windmills are machines, which use the wind energy by wind wings, in order to carry mechanical work out. They are to be found in Europe mainly in the flat lowlandses and were beside in the hill country the more represent Wassermühle up to the developmentthe steam engine the only prime mover of mankind, their application type was accordingly various. Also one calls the enclosing building windmill.

Gallery dutchman windmill as sawing mill
windmills on Mykonos
Dedesdorfer Galerieholländerwindmühle
Dedesdorfer gallery dutchman windmill
Holländerwindmühle in Dippoldiswalde OT. Reichstädt
dutchman windmill in Dippoldiswalde OT. Realm city

table of contents


windmills became already more than 1000 years agoin Asia used, after an old document it is in Persia already in 7. Century the first horizontal windmills gave. In 12. Century the first windmills in Europe were established.

The knowledge became supposed by the Kreuzrittern from small Asiabring along. Other sources assume the Arabs bring along the mill technology with their conquest of Spain.

Windmills were thereby beside the Wassermühlen long time the only machines operated with energy, accordingly versatile were it therefore also in their application.

Originally windmills were used for grinding grain, further applications fast were. Husbands also different materials as for example gypsum and spices, it were rammed in Lohmühlen so mentioned oak crust to the Gerben by leather. The moreover windmills becameas drive for oil guns used, in the Netherlands water was pumped particularly by means of an Archimedean screw by Windantrieb. The drive of water pumps is occupied since 1394. The German society for mill customer and mill preservation (DGM) has those in a compositionUse of windmills for 150 different mechanical activities, from which sawing mill determines up to the Lohmühle.

After in Prussia the freedom of trade got legal power, it came to a last upswing of the windmill industry. To the end 19. Century got through the windmillsthe invention of steam engines and combustion engines competition. Since they could not be operated compared with this any longer economically, their spreading decreased/went back. Later the electric motor than further serious competition was added. During and after that 2. Those experienced world warstill existing mills a short bloom time, there no alternatives existed to furnish the necessary Maschinenleistungen. This upswing went however into West Germany into the 1950er year particularly through the mill quiet putting law to end, since due to this law many mills were shut down.

In the 80's a restoration wave resulted due to the Wiederentdeckung of the old traditions in West Germany. Many windmills were again-aroused with new life as technical or producing monument, museum or for living purposes. The technical restoration carried out thereby was not alwayscorrectly and by many improvisations carried. No miracle, was nevertheless the occupation of the Windmühlenbauers in the context of the mill quiet putting law from the handicrafts register painted, with which also the specialized knowledge shrank. In East Germany the collectivization of the privately operated mills led to the decrease of the number.After the reunification the many still existing small mills could not maintain ground against the new competition. Today there are wind and Wassermühlen, which participate annually in the German mill day at Whitsuntide in reunited Germany approximately 1400.

In the Netherlands were in 19. Century more than 9,000 windmills in the employment, whose existence shrank in the meantime on 900. In the USA are around 1880 about six million wind force wheels in the use to have been, in the modern times are it 15.000.

With the windmill could also simple messages to Mueller convey. By different wing positions and coverings he could indicate the reason for rest breaks, for example to repair work, a death in the family or the end of workday.

See also: History of the wind power utilization

windmill types

with the increasingseveral windmill types developed technical development in Europe. The new developments spread first regionally - always strongly by the respective masters of building of mills coined/shaped - and only in the course of the time also a supraregional spreading took place. By the local characteristicsthere were again and again special forms. They are afterwards discussed.


