science consists in the core to win in methodically controlled way new knowledge and realizations which are of everyone sufficiently experts in all in principle details comprehensible and examinable. For in such a way attained knowledge general validity is stressed and, toto a if necessary possible refutation, accepts also far away. This is in particular the case if from its formulation in traditionally theories overall displays specified are logically and not redundantly procedural instructions derivable, whose practical application or conversion leads regularly to results, thoselikewise from this knowledge are logically derivable and therefore to be prognosticated can.

Scientific knowledge formation aims thus clearly beyond usual everyday life knowledge , which is based predominantly on more or less limited personal experience and intuition.

Due to their fundamental meaning, above all howeverbecause of their general practical relevance, science became a meanwhile firm component almost all ranges of the modern social life of a seizing, organized as well as often interlaced - occasionally also criticized and therefore - “scientific-industrial complex “.

Table of contents

science enterprise


the today's science enterprise aims at

scientific working and society

scientific working serves besides the switching of cultural property, which developed over thousands of years, the basic research, the advancement of existing results, the productionnew realizations and also the search for new technologies. Contents, methods and goals of the science are affected always also by except-scientific factors. Communication of the scientists among themselves and with the society grants inspiration and criticism, up to the reproach,that professional scientists for their living costs on finances of the society, which economics or special groupings is dependent.

For the interdisciplinary research in the last decades a set of (research) institutes were created, in which industrielle and universitäre research cooperate. ToPart enterprises have in addition, own research establishments, in which basic research is operated. In addition, the work of the science is an essential condition for productive research, can in common mistake encourage; last therefore important results do not become occasionally from scientific outsidersobtained. Common enthusiasm for current topics can take even the form of a scientific fashion.

scientific mechanisms

a large part of scientific work takes place traditionally at universities . But also academies, privately financed research institutes and the industry financethe activity of many Wissenschafter. With national promotion also the German research council ( DFG) or other carriers puts necessary resources to the institutes for Max-Planck, the ESA , the CERN and other large research projects at the disposal. In Austria the DFG those correspondResearch fund fund for the promotion of the scientific research (FWF) and FFF in Switzerland and France the national research funds. Other funds become z. B. from large-scale industries or the European patent office endows.

The exchange with other researchers, so central for Wissenschaftertaken place via scientific publications and with specialized conferences, at congresses of the international roof federations and scientific union (z. B. IUGG, COSPAR, IUPsyS, ISWA, SSRN) or the UN - organization. Also invitations to seminars, institute attendance, working groups or Gastprofessuren play a role.Of great importance one are also foreign stays and international research projects.

legal status

article 5 exp. 3 of the Basic Law ensures in the Federal Republic of Germany the protection of the liberty of research and teachings. In the university judgement of the Federal Constitutional Court becomes therebyScience characterizes as follows:

The common generic term “science” expresses the close purchase of research and teachings. Research as “the mental activity with the goal of winning in methodical, systematic and verifiable way new realizations” (federal report research III BTDrucks.V/4335 S. 4) caused in view of always new questions the progress of the science; it is the necessary condition at the same time, in order to ensure the character of the teachings as the scientifically founded transmission of the realizations won by the research. On the other hand fertilizes inthe teachings taking place scientific discussion again the research work.

Therefore in accordance with Federal Constitutional Court is to be regarded as scientifically and thereby protected:

[...] each scientific activity, D. h. on everything to regard that after contents and form as serious regular attempt for the determination of the truthis. This follows directly from the Unabgeschlossenheit in principle any scientific realization. (BVerfGE 35, 79 - university judgement) [1]

reference: Into this definition work of journalists or Kriminologen does not fall.

scientific methodology

science contains methodologies to the knowledge acquisition. A goal more scientificallyMethods is it to develop on the basis of one or more hypotheses a load-carrying theory.

criteria for scientific working

scientific work must special criteria fulfill:

