Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
|of these articles treats the composer W.A. Mozart. For other names and meanings see to Mozart (term clarifying)|
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, complete name: Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart (* 27. January 1756 in Salzburg; † 5. December 1791 in Vienna) a composer of the Viennese was classical period. Its extensive work enjoys world-wide popularity and belongs to the standard repertoire the classical period. It called itself usually Wolfgang Amadé Mozart.
the miracle child (1756-1766)
Amadeus became made to 27. January 1756 overeight o'clock in the evening in Salzburg in the grain lane 9 in a Dreizimmerwohnung of a multi-family house (Hagenauer house) born. Its parents, pulled from vocational reasons into the church Principality of Salzburg, were the fürstbischöfliche Vizekapellmeister and yard composer Leopold Mozart originating from Augsburg andfrom pc. Gilgen coming Anna Maria Pertl. Already in the morning after its birth he was baptized in the cathedral of Salzburg on the names Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus. The Rufname was Wolfgang and/or. Wolferl.
Already at the age ofkept it and his five years older sister Maria Anna Walburga Ignatia, „Nannerl mentioned to four years “, from the father the first music - and general-forming instruction (piano, violin and composition). Already 1761 drew father in Mozart a Andante and Allegro as „the Wolfgangerl Compositiones “ up, which a Allegro and a Menuetto followed (dates on the 11. and/or. 16. December 1761. That falsely as the earliest composition Menuett specified G major with a Menuett C major as Trio KV 1 developed again and againsupposed only 1764). Also Mozart's gift in the piano and Violinspiel stepped out fast. 1762 followed its first appearances.
First concert journeys of wolf course and its sister Nannerl with parents were arranged, in order to present to the aristocracy the talentierten children. Afterthe success of the miracle child in Munich and Vienna the family started to 9. June 1763 to an expanded tour by German country and Western Europe, those up to the return to Salzburg to 28. November 1766 three and a half year lasted: Munich, Augsburg, Ludwigsburg, Schwetzingen, Heidelberg, Mainz, Frankfurt/Main, Koblenz, Cologne, Aachen, Brussels, Paris (arrival to 18. November 1763), Versailles, London (arrival to 23. April 1764), Dover, Belgium, The Hague, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Mecheln, again Paris (arrival 10. May 1766), Dijon, Lyon, Geneva, Lausanne, Berne, Zurich, Donaueschingen, Ulm and Munich, where the children with yards or inpublic academies made music. During these journeys developed among other things the first Sonaten for piano and violin (the four Sonaten for piano and violin KV 6 to 9 are 1764 the first printed compositions the Mozarts) as well as the first Symphonie E flat major (KV16).
An important result of this journey was that Mozart in London with the Italian Symphonie and Oper was made familiar. There he became acquainted with besides Johann Christian brook, which he took himself variously to the model. 1778 wrote Mozart from Parishome:„. .ich loves it (like it probably know) from whole heart - and has respect for it. “.
First composing in Vienna and the Italy journey (1766-1771)
of the return followed first premieres in Salzburg, under it also the school opera the debtthe first requirement, which eleven-year old Mozart as well as the substantially older salt citizen yard musicians Anton Cajetan Adlgasser and Michael Haydn had composed. In September a second journey with the family followed to Vienna. In order to escape the grassierenden smallpox epidemic disease,they drove to Brünn and Olmütz. The illness reached however Wolfgang and its sister also there and left (as per. several Biografien) scars in Wolferls face. After the recovery of the children Mozart turned to 10. January 1768 to Vienna back,where it finished the Singspiel Bastien and Bastienne (KV 50), the orphanage fair (KV 139) as well as the Opera buffa La finta semplice (KV 51). Although of the German emperor Franz I.ordered, the latter could not be specified; Reason were plots thata so-called Italian party around the yard director Giuseppe Affligio.
After 15 months in Vienna Mozart with its family turned to 5. January 1769 to Salzburg back. Here La became finta semplice at the 1. Finally specified, and he experienced May hereto 27. October with the appointment to the third concert master of the salt citizens yard chapel the first, although unpaid employment.
scarce three weeks later, to 13. December 1769, broke Mozartwith its father too its first of three extraordinarily successful Italy journeys up, which - with interruptions from March to August 1771 and December 1771 until October 1772 - lasted nearly three and a half year.