Flutter mill with the Moorseer mill in Nordenham

of the Tjasker or also Flutter is the simplest type of mill. It essentially consists of an Archimedean screw and a wing cross.First mention finds this type of mill in a license letter from Middelburg. This mill is equipped either with board or sail wings. It is turned by hand into the wind. Due to the small size these mills were transportable, therefore they became simpleshifts, if a region drying husbands were. Around 1598 this remarkable type of mill is to have been invented. These mills in the Netherlands and in the valleys in East Frisia had their most frequent spreading. The last Flutter stands today in Riepe, Bedekaspel, Weenermoor and in Grotegaste in East Frisia. With the museum Moorseer mill in Nordenham in the district Weser march developed accompanying picture.

support windmill

the oldest windmill building method in Europe was designated those the support windmill, also as German mill, itselfsince that 12. Century in Europe to prove leaves. First in the region Belgium and north France admit, spread it in the course of the time over completely Northern Europe, whereby it was to be found particularly in Northern Germany. Therefore also the name German windmill.With this type mill is swivelling stored on a support the whole building including its partial heavyweighty machines. The support was subject to particularly strong wear and had again to be established all 30 to 50 years. It was also at mostendangered construction unit: With storm the senkrechte axle threatened to bend, and in the war an aggressor needed to announce only the support - by wind it came in the consequence to bending.

Since the complete mill from wood was designed, the mill could to be diminished and at another place be again developed. That was particularly important to times of war, since support windmills were established frequently on barriers and artificial earth hills before the cities. If an enemy moved forward, then many support windmills were simply dismantled and behindthe Stadtmauern stored, in order after the end of the fighting to be again established.

In addition, by the increasing expansion of the cities in the 19.Jahrhundert due to the population growth many windmills became suddenly windless, there the land development in the proximity increased and thatMills the wind took. Then many mills were taken apart and developed at wind-more favorable locations again.


another development was the Kokerwindmühle, with which the swivelling part of the building was substantially smaller, and which grinding mill itselfin the not swivelling lower part ruled. The transition of the energy by heart into the not-swivelling lower part took place via one in kind a Köcher (niederdt. Koker) itself turning wave. These mills were usually not completely so large and becamefor pumping purposes and/or. small energy achievements assigned.

tower windmills

tower windmills are towers with attached Windmühlenflügeln. The wings cannot to be turned with this type into a new wind direction and have in the main wind direction at the tower to be attached in such a way. InEurope is this type since that 14. Century mainly in the region around the Mediterranean admits.

dutchman windmill

gallery dutchman windmill in the open air museum Hessen park

at the beginning 16. Century in the Netherlands the dutchman windmill, also cap windmill was called, invented,frequently an octagonal wooden building on a solid foundation, with which only the upper cap with a Steert (a kind bar for pre-turning the cap) or the wind rose is swivelling. By the highly put plane of rotation its advantage is a higherStability, by which larger wing crosses and thus a substantially higher achievement (up to 30 KW) became possible. By the higher overall heights of the dutchman windmills it did not become always possible, still to the wings and/or. to approach to the Steert. Both had tonormal operation of the windmill possible its. There are two possiblenesses for solution. On the one hand one invented therefore a kind balcony, a circulating gallery, by which the wings and the Steert could be served. These types are called gallery dutchmen.On the other hand the earth was angeschüttet down to the building, a partial accessible barrier developed around the mill. These types are called barrier dutchmen.


a parallel development to the dutchman windmill, using somewhat later, was however actually those Paltrockwindmühle. Frequently it was converted in Germany from a support windmill, with which the building on a ball race with roles was stored, whereby stability increased. It was mostly more economical than the dutchman windmills.

special forms

some masters of building of millsdid not only set on a form of energy but combined water power with the wind force. Wind water mills so mentioned developed. They stood at a brook, which was taken the energy by a Wassermühle. If the location enough wind promised became thisby a put on windmill supplements. Kraft to the same Königswelle one transferred, which was then propelled depending upon conditions either by the wind or in basic load by the water energy. From this type of windmill there are few mills only completely.Beside the Hüvener mill in the Ems country, the monastery mill is mentioned in Lahde at the Westfäli mill road (circle Minden Lübbecke).


had to turn technical developments of beginning the mill still into the wind, thus these inTo blow, the optimal angle of utilization of wind force knows 90 degrees of angles on the wing level. These 90 degrees angle is to be always kept, turns the wind, must the wing level be after-turned. In addition is on the back of the building with the support windmill and/or. the back thatHood with the dutchman windmill the Steert in such a way specified (also Sterz), a long bar, attached. Since during the turn of a support windmill the entire building with all machines and the wings was turned into the wind, some met in weight. Thereforefor the support of ring around the support windmill stakes were rammed into the soil. These were connected assistance of a pulley-block with the Steert, and turned so the mill into the new wind direction.

