had not later found a confirmation by a contract. In this point the desire for a peaceful and/or at Christian yardsticks became particularly well visible oriented on the right of and value community, but pulled themselves it by thatwhole essay. The community of states led thus „ton the benefits OF on universal Monarchy, without the Inconveniences that corrosive it “.

In the last sections possible objections were anticipated, weakened, and the positive effects of the plan as for instance an God-obliging/pleasing life in Christian next love and peace(„Pacifick means “), the improved reputation of the Christianity with the disbelieving ones, the avoidance of the often enormous expenditures for war and its peaceful use, the easement of trade and journeys, the intensified defense strength against Turkish expansionist tendencies and the more intensive friendship between all European princes, states and peoples, enumerated.

Finallyknows Penn on the fact that the creation of such - very reduced supranationally acting - is unnatural institution not at all, because „the same Rules OF Justice and Prudence, by which Parents and of Masters Govern their Families, and of municipal authorities their Cities, and Estates their Republicks, andPrinces and Kings their Principalities and Kingdoms, Europe May Obtain and Preserve peace among the Soveraignties. “ He found the best suggestions for its peace plan according to own data with his searches over the French king Heinrich IV., that already many trains of thought approximately 100 years beforeit would have employed. Penn calls its remarks therefore an experiment, which is necessary, in order to furnish the peace in Europe and the whole world durably. Idea-historically William Penns essay marked a milestone in the history „of the European plans “, - also according to own data - the oneclose linkage to the plans of Heinrich IV and its gone away Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully exhibits and amazingly details numerous achievements of postwar Europe 20. Century anticipated.

literature

  • Paul Gerhard Aring: PENN, William, biographic-bibliographic church encyclopedia, Bd. 7, heart mountain1994, frame. 186-188.
  • Thinly, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations (OD.): The world OF William Penn. Philadelphia 1986.
  • Durland, William: William Penn, James Madison and the historical crisis in American federalism. Lewiston 2000. (=Studies in American history; 28).
  • Rolf Felbinger: Quellenautopsie “William Penn (1693)”, in: European terms andEuropean conceptions in 17. Century. Web project, Wolfgang narrow one (you).
  • Geiter, Mary: William Penn. Harlow 2000.
  • Owens Peare, Catherine: William Penn. Philadelphia 1957.
  • Circular scraper, short of: Eternal peace: Peace calls and peace plans for the Renaissance. Munich 1953, S. 97-116 and S. 321-341.
  • Rose, short: The son of the admiral. Pour, 1991
  • Soderlund, Jean: William Penn and the founding OF Pennsylvania 1680-1684: A documentary history. Philadelphia 1983.

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