  1. Science is not dogmatisch result open and thus. Scientific realizations are falsifizierbar, D.h. they can be examined and turn out as wrong.
  2. Scientific results are published and documented in detail. But there are standards, which are to guarantee the comprehensibleness of all indexing steps of the conclusions. Important thereby also a detailed documentation of experimental results is,used sources and the consideration of the current conditions of the research in an area. Thus research results become comparable and a contentwise progress in a field of activity only possible. Research work refers one on the other. They support, disprove or refine existing theories.
  3. An important principleeach serious science is skepticism in the sense of a critical attitude opposite own like strange results and theses. Scientifically attained realizations differ from ideologies and doctrinaire statements by the fact that with the latter open or subtle instruments of power for the penetration ofStatements to be used and analysis by particulars is unwanted, while scientific knowledge can be examined at least in principle by everyone by the use of the own understanding and own experience independently. Revealing knowledge, which comes off individually approximately by internal realization, can by othersto be not independently examined and is thus not scientific.

process of the scientific realization

scientific realization is won ideal-typically in the following steps (in some sciences is only one part of the enumerated steps feasible and often becomes realizations alsocompletely differently won, including the assistance of the coincidence):

requirements of a scientific theory

  • circle liberty, D. h. the renouncement of statements, itself (partly.) upas a condition refer, during simultaneous disclosure of basic assumptions (axioms).
  • internal consistency (compatibility)
  • explanation value - so far unsettled circumstances can be explained to Falsifizierbarkeit by the theory
  • economical
  • explanation empirical examinableness (see also logical positivism
  • ): A theoryit must be formulated in such a way that she meets forecasts, which could be disproved in principle by an experiment.

To the whole of all scientific theories it in addition the requirement of the outside consistency gives, the mutual compatibility.

criteria of a scientific experiment

  • Objectivity (inter+subjective examinableness): An experiment is objective, if different researchers obtain under same conditions the same (END) results.
  • Reliabilität (reliability): An experiment is reliabel, if it supplies same results, which are thus reproducible results with repeated application under same conditions.
  • Validity (validity): An experiment is valide, if the experimental assembly actually measures, what it to measure gives. For this it must be guaranteed that other one did not observe, characteristics no influence on the result to have. However this standardisation that handing very far requiresTest conditions. This again can affect the validity negatively. If for example in strictly controlled bioassay behavior remarkablenesses are to be seized by treatment A, it can be that itself the behavior remarkableness not by the treatment, but by the circumstances (small, boring cage etc.)are caused.
  • Standardisation and comparability: Results of an experiment are only then comparably, if they determined, fixed standards are before sufficient. In order to ensure the repeatability and examination of an attempt, it belonged thus to the scientific virtues, the experimental assembly so simply howto keep possible.

science theory and - research

as founders of the modern scientific method applies for Francis Bacon. In 20. Century made itself under other Karl Popper than founders of the critical rationalism in the science theory a name; thatCriterion of the Falsifizierbarkeit, originally formulated by Popper, became generally accepted as quality criterion of respectable science, it serves the distinction of science and Pseudowissenschaft to a large extent and/or. Faith teachings.

In particular the criticism T.S. Kuhns at the science development stated by Popper supplied howevervarious advancements of the Falsifikationsbegriffes in the newer wissenschaftheoretischen development. To call would here for instance be the aspect of the science developed by Imre Lakatos as pursuing complex research programs or - beside others - from Joseph the D. Sneed developed science-theoretical Strukturalismus.

Philosophically behind it the critical rationalism , which recognizes a theory as scientific originally, stands only if she is falsifizierbar (is called refutable in principle, see above). Apart from the fact that complex theories are generally not verifiable, verifiableness became alone- without gleichzeitge Falsifizierbarkeit - are not sufficient, in order to classify a theory as scientific. Only the Falsifizierbarkeit guarantees the fact that a theory makes restrictions over possible observation data and thus at all contains actual information about us empirically accessible the world. The critical rationalismand of his opponents occasionally also “Falsifikationismus” one calls and one sees in particular under this designation contrary to other philosophical thinking directions (see below).

