Scientific publication

a scientific publication is a written scientific work of one or more scientists, whose publication (publication) took place intended or already.

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kinds results or

Lehrmeinungen scientific of publications the publication can in several kinds take place. One differentiates Monografie between independent publications (Monografie) and unselbstständigen publications (essay , article, report etc.

  • ): a usually extensive publication, in which a problem area is treated systematically and completely; see also text book, manual.
  • Article in technical periodicals: These contributions are less extensive and present i.d.R. new results for a specialized public. They must meet formal and contentwise criteria, in order in the Peer Review - process for publication to be accepted. The work is examined by subject consultants for the scientific quality. The Peer Review process can pull itself with publications in magazines over several months (partially also longer, approximately in the political economy or astronomy, where it can take even several years), provides however usually for a high quality.
  • Article in Proceedings (conference volumes): These publications have a similar extent as articles in magazines, however quality control is less comprehensive, because that must be finished volume to a certain date. Frequently lack of accepted articles are improved only by the authors, without the revision goes through the Review process again.
  • Essay in anthologies: From the extent they are comparable with articles in technical periodicals. They have however usually close topic tables a purchase to the other essays of the respective anthology.
  • Contributions to anniversary publications, which admitted Wissenschaftern or institutes to an anniversary are dedicated: The criteria are similar as with a conference volume, but exhibit the topics of the authors usually larger technical variety.

Monografien and anthologies can appear in book series, with which they are assigned usually to a clearly outlined topic field.

The different fields of activity put different weight in individual kinds of publication: Thus for instance in physics, biology and political economy are noticed mainly publications in technical periodicals, articles in conference volumes however less; in computer science against it more strongly to conferences one publishes; in the Geisteswissenschaften the publication forms technical periodical article, anthology arise - to essay and Monographie next to each other.

General the weighting and acknowledgment of electronic Internet publications, particularly from such, are which are published only in the Internet, still in the river (conditions 2006). The science disciplines differ also here. In the self publishing house it published scientific works whether in the Internet or for example also as Book on, enjoy and generally few to no acknowledgment, at least if at the work no Peer Review took place or the author admits little is. Often at all only such work is rated as published, which can be assigned ISBN.

arrangement of a publication

natural sciences

formal should exhibit each (nature) scientific essay the following arrangement:

  • Title
  • author /innenliste including all Koautor /innen, with contact address one corresponding author s
  • Abstract - a short summary of the contents of, that curiously about the main part to make should and no large details contained must
  • introduction (Introduction) - a determining position of the state of research, pointing the motivation out for the available work, formulation of hypothesis
  • materials and methods (material and methods) - which tools, which methods became the treatment of the question use
  • results (Results) - which is the result of the efforts
  • discussion (Discussion) - as are the results to be interpreted, which questions result, are entitled from it the results in the contradiction or agreement with other publications
  • summary (Summary) - similarly how the Abstract, rather future-oriented
  • possibly. Thank words at in the author list with and Zuarbeiter not specified (acknowledgements)
  • bibliography (References) - where the thematically underlying publications are listed.

During the submission of the work with a publishing house possibly used illustrations are kept separate with captions by the text, which only references of the form “INSERT figure about nnn here “contains.

Geisteswissenschaften

the arrangement with spirit-scientific work is far less fixed to the scientific than those. Titles, Autor/in and literature references are essential. The structure of the text does not follow usually only pragmatic considerations, finally gives it uniform research methods. Usually the work follows the principle of a special and/or. Problem discussion. A generally accepted structure beyond the borders of the individual fields could itself not establish - contrary to the natural science -. However a development is to be observed that - ajar against the model from the natural sciences - often a kind “abstract” as well as “summary” it frames the main text also here and increases the legibility. This is particularly the case if the work were not written on English and the results by a short English “summary” an international public to be made more easily accessible to be supposed.

see also

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)