|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see economics (term clarifying).|
The term economics (word meaning: “Value”) describe all mechanisms and actions of humans with the goal, resources existing in the environment create and from humansto use and promote created resources for the satisfaction of their material and immaterial needs.
Economics is the German word for oikonomia (griech.), in the antique Hellas and Rome the administration of the household marked. Economics became traditional as spreading name forthe connection of soil, raw materials, trade, work and capital uses.
table of contents
as independent field of knowledge exists the economy only since the end 18. Century, as Adam Smith its „investigation for nature and the reason of the wealth of the nations “ (1776) published.
Fundamental economic theories developed in the impression of the industrialization in19. Century, so by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; Writers such as Emile Zola and Mark of Twain described effects of capitalism. Beginning 20. Century described max of webers, Rudolf Steiner and Werner Sombart critically consequences of the industrialization. The terms Alienation and exploitation of the work belong since then to the basic reproach against each economic development.
Apart from in particular the economic liberalism represented by Milton Friedman stand in the center of the today's restaurant discussion globalization, ecology and mass unemployment as well as the discussion around the basic income.
Thattoday's stage of the economy in the western industrialized countries, which is characterized by a historically uniquely high supply of goods, is called „post office-industrially “ , „post office-materialistically “and „post office-modern “. In connection with features like the so-called new Economy and thatso-called Freeware (goods and software, which are delivered in vain) found among other things in the works of Norbert Bolz, Ulrich Beck and Peter Sloterdijk different disputed interpretations of the today's economy instead of.
a typologisierende history of the economy beginswith the utilization of the goods existing in nature, for example the food and the raw materials. These ranges of the economy - agriculture, forestry and mining industry - form to today a fundamental component of the national economy.
The range of the service economy covers a far spectrum at immaterial goods for industry and consumer. For this also those countEconomic sectors of the trade and the traffic economy. In the modern economy the information economy is besides often specified as newer, independent range, which is to guarantee the supply of organizations and humans with the correct information at the desired time. In recent timebeside it the range of the culture or creative economy is the subject of economiceconomics research and politico-economic initiatives.
the Subsistenzwirtschaft in each case is the historically original restaurant form, in each humans or groups of humans such as family , kinship or village communitythe tasks take over, which are necessary for the self-sufficiency for the satisfaction of the needs and. It is a form of the exchange of worker within the social group according to the individual abilities and needs without externally specified standards for goods, services andRules of the exchange.Ontogenetisch stands the Subsistenzwirtschaft until today at the beginning of the human life in giving and taking parents and child and within the families and partnerships.
The Produktionsüberschüsse of the Subsistenzwirtschaft were supplied to the bartering, e.g. on one Market. On the basis of larger social communities individual humans can concentrate by specialization and division of labor on the production or transformation of certain goods and increase thus their productivity. The satisfaction of the needs shifts thereby from the self-sufficiency upthe mutual exchange of these goods by trade. The principle of this Tauschwirtschaft is the basis for practically all restaurant economics, which go beyond Subsistenzwirtschaft.
Most modern restaurant forms can be divided in principle far into the ranges Naturalwirtschaft and money economy. The originalNaturalwirtschaft facilitates the exchange of goods only between persons, who have mutually goods for the satisfaction of the needs in each case of the different one. The money economy introduces the neutral article of exchange money , which facilitates the search for a suitable Tauschpartner.
The reality showstoday in most large restaurant nations a predominant portion of money economy. However in most cases also an often not insignificant part at Naturalwirtschaft is to be observed, on the exchange of mutual achievements is based. In particular in associations,social organizations, in addition, within the range of the moonlighting can be determined this very day often exchanges without use of money.
The range of the money economy can besides is roughly continued to partition in free-market economy and planned economy. The free-market economy leaves to the involved ones solely responsible acting. At the free market an optimal reconciliation between needs and goods is to be achieved.
In the planned economy however the fair distribution of the produced goods is to take place according to the determined needs of humans with the help of a central planning. Thatprivate possession of means of production is not permissible here.
In the reality elements of both beginnings can be found in most economic systems. Thus also in the western service nations always individual economic sectors were planned-economy covered, for example the postal service. Also apply todayinto practically all modern managing the goods “security” and at least in large parts “public traffic” as task of the state and are central administered. In order to use despite the planned-economy beginning the advantages of the free-market economy for the optimization of the employment of funds, one increasesto the form of the adjusted market seized in which the involved ones enjoy large economic liberty, but certain national controls, e.g. , are subjected to the contribution from minimum performances to fixed prices.