The first journey led it after Verona, Milan, Bologna, Florenz, Rom, Neapel, Turin, Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Innsbruck and back to Salzburg. Here Mozart up to the autumn recovered, over thereafter to a longer (third) stay inTo start Milan. Of Pope Clemens XIV. he was appointed in Rome the knight by the golden spur. There the basic structure of these succeeded to it, after it only or a times the neunstimmigen Miserere of Gregorio Allegri had listened to two, (of the Vatikanto write down top) score secret held from the memory error free. It is not clear to what extent the singers Stimmen to have improvising koloriert and whether Mozart could note that. With Padre Giovanni Battista Martini studied Mozart counterpoint. After an examination it became inthe Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna taken up. There it met as important musicians as Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Niccolò Piccinni, Pietro Nardini and Giovanni Paisiello. To 26. December 1770 he experienced the premiere of his Opera seria Mitridate, Rè thosePonto (KV 87) in Milan, whose success led at the public to two further orders: the Serenata teatrale Ascanio in Alba (KV 111, premiere in Milan to 17. October 1771) and the Dramma by musica Lucio Silla (KV 135), premierein Milan in the season 1772/73. To 15. Decembers 1771 returned father and son to Salzburg, after hopes for an employment in Italy had not fulfilled themselves.
Concert master in Salzburg (1772-1777)
inSalzburg became in the year 1772 Hieronymus Franz Josef of Colloredo Mannsfeld prince archbishop of Salzburg; it followed the deceased Sigismund Christoph count von Schrattenbach. From the new prince W.A. became. Mozart in August appointed the paid concert master of the salt citizens yard chapel. Neverthelessthis did not lead to an end of its many journeys with the father. Wolfgang tried further to escape from the close regulation salt citizens of the service: of 24. October 1772 up to 13. March 1773 followed thirdItaly journey for premiere of the Lucio Silla, during which also the Exultate, jubilate developed, and of in the middle of July to center at the end of of September 1773 the third journey to Vienna, with which its first piano concert developed. Starting from October 1773 the family Mozart inhabited the first stickthe dance master house, which before the salt citizen yard dance master Franz God-dear Spöckner (approx. 1705-1767) had heard.
After a longer break followed to 6. December 1774 a journey to the close Munich for the premiere of the Opera buffa La finta giardiniera (KV 196). To13. January 1775 and after the return to 7. March tried W.A. Mozart again to be established also in Salzburg as artists of the music. It left for example the Dramma by musica IL rè pastore to 23. April 1775 inSalzburg uraufführen, which did not arrive good however at the public. After repeated unsuccessful requests around vacation it submitted 1777 its letter of resignation with the prince archbishop and asked for dismissal from the salt citizens yard chapel.
on search for employment and Salzburg (1777-1781) after
its dismissal from the services of the prince went again W. Mozart to 23. September 1777 with its nut/mother on a city journey;he tried to find a new and better employment. First he (in vain) called at the Bavarian duke yard in Munich, afterwards in Augsburg and at the yard of the Mannheimer cure prince Karl Theodor, where he the kurfürstliche orchestra and its Kapellmeister, its, to know learned later friend Christian Cannabich (see also Mannheimer school). In addition, it got neither an employment nor any musical orders here. He became acquainted with however the family weber and their daughter Aloysia, a young singer andlater residents of Munich Primadonna, with which it fell in love.
After five months in Mannheim continued to drive it and its nut/mother, from the father pushed, to Paris, where it to 23. March 1778 arrived. There Mozart knew nevertheless its ballet music Les petits riensspecify, got beyond that however no further commitments. At the 3. July 1778, at 10 o'clock in the evening, deceased its nut/mother.
The return journey to Salzburg, which it against-willingly scarcely three months later (to 26. September) began, around the vakante place of a yard organiststo begin, led it across Strasbourg, Mannheim and Kaiserslautern to Munich, where he met again the family weber. Only in the middle of January 1779 it reached its hometown and became few days later, to 17. January, appointed the yard organists. Here composedit the coronation/culmination fair (KV 317).
This renewed attempt with a commitment in Salzburg went twenty months reasonablly well, although the relationship to the archbishop remained strained, to this it the co-operation at lucrative concerts into Vienna forbade also there, up to onerenewed journey to 5. November 1780 to Munich for the premiere of its Opera seria Idomeneo (KV 366) to 29. January 1781. Directly afterwards he was quoted from the archbishop to Vienna, where the controversy between both escalated and inBreak kulminierte. Mozart quit to 8. There June 1781 the salt citizen service up, established itself in Vienna and denied in the next years its living costs by concerts in private and public academies.