Were the science theoreticians Thomas bold as well as Paul Feyerabend , those mentioned already abovewith science-historical and science-sociological investigations to point out it searched that scientific research maintained in practice differently expiration than the critical rationalism of Popper it, or - how the defenders Poppers answer - its opponents it him subordinate. Scientist trachten therefore inthe usual phases of their research thereafter the basic assumptions of their theories to hardly analyze, but move in the context of a unhinterfragten paradigm and/or. Research program, which points ways to the solution of those mysteries to them out, which raises the paradigm. The paradigm and/or. Research program standsin the course of this usual phase of the research for arrangement, does not consist thus of Vorannahmen, whose Falsifizierbarkeit is not at all possible usually. In accordance with Imre Lakatos is this also not necessarily, there its main function more in it exist „the structure “of a theory toointends and it is only necessary, this Vorannahmen by falsifizierbaren corollary assumptions for a complete to be able to extend falsifizierbaren theory.

The constructionalism still continues in its refusal and rejects the thesis of the Falsifikationismus that current change of falsifizierten thesesan iterated approximation to the reality would bring.

The relativism regards scientific paradigms even as thing of the faith, which could apply only in each case within a certain science culture as true or wrongly.

Beyond that has itself - on the basis of the USA- in the last two decades decidedly parteiisch giving a research establishes, with which not only an observing and a describing, but also a politically changing function are assigned to a science. In addition z belong. B. as points toolistic proven research ranges.The classical, that world-descriptive neutrality obligated science term is rejected here and as androzentrisch discredited: It is represented, to what extent each science is coined/shaped by humans and its values & goals.

The modern science research tries those contrary to the rather theoretical-speculative science theoryto examine and describe scientific practice with empirical methods. Are used under other methods of the science sociology and Scientometrie . The results of the science research, which partly contradict the classical-science-theoretical acceptance over the nature of scientific research, have in the framework that Evaluation also influence on science-political decisions.

to ethics of scientific acting

see major item science ethics

criticism and conflicts

“ivory tower”

a form of the science criticism is directed against the retreat of the science into its proverbial ivory tower. The critics notice the science as thought building which can be reconstructed heavily, which is understandable only inaugurating. With the natural sciences mathematics adjusts the entrance, with the Geisteswissenschaften an incomprehensible technical language. Although itself many humans for scientific questions and popular-scientificallyregenerated results interest, the actual scientific work as incomprehensible are noticed. The critics experience scientists either as rationalists, which develop complicated models without purchase for sinnlichen experience ( experience ), as if exaggerated sceptical Wissenschaftsgläubige, as Bürokraten of a difficult-to-understand academic Apparatus or as servants of the economy or the state. This trend working against lately of scientific institutions tried by “days of the open door” or popular representations of scientific realizations an opening opposite interested one (like pupils or seniors) tooreach. This causes again internal criticism in the science enterprise, more to the attention of the public work to dedicate itself to have than the actual research enterprise. This leads to a Ökonomisierung of scientific progress and does not minimize latter marketing controllable in favor of one not from scientific sidethe research enterprise.

Wissenschaftsgläubigkeit and fraud

another form of the criticism are directed against the use of science than “spare religion”, like z. B. in case of the Szientismus, its trailers alone the natural sciences as relevant source for acquisitionfrom knowledge accepted. Scientific theories, which after the modern science term valide are, were regarded as indisputable certainnesses and the borders in principle of the realization production by scientific methods were ignored. Is criticized, some scientists would see the world exclusive by the eyeglasses to theirpreferred scientific theories. Observations, which did not seem compatible with these, were faded out; in extreme cases lead to the falsification of experiments, in order to protect own theories. In the moderate form explain this inclination to hold to the own conception of the world some delay, alsonew paradigms in the science to become generally accepted could. Also, Wissenschaftsgläubige is criticized the expenditure of own careful scientific work would shrink from and at authorities would orient themselves.

involving with industry and military

scientists is accused gladly, it workedtoo closely with commercial enterprises together and are not neutral therefore. This applies both to concrete scientists, whose results of working have positive consequences for a branch of industry, and to the science as a whole. In addition is the military application of scientific realizations forwardseverything since the atom bomb a cause for the general science criticism.

science and religion

violent criticism from the validity of scientific theories caught fire in some time epochs from contradictions to religious excessive quantities and dogmas.

In the natural sciences is thatprobably facet-richest example the creationism - debate around a compatibility of Biblical creation history with theories of the cosmology or evolution biology. An older example is handling of the catholic church with Galileo Galileis public moving away from the geocentric conception of the world.

