Yoga

ASP well exercise

Yoga is Indian philosophical teachings, which cover a number of mental and physical exercises such as Asanas , Pranayama , Yama , Niyama , Kriyas , Meditation and/or Askese. The term Yoga (Sanskrit, M., योग, yoga, of yuga „yoke “, yui for:„tie together, harness, anschirren, anjochen “) can both and „combination “or „integration “and as „subjugation “of the consciousness moving (chitta vrittis) in the sense „of the self-control “be translated.

Yoga is one of the six classical schools (Darshanas) of Indian philosophy. There are many different forms of theYoga, often with an own philosophy and practice. In Western Europe and North America one thinks with the term Yoga often only of physical exercises, which are called Asanas or Yogasanas.

Some meditative forms of Yoga put their emphasis on the mental concentration, other more on physicalExercises and positions (the Asanas), some directions stress the Askese. The philosophical bases of the Yoga particularly formulated by Patanjali in the Yoga Sutra, also the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishaden contain information about Yoga.

Table of contents

history of the Yogas

in the classical Indian writings 4 Yogawege are described:

  • Raja Yoga call themselves the meditativ oriented stages of the AchtgliedrigenYoga after Patanjali (also Ashtanga Yoga mentioned: “Asta” = eight, “Anga” = parts).
  • Jnana Yoga (Yoga of the realization, intellectual direction)
  • Karma Yoga (Yoga of the act, selbstlosen acting)
  • Bhakti Yoga (Yoga of the admiration/devotion)

original was probably Yoga a purely mirror-image-ritual way, and it proceededeverything around illuminating by Meditation. The many Asanas developed only in the run the time, and their priority goal was first to strengthen and mobilize the body in such a way that it as freely and as possible during a longer period in the Meditationssitz - thus usually in the fullLotossitz - to stay could. With the time ever more was recognized the positive effect of the physical exercises on the entire well-being of humans. The Asanas was continued to develop, and the physical manipulation in the Yoga got a ever higher value. This development finds a first precipitationin the emergence of the Hatha Yoga. In „the Hatha Yoga Pradipika “, a text from that 15. Jhrdt., are stated the bases of this Yoga school rather body-stressing. Raja Yoga is a Yogalehre which is based on the Hatha Yoga, in which mirror-image-ritual goals are stressed.

Yoga schools

in the western linguistic usage are summarized Yoga practices under the generic term Hatha Yoga, rather body-stressed. A well-known modern direction of the Yoga in Germany is Iyengar Yoga, a very much body-stressed kind, with which if necessary also simple aids are used, around untrained one implementing the exercises toofacilitate. The Kundalini Yoga sets the emphasis on arousing and steering of the Kundalini - for energy. More strongly religiously aligned Yogaschulen e.g. is. under the names Tantra Yoga and Tibetan Yoga admits. The Marma Yoga stresses the aspect of self experience of the exercises. Technically precisely taken attitudes become than“Test” outstandingly, with which one gives the possibility to its body, too „speak “and about this reflection the exercises adapts. With Kum Nye gives it a buddhistisches Heilyoga and with Yantra Yoga a Tibetan Yoga, which is used as Meditationsunterstützung. Tibetan Traumyoga extends the range of application mental more yogischerExercises on the range of the sleep. The Kriya Yoga decreases/goes back on Paramahamsa Yogananda . The Sahaja Yoga is rather sparkling wine-like structured. Additionally to the traditional directions particularly in the course of the Fitness - and Wellness - trends are created again and again „new “Yoga kinds, so thatmeanwhile a nearly difficult-to-understand number of different Yoga schools exists. Poweryoga, a direction coming from America, is one this modern Yogastile. To the recent directions the Bikram Yoga, a physically demanding Yoga belongs to this development at high ambient temperatures. Jivamukti Yoga, with that the agreement alsoin the foreground stands for the creation, developed in New York.