Free lance composer in Vienna (1781-1791)
from the salt citizen “chains” now the independent composer and music teacher, who were constant on the search for clients and piano pupils, created librettos, and which also did not shrink from itself to work on “supply”,the completely large operas. To 16. July 1782 became of the emperor of the holy Roman realm of German nation and Austrian ore duke the Joseph II. in order given Singspiel the kidnapping from the Serail (KV 384) in Vienna uraufgeführt. Followed to1. May 1786 the premiere of the Opera buffa Le nozze di Figaro (KV 492), to 29. October 1787 the premiere of the Dramma giocoso Don Giovanni (KV 527) in Prague, to 26. January 1790 the premiere of the Opera buffa Cosìfan tutte (KV 588) again in Vienna (the last three after Libretti of Lorenzo there Ponte), to 6. September 1791 the premiere of the Opera seria La clemenza di Tito (KV 621) in Prague and to 30. September 1791 thosePremiere of the large opera the magic flute (KV 620) in Emanuel Schikaneders theatre in the free house on the Wieden. History and texts of the magic flute decrease/go back on Emanuel Schikaneder and to place a speculative mixture from a predecessor work („the stone of the ways “), oneFairy tale of how/as country and freimaurerischen attributes. In this phase Mozart in addition the fair in C-Moll composed (KV 427) (1783) and important instrument valley works: the six Joseph Haydn of dedicated caper quartets (KV 387, 421, 428, 458, 464, 465) (1785), the Linzer symphony(KV 425), the Prager symphony (KV 504) (1786) and a small night music (KV 525) (1787) as well as the three the last symphonies E flat major (KV 543), g-Moll (KV 550) and C major (Jupiter symphony, KV 551) (1788).
In Vienna Mozart Gottfried learned vanSwieten know, the Präfekten of the imperial library (today: Austrian national library) and proven music lover. This announced it with the work of Johann Sebastian brook and George Friedrich trade, as it it (around 1782/83) the manuscripts, which he during itslong stay in Berlin had collected, with which regular Sundays concerts in van Swietens made available areas in the imperial library. The meeting with this baroque composers made a deep impression on Mozart and had immediately large influence on its furtherCompositions.
To 4. August 1782 married Mozart Constanze weber, the sister Aloysias, which it three years before in Mannheim know had learned and which brought six children from it in the following years to the world: Raimund Leopold (1783), Karl Thomas (1784), Johann Thomas Leopold (1786), Theresia Konstantia Adelheid Friderika (1787), Anna (1789) and Franz Xaver Wolfgang (1791), from which four already died after short time. Only Karl Thomas and Franz Xaver survived the child time. Grandfather and/or. Father LeopoldMozart died to 28. May 1787, the Wolfgang M. in his Viennese years still twice visited (1783) and/or. with it to attendance was (1785).
To 14. December 1784 stepped Mozart into the Viennese Freimaurerloge to the charity (particularly inits operas the magic flute and Le nozze di Figaro are society-critical tones from this membership to feel). To 7. December 1787 it became k.k. Kammermusicus appointed (with a stately annual salary of 800 guldens for composing fewDances in the carnival) and to 9. May 1791 to (unpaid) the Adjunkten of the Domkapellmeisters of pc. Stephan Leopold Hoffmann.
With the performance of the Figaro 1786, the Josef II. (German emperor and ore duke in Vienna) despite system-critical contents released, made excessive demands ofit Viennese the public in such a manner that it withdrew itself from it and worsened so its economic situation, without it considered to this fact with its expenditures. This failure was a turning point in its life. It had success in thisTime only in Prague. Off the Viennese public he created the works of his last Lebensjahre. It tried in vain with renewed journeys to stop economic driving downhill.
These journeys led it to the performances to Prague (8. January to in the middle of February1787 and at the end of of August to in the middle of September 1791), in addition, with the prince Karl Lichnowsky over Prague, Dresden and Leipzig to potsdam and Berlin to the Prussian king Friedrich William II. (8. April to 4. June 1789), as well as to Frankfurtat the Main for coronation/culmination emperor Leopolds (23. September to at the beginning of November 1790). On home journeys it stopped off in Mannheim and Munich.
But neither the citizens of Berlin journey 1789 nor that one to Frankfurt 1790 help him to prosperity: Berlin provided neitherIncomes still another employment. The opera Così fan requested by the emperor tutte found only moderate applause, and also the appearance in Frankfurt/Main as well as the premiere of the Tito in Prague found little resonance. Only the large applause for those Magic flute promised economic improvement.