Into thatGeisteswissenschaften encounter some historical-critical analyses of Bible and other holy books criticism. In particular, if contradicts the faith texts revised due to newer source situation or earlier transfer error the dogmatisch accepted version of the faith text.

There for the Gläubigen the dogma by definitionem , some one-sided critic is true the scientific theory to dismiss and the dogma tables theorem is maintained unreflected. In the fundamentalism literal interpretations of holy texts have a high priority. A more differentiated form of the criticism accepts the scientific method to a large extent and takes overtheir technical terms. Sometimes within the philosophical-religious range exceptions of scientific core principles are called in such as reproductibility or Falsifizierbarkeit or defined core terms differently.

Mostly however contradictions between scientific and religiously separate justified statements by the fact that they concern different levels. Thus those brings up for discussion Creation history of the Bible the relationship between God, world and humans, but not the science of visible nature (see also Biblical Exegese and Hermeneutik).

competence conflicts

also non-religious conceptions of the world can conflict with the science,if their statements are scientifically controllable and by experiments not to be confirmed. The trailers of the conceptions of the world concerned often deny that the topic falls into the scope of responsibility of the science, or they call their scientific opponents anmassend or dogmatisch and theirMethods as not applicably.

organization of usual science ranges

a generally accepted organization of the sciences does not exist; the organization of the sciences depends on many preliminary decisions and has frequently also arbitrary aspects. Therefore different systematics exist (see for examplethe Dewey decimal Classification). Former authors spoke of a tree of the science as well as the partitioning in single sciences and universal science.

Many disciplines represent a mixture of different fields of activity and extract themselves therefore from a clear allocation. As example is herethe economical informatics mentioned, which contains parts from computer science, mathematics, economic science and communication sciences of own contents beside a core among other things also.


science theory


structure sciences

Isaac Newton: Principia Mathematica (Frontispiz)
1-Band Turingmaschine
1-Band Turing machine
work on []

Natural sciences

schematic representation helium - of an atom: Two electrons circle a core from two protons and two neutrons
DNA molecule
Ärztl. Investigation with the child physician

human sciences

Le Bal outer Moulin de la Galette (1876) of Pierre-Auguste Renoir

engineering sciences

metropolitan city house P&C in Cologne, architect: Renzo Piano
Integrierter Schaltkreis
Integrated circuit
mechatronisches System
mechatronisches system
hull to the repair
work on []

Social sciences

5-phasiges Modell des demografischen Übergangs
5-phasiges model of the demographic transition


economic science

the simple economic circulation between households andEnterprise

Geisteswissenschaften (culture sciences)

excavations in the Tommarp monastery in Sweden

(Christian) theology

Christianisierung Europe: brown to 600, green to 800, reduntil 1100, yellow to 1300

see also


  • max of webers: Science as occupation 1919. ISBN 3150093880 (on-line text)
  • Helmut Seiffert: Introductioninto the science theory. Munich (Beck). 4 volumes; div. Editions.
  • Karl R. Popper: Logic of the research, Tübingen (Mohr Siebeck) 2002. ISBN 3161478371
  • Thomas's bold: The structure of scientific revolutions. Frankfurt/Main (Suhrkamp). Original 1962.
  • Ludwik mark: Emergence andDevelopment of a scientific fact. Frankfurt/M. (Suhrkamp) 2002. ISBN 3518279122 (original on German 1935)
  • Paul Feyerabend: Against the method obligation. Draft of an anarchist theory of knowledge. Frankfurt/Main (Suhrkamp). Original 1975.
  • Florian Keisinger and. A. (Hrsg.): For what Geisteswissenschaften? Controversy of arguments for oneoverdue debate, Frankfurt A. M. New York 2003 ISBN 359337336X
  • Mario Bunge: Scientific Research Bd. I + II, Springer publishing house New York 1967
  • boy, Torsten and Ohlhoff, Dörthe (Hg.): Madly ingeniously. The WAD Scientist reader, ISBN 3932710797, AlibriPublishing house Aschaffenburg 2004.
  • Helmut Seiffert, Gerard Radnitzky (Hrsg.): Hand encyclopedia to the science theory. 2. unv. Aufl. (Orig. 1989), Munich 1992: dtv, ISBN 3-423-04586-8

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