From Boris Sakharov (pupil Sivanandas and one the Wegbereiter of the Yoga in the west) comes the following quotation: „From day to day new Yogapilze from the soil of the Orientalistik surfeited by sumptuous fantasy shoots, and new becomeName to light promoted like Sattva Yoga, Buddhi Yoga, Purna Yoga etc. etc. - as if the classical Yoga kinds, like one tends to call the first five (Karma, Bhakti, Hatha, Raja and Jnana), does not fill would have been sufficient. “

In Germany people's highschools and other public educational facilities offerYogakurse to different forms of the Yoga on, these courses are from individual Yogaschulen and/or. Organizations and their religious and world-descriptive views independently. They take place usually under the direction of trained Yogalehrern .

the Yoga concept

Yogaübungen usually pursue an holistic beginning, that Body, spirit and soul in agreement to bring are. Particularly in the western countries Yoga is usually obtained in instruction units. In an instruction unit Asanas, phases of the depth relaxation, breath exercises as well as Meditationsübungen are combined. The practice of the Asanas is the interaction of body, spirit, soul and Breath improve. An improved Vitalität and at the same time an attitude of the internal leaving are aimed at. In the original Yogalehre is Yoga a way of the self perfection, to which among other things belongs, the longings to zügeln and methods of the cleaning to exercise. The mirror-image-ritual background of the Yoga differswith different schools substantially, he rises from different roots in the asiatic area, and the Lehrmeinungen were subjected to an historical development. Therefore there are very different aspects over the sense of Yoga and different approaches. After a traditional view, which combines before-scientific and mirror-image-ritual elements, is Yogastimulate the life energy (Kundalini) by the combination of body attitudes , courses of motion, internal points of concentration , breath guidance as well as the use of Mantras (Meditationsworten) and Mudras (hand gestures „Fingeryoga “), so that it begins to ascend by the energy courses along the spinal column to the Chakren (energy centers). The shifting of physical energywith the Yoga is one of the reasons for it, why one recommends to accomplish the exercises after guidances of qualified Yogalehrer.

Yoga and religion

humans of different religions and world views practice to Yoga. Although the motivation consists pretty often of it, to pursue mirror-image-ritual goals and for illuminating toofind, are not considered Yoga not as religion. In addition, Yoga contradicts not religious values. Following theory of the Upanischaden some Yogis regards the breath (see. Atman) as universal principle, which connects all organisms. From the historical root out havethe Karma concept and Reinkarnationslehren Yoga affect. In the Islamic culture area parallels are to the Yoga in the Sufismus. The Yoga Philosopie Pantajalis differs by a theistische orientation of the Samkhya teachings similar in many points, in which the faith in a God does not play a role.

[] If Yoga

work on

Yoga philosophy from India originally come there, the roots of the Yoga philosophy lie in the Hinduismus and Buddhismus. The oldest recordings are in the Upanishaden. The most important source text of the Yoga is the Yoga Sutra of the Patanjali. The moreover one give inthe Bhagavad Gita the Kapitelüberschriften in each case a special form of the Yoga on, e.g. Karma Yoga or Jnana Yoga etc. They arrange important philosophical-religious for the practicing Yogi for the understanding of the Yoga background. Among other things it e.g. contains ethical instructions. the Yamas and Niyamas clarify. In the textit concerns Karma, i.e. the hinduistische and buddhistische principle of a cause and effect, around Reinkarnation, Meditation, self implementation, God realization and faithful God love. The text uses often graphic representations, e.g. the relatives, which is to fight Arjuna, are a symbol for the Kleshas, of which the Yogi wants to clean itself. Beyond that the Bhagavad Gita contains direct instructions for the Yoga.

Thus it is called in 5. Chapter in verse 27: „Itself solving from the external world, rigidly on the nose root (“Nasikagra”) looking - the breath and Aushauch (in/breathing out) regulatingdirectly, which go to the nose through Innres “. (Note: “Nasikagra” is confounded by some translators with “nose point” - which most Yogis squints but looks however not, as concentration exercise on the nose root between the brows, an important nerve meeting place). Verse 28 turns to the mirror-image-ritual goals:„Zügelnd the senses, heart and spirit, completely the release turned - releases from desires, fear and anger, then always it is released. “

In 6. Chapter goes it around sinking (Dhyana) and the correct way of life. In verse 10 it means:

yogi yunjita satatamatmanam rahasi sthitah - ekaki yatachittama nirashir aparigraha. „The Yogi is to strive itself steadily in the isolation - alone, bezähmend sense and, nothing hoping, without possession “.