Light at the end of the tunnel and in former times a death
after the premiere of La clemenza di Tito in Prague had returned Mozart in the middle of September 1791 to Vienna and had themselves immediately to the work for thosePremiere of the magic flute fallen, which went two weeks later - finally again with success - over the stage. At the same time he had prepared the Motette Ave verum corpus and with the minute of the Requiems (KV 626) had begun, which he however notmore to lock could.Franz Xaver Süssmayr, a former pupil Mozart, completed the famous Requiem.
Few weeks after the premiere of the magic flute to 20. November 1791 became Mozart bettlägerig, to 5. Decembers at 1 o'clock early it died and becameon the day after buries. It became not completely 36 years old.
The cause of death is not clearly clarified. Are called „heated Frieselfieber “(diagnosis of the Totenbeschauers), rheumatism, Syphilis, heart failure and bleeding. It was convinced to be poisoned,and expressed itself opposite Constanze in addition few weeks before his death during an attendance in the Prater: „Certain, one gave me poison. “The first legends circulated already briefly after its death. The probably most famous of it writes its allegedly measure-favorable colleagueAntonio Salieri the complicity too, which is besides briefly to have called itself before its own death as murderers the Mozarts.
Supposed the cause of death is to be however already looked for in an illness during its childhood; the modern medicine tends thereby to oneInfection with staphylococci, which was treated insufficiently and thus to heart and/or. Organ failure led. According to another theory suffered Mozart at Syphilis, which he tried to fight by the income from mercury to. An overdosing is to a mercury poisoningand therefore to death led.
The large composer in a general grave was buried to sank Marxer cemetery. Its widow visited the grave for the first time only after 17 years. 1855 became the location of its grave so wellas possible certainly and 1859 in the assumed place establish a tomb, which became to later transfer Vienna from the city into the group of the musician honour graves at the central cemetery. On the old freed grave place again a Mozart intending board became in selfinitiative of a cemetery attendantestablished, which was developed with the time from Spolien of other graves to a tomb, and today a much visited object of interest is.
after today's yardsticks was Mozart a large breadwinner, yet it often was due to its life change in financial emergencies. Fora commitment as a pianist it received at least 1,000 guldens according to own data „“(to the comparison: it paid a gulden per month to its farm servant). Together with its piano hours, for which it computed in each case two guldens and its income from the concertsand appearances, he had a yearly income of approximately 10,000 guldens, which corresponds to about 125,000 after today's € purchasing power. The money was not enough nevertheless for its aufwändigen life-style. He inhabited large dwellings and employed much personnel, in addition he preserved -thus is accepted - a passion for map and Billardspiele with high employments, whereby it could have lost large sums. The most valuable single item of its property left were according to property left listing not the numerous valuable books or music instruments in its possession, but therewere its aufwändige clothes.
Mozart's funeral - facts and speculations
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died to 5. December 1791 against clock early in its house in Vienna.
- It is certain that it on the same day with itself at home and to 6. December in the step Hans cathedral was aufgebahrt. In circles of its friends and used the parting were celebrated.
- According to the high control room in Vienna, which accomplishes independent, public weather recordings,the weather was not bad or particularly cold. However this no reference to road conditions is in December 1791.
- According to municipal authorities 8, national archives Vienna, are not well-known whether Mozart to 6. December 1791 in the evening or to 7. December 1791early in the morning to the pc. Marxer cemetery was brought. There are over it no recordings.
- It is well-known that Mozart was bedded into „a general simple grave “. Designating of the graves was not forbidden due to the Josephini reforms from August 1788, happenedbut in case of the Mozarts not.
- Mozart died become impoverished and in an arm grave one buried:
- It is wrong that he died completely without means. Rather it is correct that he was bestattet as a musician according to rank in one „simple general grave “. Is correcthowever also that the remaining commitments only settle the Mozarts' widow and could living costs of the family for some time cover, because it of emperor Leopold II. a pension and the profit from a Benefizkonzert, for that the emperor onegenerous amount gave, were awarded.
- Nobody accompanied the corpse course Mozart to its grave:
- It is correct that the corpse course from friends and did not use for the pc. Marxer cemetery was accompanied. It is wrong that this happened due to the weather conditions. Correct is rather,that the transport of the corpses was allowed to only take place after 18h, when it was already dark. There was thus no possibility of accompanying the corpse course. In addition at that time accompanying of the body up to the actual grave was uncommon in Vienna. With thatEinsegnung in sank Stephan were terminated at that time the planned funeral ceremonies.
