|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see knowledge (term clarifying).|
Knowledge is justified faith. Thus it differs from the bare faith or bare opinion. „Knowledge “is derived from the old-high-German verb wissan that for his part of the form„saw “comes, what also etymologisch to legitimacy refers. For the term of the knowledge no precise and spreading recognized definition is since the antique one in the philosophical and scientific discourse, on the contrary, those gives numerous, frequently similarly sounding definitions in each casedependent on the point of view of the defining one formulates (see. down). Since that 20. Century is regarded the term increasingly from the point of view of computer science.
As a kind smallest common denominator three statements can be formulated:
- The knowledge are the basis information, ordifferently formulates: Knowledge is with meaning equipped information.
- These information must be in such a manner one on the other referred that they are comprehensibly stimmig in itself (coherency).
- Apart from the internal agreement itself knowledge in agreement with the perceptible conditions of an environment must find.
Knowledge stands in Greek philosophy contrary to the opinion. Therefore imply knowledge truth and can by no argumentation be disproved, while an opinion can be true, but is discussable. This is however disputed (see also Positivismusstreit).
- The Epistemologie, which carries the Greek word trunk for knowledge (episteme ) in the name, is the science of the realization. Realization follows only then from knowledge, if one recognizes, which relevance the items of information for the solution of a given problempossess. One can define knowledge therefore thus as potential useful information.
- With the social implications of the acquisition of knowledge the science sociology concerns itself.
Table of contents
different knowledge definitions
during it being at first sight clear seems, what means knowledge, is itvery heavily to indicate a generally valid definition for it. For each well-known definition there are cases, in which she does not show obviously, which we understand by knowledge.
- Knowledge is a provisionally true variable of state and a reflexive process. Its definition changesit already, since this becomes the component of the knowledge. A condition for knowledge is an awake and reflecting consciousness condition, which is binaryistic put on. Only by it it is only possible from the direct experience objects separately from their environment tooregard and these to define against each other. These object relations is information. Information is a volume of data part, which caused a difference with the observer by the observer-dependent relevance. Data are something that can be noticed, but do not have.
- Material and imaginary objects, systems and Processes can be defined against each other and described and defined therefore. Knowledge however is not visible a reflexive term for a whole and. The reflexiveness shows up in the fact that a definition of the term knowledge changes the knowledge, becausethe definition likewise a component of the knowledge is.
It can take place therefore only one description of the effect from knowledge.
- Knowledge designates the whole of all organized information and their mutual connections, on whose basis a reason-talented system can act.
- The pluriformen results of the theory of knowledge and science history make the statement plausible that humans alwaysonly believes to know. Whole buildings of the knowledge were too often brought to the collapse, if a new hypothesis proved as more load-carrying - until also this allegedly secured knowledge was drawn by new realizations in doubts. And in such a way that becomes Doubt to one of the mainsprings of new knowledge.
- Edmund GET animal showed with the fact by examples that the acceptance (i.e. a further definition of the term), knowledge is justified true faith not to illustrate our knowledge term appropriate is able. One calls this problem the GET animal problem.
forms of the knowledge
Deklaratives versus procedural knowledge
designates in cognitive psychology the knowledge over facts (“knowledge which “), in demarcation of action-oriented (“knowledge as, procedural knowledge). The following forms of the deklarativen knowledge can are differentiated:
- Knowledge over facts: To the facts numeric facts belong like “ the Planck' quantum of action are h = 6,6261 · 10,-34 Js “or pro positions like “ the wolf is a Raubtier ".
- Knowledge over concepts and concept characteristics: Conceptsby their concept name, their Extension and their Intension are defined. Extension is the quantity of all objects, which belongs to the concept, the Intension is the quantity of the characteristics, which an object must possess, in order to belong to the concept. Onedifferentiates mass concepts between individual concepts, which as Extension possess a einelementige quantity, and such as liquids or bulk material, which do not possess countable Extension by the piece.