Verse 11 6. Contains then instructions for the seat attitude of chapter and even to the seat document. In verse 12it means: „The spirit directed toward one point, zügelnd thinking, senses and doing - setting on the seat practice it devotion for the cleaning of its “. Verse 13: „Body, neck, head motionless holding festbleib evenly it - looking on its nose root, not view ithere and there out “. Verse 33/34 deals with religious concepts. Arjuna gives to consider that the spirit is as heavy to zügeln as the wind, and Krishna answers it that one can discipline the spirit by effort and renunciation. Then Arjuna asks, whatwith humans it is who cannot itself zügeln whether are lost on always. Krishna tröstet it with the reference to the Reinkarnation as the further chance to reach Samadhi.

modern Yoga

in the second half 20. Century has itself innot to an individual school bound type of Yoga developed. In the “modern Yoga” the Primat lies in practice the Yoga, which can be body-referred rather meditativ or rather. Under reference to the positive effects of exercise practice Yoga becomes as individual enriching or as contributionfor personal development regards, to a large extent independently of religious or world-descriptive convictions of the pupil. Gurus and doctrines are attributed no special meaning. Few behavior regulations are set up, the rules are for the pupils rather recommendations without a obligating character. Yoga is not taught as philosophical system, insteadthere is a tendency to an empirical approach. Methods for cleaning are evaluated in view to health-promoting effects (see Kriyas). In connection with the stress of the training effect of Yoga on bodies and spirit occasionally at views of the Psychosomatik one ties.

Yogaand health

fundamental has Yoga some positive effects both on the physical and on the psychological health. Yoga can lead perhaps to a Linderung with most diverse disease pictures, approximately with blood circulation disturbances, sleep disturbances, nervous complaints, chronic headache or back pain.

The use ofYoga with illness or for the preservation of the health is differently evaluated. In Germany costs of Yogakurse can be refunded by the health insurance companies particularly in the context of the prevention principle of the avoidance of specific risks and stress-dependent diseases (action manual of the health insurance companies after §20 exp. 1 and 2 SGBV). The health-promoting aspect is differently weighted in the different Yogarichtungen. Partially it only regarded as an accompaniment, sometimes is it central point of the approach.

With the Asanas Kraft, Flexibilität, Gleichgewichtssinn and Muskelausdauer are trained. For example it comes by the activation muscles,Chords and blood vessels with the Asanas to an improved blood circulation. The back musculature is strengthened, which can lead again to an improved body attitude. Overload or wrongly implemented exercises can however also harm. Therefore Yoga is not after books, but under guidance of a qualified Yogalehrers to be learned.

Yoga has a reassuring, compensatory effect on many humans and can thus the results of stress against work. Beyond that can the inside connected with breath exercises and Meditation a-turn to be used to reflect the own behavior opposite the fellow men in order to arrange it more positive.

see also

Upanishaden, Hinduismus, further articles to the topic: Category Yoga

literature

  • Patañjali: The roots of the Yoga: The classical training sayings of the Patañjali - the basis of all Yoga systems. O.W. Barth with joke (2003) ISBN 3502611165
  • Patañjali: The Yogaweisheit of thePatanjali for humans today. Sukadev V. Bretz via new facts (April 2001) ISBN 3928632817
  • B.K.S. Iyengar: Light on Yoga. O.W. Barth with joke ISBN 3502633347
  • BDY - professional association of the Yogalehrenden in Germany (Hrsg.) the way of the Yoga. Publishing house via new facts
  • Wilfried Huchzermeyer: ThatYoga dictionary. Sanskrit terms, exercise styles, biographies. edition sawitri ISBN 3-931172-25-2
  • Paramhans Swami Maheshwarananda: Yoga in the daily life - the system. Ibera (2000) ISBN 3-85052-009-9
  • Swami Vishnudevananda: The large illustrated Yoga book. J. Kamphausen publishing house ISBN 3-591081-83-3
  • B.Tatzky, A.Trökes, J.Pinter Neisse: Theory and practice of the Hatha Yoga. Publishing house via new facts
  • Paramahansa Yogananda: Autobiography of a Yogi. (2001) ISBN 0876120877
  • T.K.V. Desikachar: Yoga tradition and experience - the practice of the Yoga after the Yoga Sutra of the Patanjali via new facts publishing house (1997), ISBN 3-928632-00-0
  • YOGA - Sivananada Yoga center - ISBN 3-922477-40-2, Mangalam Books, loud home 2003
  • Swami Durgananda: Yoga Sutren of the Patanjali - ISBN 3-922477-79-8, Mangalam Books, loud home 2003
  • Swami Sivananda: Crying WAD Bhagavad Gita - ISBN 3-922477-06-2, Mangalam Books, loud home 2003

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