- The corpse Mozart was umgebettet:
- Only his Mrs. Constanze tried 17 years after the Mozarts' death to find the grave of their man. There it however no crosses or designationsthe graves gave, had one on most uncertain memories the cemetery employee to rely. It is not possible therefore to indicate where the Mozarts' corpse was buried.
- The genuine head Mozart is kept by the international donation Mozarteum Salzburg:
- “High-ranking ones “experts could for the first time accomplish an DNA analysis and a chemical examination of the head. The comparison material necessary for the DNA analysis originated from skeletons, those from „the family grave “of the Mozarts on the salt citizen cemetery pc. Sebastian were saved. Leopold Mozart is not in thisGrave, but in the Kommunalgruft bury. In January 2006 published result did not furnish thus for lack of comparison material any referring to the authenticity of the head.
To the Mozarts' first name
to 28. January 1756 - one day after itsBirth - Mozart was baptized on the names Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus. First and last one of the first names mentioned refer Mercator Civicus, the middle to the Mozarts' grandfather Wolfgang Nicolaus Pertl to the godfather Joannes Theophilus Pergmayr, senator et andthus in the long run on the holy Wolfgang, who protection patron of upper Austria and name giver of the lake, at which the family Pertl lived. Greek latin Theophilus („God-dear “) has Mozart later into its latin correspondence Amadeus and/or. französierend Amadé translates.
Its Rufname was time life Wolfgang. In the time of the Italy journeys it often called itself Wolfgango Amadeo Mozart. As an adult he signed mostly as Wolfgang Amadé Mozart, if not at all only as Wolfgang Mozart (so for instance he carried into thosePresence list of the Viennese Freimaurerloge „to the Wohlthätigkeit “).It called itself Amadeus only in the joke. The name form Wolfgang Amadeus appeared during the Mozarts' lifetimes officially only once, in the spring 1787 in an official letter of the Niederösterreichi government. Only in 20. Century was world-wide implemented it by broadcasting corporations and disk companies. In circulation it brought the poet E. T. A. Hoffmann, which from admiration for Mozart Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann called itself.
the memory of Wolfgang A.Mozart will maintain in particular today world-wide by biographies, radio and television broadcasts and by performances of his compositions in the opera houses and concert halls everywhere in the world. Long Mozart is an international size.
A special role comes traditionally Austria (in particular Mozart's birth city Salzburg and the residence of many years Vienna), Germany (Augsburg as place of birth of the Mozarts' father, Mannheim) as well as Tschechien (Prague as performance place estimated of Mozart) too. Here Mozart enjoys particularly large popularity and is besides an important restaurant factor forwardseverything for the international city tourism. Austria perpetuated Mozart several times on coins or notes.
In several cities there are Mozart memorial places, which take care of the memory at the composers in special way. To call are:
SalzburgSalzburg furnished the former international Mozart donation (from 1870 to 1879 existed) a museum. A further Mozart museum is in the Mozarts' later house at the Makartplatz, that so-called. Dance master house. 2006 became the areasby the director and designer Robert Wilson arranges new. The salt citizens art university 'Mozarteum 'is likewise after the famous composer designated. The Mozart monument at the Mozart place is aligned and 1842 was revealed in line of sight old person residence and cathedral. Thoseat the Ursulinenplatz in direct proximity to the Markuskirche, new Mozart sculpture of Markus Lüpertz, lain , released violent controversies in Salzburg. A further Mozart statue is on the Kapuzinerberg.
In Salzburg the international donation Mozarteum has its seat carrier. It became 1880from salt citizen citizen based and came out from that 1841 „cathedral music association and Mozarteum developed “. The autograph collection of the donation contains approximately 190 original letters Mozart, „the Bibliotheca Mozart IANA “is with approximately 35,000 titles the most extensive relevant library of the world. The donation possessesbesides rich pictorial material, under it several authentic of Mozart haven advice. The clay/tone and film collection has approximately 18,000 audio titles (under it otherwise not accessible Mitschnitte of Mozart performances) and about 1,800 video productions (features, TV-productions, opera recordings, documentary films). The donation administers also the two salt citizens Mozart museums.In the statute of the donation that is embodied 1931 created Zentralinstitut for Mozart research, who firmiert today under the name „academy for Mozart research “. She organizes scientific conferences in regular intervals, on which in „the Mozart yearbook “one reports. All fields of the Mozart research becomethe publication „of new expenditure for Mozart is here considered, central however “, the historical-critical edition of Mozart's works since 1954, who will be locked until 2007. Annually in January the donation organizes „the Mozart week since 1956 “, with the renowned orchestras (for instance thoseViennese Philharmonic or meals the Chamber Orchestra) and interpreter (Nikolaus Harnoncourt, Riccardo Muti and. A.) Mozart's works specify.
in Vienna is received one of the dwellings the Mozarts - however without furniture, which did not remain - andnow a museum: Cathedral lane 5, directly behind the step Hans cathedral. The memorial place was again-opened after a transformation in January 2006 as „Mozart house Vienna “and presents numerous objects (under it for the first time the table, at which Mozart composed the magic flute). MozartLives and its time are to be described thereby. At numerous other houses, in which Mozart lived or arose, Gedenktafeln are attached.