- Knowledge about semantic relations: Semantic relations is statements to two or several concepts, like for example
- Knowledge over events and actions: An event is a change in status of an object at a certain time or over one time interval away. An action is an event, which was released by an actuator.
- Knowledge over rulesand restrictive conditions (Constraints): Knowledge about restrictive conditions is knowledge over the inadmissibility of conditions or changes in status.
- Metawissen: Knowledge over knowledge, like z. B.
- Knowledge as social construction: Fundamentally the knowledge sociology determines that realization is embedded not in the individual, but in a social context, that means knowledge is socially conditioned.
Narratives versus this-italic knowledge
Jean François Lyotard differentiates two forms from knowledge:
- this-italic knowledge - the knowledge of the modern trend with explicit authentication, determined in the discourse. Scientific knowledge is specific this-italic knowledge, which is subject to the academic discourse and its academic rules;
- narratives knowledge - the traditional knowledge in the form of stories and narrations, which legitimizes itself implicitly.
operational knowledge and orientation knowledge
(as I use the knowledge, which I have? As find I mean way, there Inot yet enough knows?)
- Knowledge over procedures and procedures: A procedure is a long persisting action. A procedure is a fixed number of concatenated with one another Einzelhandlungen, on which a certain sequence is obligatory often. Knowledge overProcedures one calls also “know-how”, known how.
- Knowledge, like one knowledge gaps to close can (for example by inquiring unknown).
- Knowledge, like one new knowledge from existing knowledge derives (inference strategies).
- Knowledge, like one knowledge structures and new knowledgeadds.
- Knowledge over problems and problem solution strategies: Education of a formal description of a problem with the goal of the classification of the problem into a well-known problem category, to which a problem solution strategy admits is.
psychology and knowledge
the learning psychology are occupiedwith the acquisition of knowledge, whereby numerous theories and methods were developed, in order to simplify and understand the knowledge acquisition.
from Helmut the F strives term-field-dependent beginnings contrary to the colloquial understanding of knowledge. Crank justified Karlsruher beginning of the integrated knowledge research (KAW) around a systematization of the entire term field around “knowledge of all kinds, in each quantity and quality”; Crank initiated therefore kinds of knowledge -, knowledge order - and knowledge behavior project.
He suggests the following terminology:
- “Knowledge is semantic information (independent of correctness and importance) “
- “information is contentwise knowledge "
- “realization is information plus x "
in the context knowledge management knowledge as resources is regarded, those not only from individuals, but also from other systems howGroups and organizations produces and/or. on the basis of implicit knowledge one makes explicit.
|Wiktionary: know - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- knowledge representation
- long-term memory
- knowledge infrastructure
- collectives knowledge construction
- learning by teachings: Collective knowledge construction in instruction
- intelligence, Collective intelligence, artificial intelligence
- knowledge sociology
- everyday life knowledge
- feeling knowledge
- Daniel violonist & George Schreyögg: If all knowledge is, knowledge at the end is not anything ?!, in: DBW, 63. Jhrg., 2003.
- Jean François Lyotard: Thatpostmodernism knowledge. A report (Towards the post office-modern), passage publishing house, Vienna 1999.
- Matthias's bird & Lutz Wingert (Hg.): Knowledge between discovery and construction. Epistemological controversies, Suhrkamp publishing house, Frankfurt/M. 2003.
- Paschen, Harm: To the development of human knowledge the task of the integrationheterogeneous knowledge existence. March 2005
- Jacques Maritain: The stages of the knowledge. Matthias Green forest publishing house, Mainz 1954
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Knowledge - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Wikiquote: Knowledge - quotations|
- description from the encyclopedia of philosophy
- knowledge container: collective knowledge construction
- universalACCESS: To whom does the knowledge belong? Article of Rainer Kuhlen
- Sonderforschungsbereich/Forschungskolleg “knowledge culture and social change” the Johann Wolfgang Goethe university Frankfurt/Main