With the dutchman windmills only the hood had into the windare turned. Either the Steert without aids was turned into the wind or attached at the end of the Steerts a Kroijhaspel in such a way specified. This is a crank, on which in or two chains were untwisted. The loose ends of the chainsbecame at the gallery and/or. on the soil embodies, so that the wings with the Kroijhaspel into the wind were gekroijt.

Selten: Doppelte Windrose, hier bei der Moorseer Mühle in der Wesermarsch.
Rarely: Doubled wind rose, here with the Moorseer mill in the Weser march.

The moreover one there are Binnendreher, with those thoseHood with a crank to be turned from the inside. In Germany many dutchman windmills with a wind rose are out/and/or. re-tooled. This einrädrige roses, individual mill farmer are frequent used also two-wheel wind roses, them however hardly succeeded.

Thisbecame in the middle 19. Century invented, a smaller Windrad, over the hood and/or. over the roof of the mill in the wind one installed, so that the mill was turned over a transmission independently into the wind. This wind rose becamewith the types dutchman windmill and Paltrockwindmühle assigned.

A further important invention were in the exit 19. Century the shutter wings. Thus Mueller no more each individual wing had to make besegeln, but could over a centralized control assistance of a chain.It was possible to react faster and afterwards also more automatically to the different wind forces to suspend and the machine windmill not so strongly for the varying numbers of revolutions by böige hoist. This development sat down particularly within the middle ranges fromGermany through, in the Netherlands gives further to a large extent it to sail gate wing. Paltrockwindmühlen are design conditionally equipped with wind rose and shutter wings in middle Germany.

Umfeld der Mühlen

Windmühlen waren aufgrund der von ihr zu benutzenden Energie nicht immer im Dorfto settle, but outside on ridges, on free field etc., evenly, where the wind blows. Since wind Mueller had a Mueller house usually in the proximity of his working place also, business premises and dwelling of Mueller lay mostly outside of the village community. In addition came,that no regulated work times knew wind Mueller, they had to grind, when the wind blew, thus to all daily and nighttimes, under the week and on weekend. That made it for the village community sometimes somewhat for suspect. As it in 18. Century toEstablishment of guilds came to justify succeeded it to the Windmüllern only very late to overcome these prejudices and its own guild community.

fight against windmills

the famous literary shape Don Quijote saw in the windmills giantful opponents, thoseit to the duel to place trachtete. Therefore the phrase designates „against windmills fights “today a passionate campaign against a conceited, ungreifbare danger.Miguel de Cervantes, the creator of the figure, wrote in addition: Everyone must recognize windmills, that not windmillsin the head has.


  • Albert Betz: Wind energy and their utilization by windmills. Vandenhoekk and Rupprecht, Goettingen 1926, today available as unchanged reproduction, Ökobuch, Staufen, ISBN 3-922964-11-7
  • Hopf, Leo: Mill-technical practical course.
Bd 1: Müllerei. Leipzig 1950.
Bd 2:Building of mills. Leipzig 1952
  • chain brook, Friedrich: Mueller and Mühlenbauer. Practical manual for Mueller, Mühlenbauer and technical institutes. Bd 1 and 2. Leipzig 1907 - 1908.
  • Sacher, Rudolf: Manual of Mueller and Mühlenbauers. Leipzig 1921. 2. Aufl. ebd. 1924.
  • Snaps, Werner: Building of mills: Water wheels and windmills - retain and receive. Berlin 1999.

see also

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