In the graphic collection Albertina becomes from 17. March to 20. September of Vienna and the since the PonteInstitut organized exhibition „Mozart. Experiment clearing-up “shown, the mental surrounding field Mozart dedicates itself and historical (original scores Mozart, Porträts, Briefe) like again made objects (a carpet of Franz of west, Rococo dresses of Azzedine Alaia, work of Valie export and Günter Brus etc.) as well as space and video installations presents.
in the Mozart house in the northern old part of town of Augsburg is a memorial place for the history of the family Mozart. In this house its father Leopold was born. A Gedenktafel toHouse Augsburger Fuggerei (central lane 14) reminds besides of its great-grandfather, the bricklayer master Franz Mozart (1649-1694), who lived here and died.
German Mozart society (DMG) with seat in Augsburg dedicates itself to the practical and scientific care of the work ofWolfgang Amadé Mozart, the study of the life and work of the master and its family and the preservation and promotion of the Mozart memorial places in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular the birth house of Leopold Mozart in Augsburg.
multiple is thought Mozart also in Mannheim, where it composes 176 days of its life not only with four stays spent, but also a number of important works, as well as 1790 a performance of the Figaro directed and in Aloysia weber falls in love their sister Constanze, its laterWoman became acquainted with. Gedenktafeln are at numerous living and effect places of the composer, so for instance at the lock, to the Jesuitenkirche or at the palace Bretzenheim.
in the Prager quarter Smíchov became 1956 in the mansion in such a way specified Bertramka Mozart museum furnished. During the Mozarts' lifetimes the building lay beyond the Stadtmauer and served the family Duschek (the singer Josefina Duschek, geb. Hambacher, was granddaughter salt citizens of a mayor) as Landgut. Mozart lived here in October 1787 (completion and premiere of the Don Giovanni) and of at the end of of August to at the beginning of of September 1791 (rehearsing and premiere of La clemenza di Tito).
the works to the Mozarts after their assortment in the Köchelverzeichnis (KV) is usually counted, which follows the chronological sequence of developing.See also:Köchelverzeichnis of the works by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
- the debt of the first requirement (1767, KV 35)
- Apollo and Hyacinth (1768, KV 38)
- Bastien and Bastienne (1768, KV 50)
- La finta semplice (1768, KV 51)
- Mitridate, RH di Ponto (1770, KV 87)
- Ascanio in Alba (1771, KV 111)
- IL sogno di Scipione (1771, KV 126)
- Lucio Silla (1772, KV 135)
- La fintagiardiniera /the adjusted gardener (1775, KV 196)
- IL RH pastore (1775, KV 208)
- Zaide (1780, KV 344), fragment
- Idomeneo (1781, KV 366)
- the kidnapping from the Serail (1782, KV384)
- L'oca del Cairo (1783, KV 422), fragment
- Lo sposo deluso ossia La rivalità the tre donne by un solo amante (1783, KV 430), fragment
- the director of play (1786, KV 486)
- Le nozze di Figaro (1786, KV 492)
- IL dissoluto punito ossia IL Don Giovanni (1787, KV 527)
- Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti (1790, KV 588)
- the magic flute (1791, KV 620)
- La clemenza thoseTo Tito (1791, KV 621)
- 18 fairs, under it
see in addition the article: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (fairs)
- Requiem D-Moll (1791, KV 626)
- 4 Litaneien
- 2 Vespern
- Oratorium the debt of the first requirement (1766/67, KV 35)
- Oratorium La Betulia liberata (1771, KV 118)
- Motetten for Sopran and orchestras, under it
- Exsultate, jubilate KV 164
- 17 Kirchensonaten
- Ave verum corpus (KV 618)
- over 40Symphonies
- of 27 piano concerts
- 7 Violinkonzerte (KV 207, KV 211, KV 216, KV 218, KV 219, KV 268? , KV 271a?)