In Western Europe the speech often is from social free-market economy. This term becameto a large extent coined/shaped by Ludwig Erhard, the first German Federal Minister for Economic Affairs after the Second World War and later Federal Chancellor, into the 1950er years.
for the investigation of economic acting, the laws of the economic development and for scientific support nationaland operational deciding the economic science (Ökonomik) developed. They are usually divided into two ranges: the political economy and the management economics.
The political economy examines overall economic connections in the Mikroökonomie as result of rational decisions of individual participants (households, Enterprises) and in the Makroökonomie as result of the systematic interaction of overall economic aggregates (overall economic demand, investments, price level etc.).
The management economics are concerned with the behavior of an economical unit, the enterprise, in the context of their limited possibilities and means.
As a founder of the modern economic science mostly the Scot Adam Smith is regarded, which published 1776 its book at Inquiry into the Nature and Causes OF the Wealth OF nation. There Smith criticized up to then mostly the prevailing mercantilism. Itswide-spread work found large acknowledgment in Great Britain and the USA and obtained for the first time the idea of a new science direction for the investigation of economic acting. Smith brought in particular already existing ideas and the ideas of the historian to the division of power of Montesquieu David Hume over human motives and ways of acting together.
The modern political economy is based on the one hand on the investigations and publications of John May pool of broadcasting corporations Keynes, to that in its disputed work The Economic Consequences OF the Peace the reparation payments after that 1. World war as ruin for the national economy of Germany criticized. Above all its general theory of the occupation, the interest and the money dominated the macro-economic discussion several decades. Apart from this inquire-oriented (keynesianischen) political economy has in the second half 20.Century increasingly an offer-oriented orientation (monetarism) spreading and acknowledgment found, which decrease/go back on the economist Milton Friedman. Within the politico-economic range these offer-oriented aspects became clearest in England of the Prime Minister minister Margaret Thatcher (Thatcherismus) and in the USAconverted by president Ronald Reagan (Reaganomics).
In the economic science today is mostly assumed the needs of humans are theoretically unlimited. Since the means are however limited for the satisfaction of these needs, inevitably not all needs can be satisfied.The goods for the satisfaction of the needs are thus scarcely (principle of the goods scarceness), the economy describe in this view the task to use the existing goods optimally.
the economy has a responsibility as one the arrangingForces in the society. With this dimension of the organization the restaurant ethics is concerned. Many management consultants refer to the dangers, into which enterprises go, if they act obviously egoistically and thus their image with potenziellen customers and business partners damage.
an alternative, less “market-fundamentalist” restaurant concept, which, constructing on the Christian fundamental convictions, developed the Christian social teachings under critical break of dear ore eras economic theories, which is to help to arrange lives of humans solidary and lastingly. This example connects thoseecological question with the social and economic question and the topic of surviving mankind.
“Durable development” and/or. “Lastingness” interlaces the following criteria:
- Justice and peace: a world-wide development concept for all humans - particularly in the economically weak and poor countries- in their state and landspreading living together
- ecology: the feedback of the world-wide economic and social development processes to the preservation of the natural bases of life
- present: the safety device of the basic supply for all today living humans and the sharing of all humans at the goodsthe earth
- future and precaution: the safety device of the conditions for existence for a human being-worthy life of future generations, thus precautionary handling nature and environment in favor of the life possibilities of humans in the future.
|Wikinews: Economics - currentMessage|
- Norbert Bolz, the consumeristic communist manifesto, 2002, ISBN 3770537440
- Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (1962), (German: Capitalism and liberty ISBN 3821839600)
- John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society(1958), German: Society in the abundance, 1959, ISBN B0000BIBY8
- Napoleon Hill, Think and Grow smell, (1928), German: Think and become rich, 2002, ISBN 372051935X
- John May pool of broadcasting corporations Keynes, The general Theory OF Employment, Interest and Money, 1936
- Nicholas Gregory Mankiw, Fundamentals of the political economy (3. Edition), Schäffer Poeschel publishing house Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 379102163X
- Karl Marx, the capital, Paderborn 2004, ISBN: 3937229345
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Sennett, flexible humans, 2000, ISBN 344275576X
- Peter Sloterdijk, in the world interior of the capital, 2005, ISBN 3518416766
- Adam Smith, at Inquiry into the Nature and Causes OF the Wealth OF nation (1776), German: The prosperity of the nations, 1999, ISBN 342330149X
- Werner Sombart, love, luxury and capitalism (1902), 1967, ISBN B0000BTCP6
- max of webers, the Protestant ethics andthe spirit of capitalism, 2005, ISBN: 3899964284
Web on the left of
- Telepolis special: Economics
-  - Wirtschaftswiki trade paper
- of to Wiki economics for teacher (economics as subject of instruction)
|Wiktionary: Economics - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikiquote: Economics - quotations|