- Clarinet concert A major
- of 4 horn concerts
- bassoon concert B major
- 2 symphony concertante
- 3 flute concerts
- of marches and dances for orchestras.
seein addition the article:List of the chamber-musical works Mozart
- 35 Sonaten for violin and piano
- of 2 piano quartets
- Klavierquintett E flat major (1784, KV 452)
- caper quartets
- Quintette with Bläsern
- Streichduos and - trios
- Sextett a musical fun or Dorfmusikantensextett (1787, KV 522)
see in addition the article: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (piano music)
- 18 Klaviersonaten
- variations over different topics
- of 27 piano concerts
- numerous unique pieces: Fantasien, Rondos, etc.
Mozart wrote also different textierte and untextierte of canon. Under the textierten are works alsochurch contents:
- Kyrie (KV 89), Alleluia (KV 553) (the initial motive comes of the Alleluja Intonation to the Karsamstagsliturgie), Ave Maria (KV 555)
in addition, it gives works with partially quite crude contents, which remind of the Mozarts' „Bäsle letters “. In many song booksthe original text is by a new, „defused “replaced. So for example:
- Bona nox, is A of right Ochs (KV 561)
- Oh, you donkeyful Martin/Oh, you donkeyful Peierl (KV 560b/560a) - the two text versions of this canon refer to the Mozarts' drinkingand cone friends Philip („Liperl “) Jacob Martin and Johann Nepomuk Peierl, with which it drove gladly crude fun.
The vierstimmige canon KV Anh. 191 (562 C) is set for two violins, Viola and bass.
- Reimund Leopold Mozart (*27. June 1783 in Vienna; † 19. August 1783 in Vienna)
- Karl Thomas's Mozart (* 21. September 1784 in Vienna; † 31. October 1858 in Milan)
- Johann Thomas Leopold Mozart (* 18. October 1786 in Vienna; † 15. November 1786 in Vienna)
- Theresia Maria Anna Mozart (* 27. December 1787 in Vienna; † 29. June 1788 in Vienna)
- Anna Maria Mozart (* 16. November 1789 in Vienna; † 16. November 1789in Vienna)
- Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (* 26. July 1791 in Vienna; † 19. July 1844 in Karl bath)
- good ones morning, dear female!, Mozart's letters at Constanze. ISBN 3761818149
- the Bäsle letters, Ditzingen 1993, ISBN 3150089255
Biografien and total interpretations
- Alfred Einstein (1880-1952): Mozart, his characters, his work (1945). German version (expenditure for original): Mozart - its character, its work (1947). New edition Fischer TB, 2005, ISBN 3596170583
a standard work. In the theoretical discussions preserving ELT it very much: Mozartripe style is represented as synthesis from what the contemporaries called „galant “and „in a scholarly manner “. Regards one the biographies over Mozart, in 20. Century, represents Einstein's „Mozart appeared “the most founded and most exact biography. No different one had sothorough views of the work such as Einstein. As E-Book the book is callable with http://www.musikwissenschaft.tu-berlin.de/wi.
- Norbert Elias (1897-1990): Mozart. To the sociology of a genius. From the deduction given change of Michael Schröter, Suhrkamp TB, 1993, ISBN 518386980
Elias dedicates itself primarily to thatSozialisation Mozart, its relationship to the service gentleman and to the father, its emancipation in Vienna and its failure as a free composer.
- Martin Geck: Mozart. A biography. Rowohlt, Hamburg2005, ISBN 3-498-02492-2
- Wolfgang Hildesheimer (1916-1991): Mozart. New edition island TB, 2005, ISBN 3458348263
lives and work, very personally represented and interprets, under intensive appeal on the psychoanalysis. Hildesheimer, its Mozartbiografie beside those of Alfreds Einstein and Heinrich EduardJacob, among which best ranks, was hardly rezipiert by the academic music science. Due to its this circle held a conference (Wolfenbüttel 1978), in order to discuss, why their representatives are unable to write an appropriate work.
- Heinrich EduardJacob (1889-1967): Mozart. Spirit, music and fate. Scheffler publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1956. Last new editions: Heyne publishing house, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-453-13884-8. Likewise Heyne publishing house, Munich 2005, under the title Mozart. The genius of the music, ISBN 3-453-60028-2.
This - partially barking trichloroethylene tables - work tries, Biografie and interpretation, psychological and musical interpretation with history to summarize culture history and anecdote as it were in a synthesis.
- Konrad Küster (* 1959): Mozart. A musical biography (1990).
Much overall display of lives founded andWork, which answers many questions, in addition, many interesting new questions places (and leaves still more open).
- Silke Leopold (Hrsg.): Mozart manual. Metzler publishing house and bear rider publishing house, Stuttgart and Kassel 2005, ISBN 3-476-02077-0
- Franz X. Niemetschek: I knew Mozart. Hrsg.and. come. v. Jost Perfahl, being enough/Mueller 2005, ISBN 3784430171
the only Biografie of an eye-witness
- May pool of broadcasting corporations Solomon: Mozart. A life. Metzler, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-476-02084-3
- Volkmar Braunbehrens (1941): Mozart in Vienna (1986). New interpretation that all-side primary sources from exact knowledge admitted of the living conditions in Josephini Vienna.
- William Otto German (1944): Mozart and the religion (2005)
- Melanie Unseld: Mozart's women. Meetings in music and love. Rowohlt, Hamburg 2005, ISBN of 3-499-62105-3
barking trichloroethylene tables processing
the figure Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was processed beyond that often literarily in novels and narrations, and. A. in
- Hermann Hessian: The steppe wolf. Frankfurt 1974, ISBN 3518366750
Mozart as a representative that„Unsterblichen “clears the Protagonisten up in an epistemological lecture on the eternal difference of ideal and reality.
- Rotraut Hinderks Kutscher: Donnerblitzbub Wolfgang Amadeus. Stuttgart 1955, ISBN B0000BJFY4
child and youth book
- E.T.A. Hoffmann: Don Juan in Fantasiestücke in Callot' s manners. 1814
a traveler enthusiast (E.T.A. Hoffmann?) during a Don Juan performance by Donna Anna in the Loge one visits and for W. A. Mozart held.
- Eduard Mörike: Mozart on the journey to Prague. Frankfurt 2005, ISBN 3458348271
on thatJourney for the premiere of the Don Giovanni in Prague comes to Mozart into the lock of the count von Schinzberg. Above all its niece Eugenie suspects the Mozarts Genialität, in addition, the inevitability of his close death and that he itself „fast and inexorably inits own glow “will verzehren.
- Wolf Wondratschek: Mozart's hairdresser. DTV TB 2004, ISBN 3423131861
does not leave the Mozarts' hairdresser invariably.
- Aleksandr Sergeevič Puškin: Mozart and Salieri. Play, 1832, expenditure soot. - Dtsch.: Übertr. and. Nachw. v. Kay Borowsky.Zeittaf. v. Gudrun Ziegler, Reclam universal library Nr.8094, ISBN 3150080940
- Nikolaj Rimskij Korsakov: Mozart and Salieri. Opera (after the Puškin text), 1897
- Peter Shaffer: Amadeus. Play, 1979, expenditure English: Amadeus, A Play. Hrsg. v. Rainer Lengeler (foreign language texts), ReclamUniversal library Nr.9219, ISBN 3150092191
Mozart from the view of the senile Salieri
- Michael Kunze & Silvester Levay: Mozart!. Musical (world premiere to 2. October 1999 in the theatre at that Vienna) libretto: by Michael Kunze appeared edition Butterfly. Further performances inHamburg, Budapest, Tokyo, Osaka, Karlstadt.CD Mozart! (Vienna NR: 731454310727), (Budapest NR: 5999517155257)
- 1955: Mozart - realm me the hand, my life - direction: Karl Hartl (with Oskar Werner and Johanna Matz) (entry on IMDB)
- 1984: Amadeus - direction: Milos Forman (with Tom of Hulce and F. Murray Abraham)
- 2005: The calf measurer - direction: Briefly to Palm (entry on IMDB)
- early classical period, Viennese classical period, romance, Mozarteum
- Mozart years, Mozartino, Mozart ball
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - quotations|
|Wikisource: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - source texts|
|Commons: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- link collection with dmoz.org
- http://www.mozartones.com: compact Mozart Biografie with pictures of the effect places
- international donation Mozarteum
- list of worksin the facsimile
- http://www.klassika.info/Komponisten/Mozart/ list of works
- http://hcl.harvard.edu/libraries/loebmusic/collections/digital.html digital Mozart Musikalien, under it extreme rare pieces
- entry (inclusive Literature data) in the biographic-bibliographic church encyclopedia (BBKL)
| | * Literature of and over Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in the catalog of the DDB
|NAME||Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus|
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart|
|DATE OF BIRTH||27. January 1756|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Salzburg|
|DYING DATE||5. December 1791|