of the Zölibat (of lat. caelebs “alone, unvermählt living”) designates - in particular within the Roman-catholic church - which by a church discipline-bad-set (in the today's law book that Rome. - kath. Church, which Codex Iuris Canonici formulates, in Canon 277) before the consecrationto the deacon prescribed promise to therefore take over for the further life the obligation to the Ehelosigkeit and to the perfect sexual abstention SAMness (Keuschheit). Also medal people are implicitly to the Zölibat committed, explicit from the day of their medal entrance after the solemn one (to eternal) Gelübde.It concerns formally no “imposed” obligation, but around a voluntarily selected; this represents however a precondition for the Priesterweihe (not however in all rites of the Roman-catholic church, then there are churches in with Rome the university ores of theeastern-eastern rite no Pflichtzölibat). The Zölibat, which is understood also as an Evangelist advice, is to differentiate of the completely freely selected way of life of the Ehelosigkeit “for the sky realm “, of the Mt 19.12 speaks and like it approximately ofMedal people one lives. The Roman-catholic church knows besides the married deacon (constant Diakonat), who must decide however before its Diakonenweihe for the marriage or for a zölibatäres life. A renewed marriage ceremony after the consecration (for instance with death) is not possible for the woman or cancellation of the marriage.
Obligating in latin partial church of the catholic church usually is for bishops and priests of the Zölibat, in the eastern partial churches of the catholic church as also in the orthodox churchesit applies only to bishops, who come of usually the monk conditions (whereby now and then priests also verwitwete are geweiht to the bishop). Priests must likewise decide here before their Diakonatsweihe whether them married or zölibatär into the Weihestand wants to step. Aftera new marriage is also here no longer possible for the death of the woman.
Table of contents
Zölibat in the world religions
beside the Roman-catholic andthe orthodox church knows also the Buddhismus for monks and nuns the Zölibatsverpflichtung. Baha'u'llah, the religion founder of the Baha'i, rejects zölibatäres life 1873 in the Kitab i Aqdas and recommends the marriage.
history of the Zölibats in the Roman-catholicIt results in
church newer research that there is a Zölibatsverpflichtung already much longer than so far accepted. Above all exposing the Paphnutius history of Nicäa (325) as legend has to research historians lively again. The distinction between a Ehelosigkeitszölibat is important anda Enthaltsamkeitszölibat. By Ehelosigkeitszölibat one understands that clerics may not be married; under Enthaltsamkeitszölibat it is quite possible that married the consecrations receive, however must it starting from the day of the consecration abstention SAM live. The Enthaltsamkeitszölibat becomes for the first time on the Synodeof Elvira (approx. 306) as law noted. However the fact that in this time, before something law became somewhat it was generally valid, points out that that was not the beginning of a Zölibatsverpflichtung, but that already a longer tradition existed.Some historians (e.g., Cochini, Heid…) are even the opinion, the Zölibat decrease/go back on apostolische time.
Niece contents of this obligation then that led in the high Middle Ages took place to the transition to the Ehelosigkeitszölibat, and whereby the wrong, but usual opiniondeveloped, the Zölibat has its origin in the Middle Ages. Since that 2. Laterankonzil 1139 represents the Zölibat an indispensable condition for entrance (conditio sine qua non) for the receipt of the Priesterweihe in the Roman-catholic church. The Pope can however without closer reasonDispensation of the Ehelosigkeit it give (CAN 1049 CIC) about which it makes however only in rare cases use - at present exclusively with to the Roman-catholic church converted married Evangelist or anglikanischen clergyman, who becomes certified from a bishop to the Priesterweihe.
In the year1022 arranged Pope Benedikt VIII. on the Synode to Pavia together with emperor Heinrich II. on that all clergymen were not allowed to marry any longer. Above all the ritual purity of the priests (daily Zelebration of the holy fair) played thereby a role,in addition, the fact that the church possession was left otherwise to the children by clergyman. Offences against the Zölibat were occupied with church punishments, and clergyman already married office and possession were extracted.
Up to 2. Laterankonzil 1139 gave it alsoand in the Roman church both married unmarried priests, who were called to the sexual abstention SAMness with their consecration. With that council it was specified that “higher clerics, which married or a Konkubine to hold, [...] office and Benefizium [loses] “(in canon 6) and the fairs by priests, who have a wife or a Konkubine, “any longer not to be heard” to be allowed (in canon 7). In the same course the Priesterweihe in the right understanding of the Roman-catholic church became a separating marriage obstacle - which ituntil today is.
of its three reformatorischen main writings already demands the Zölibat (1523) that the Zölibat is to be abolished. It gave its priest and Mönchtum (Augustiner) and married 1525 the former nun up Katharina of Bora.
Up to the council of Trient (1545-1563) it occurred however that priests with Konkubinen lived together. For it a high fine was usually imposed upon to them; often the amounts which can be paid constituted more than one annual salary. Thus grew aboutthe inhabitant of zurich Reformator Ulrich Zwingli with an uncle up, who together-lived as a priest in the diocese Konstanz with Konkubine and children. Also Zwingli lived during its priesterlichen service in Zurich in a firm relationship. Later he married then his Konkubine.
The introduction of the priesterlichen Zölibats was not however only demanded and was interspersed in the Middle Ages by the church authority: Also the simple people demanded unmarried priests. This demand by laymen was part of a internal-church reform - movement, those also against bad states howMisuse of power, corruption (Simonie and nepotism) in the church fought.
Since the Trullani Synode 691 the partial churches went in the east regarding the priest marriage another way than those of the west, where itself the development to a generalObligation of the priests to the Ehelosigkeit, how she also 1139 actually came, always far solidified. Thus it comes that until today in the orthodox church and in the catholic east churches only bishops are obligated to priests to the Zölibat - however only,if they were unmarried at the time of their Priesterweihe. Usually these join then the monk conditions.
the reasons for the introduction of the Zölibatsgesetzes at that time and holding to it up to the present were and are various.The present church aspect is particularly in the statements 2. Vatikani council:LG 29 and LG 42, OT 10 and PO 16.
first is here the aspect of the ritual purityto call, which already played a role in the old person will with the Jewish priests regarding its temple service. This was however relevant for Jesus not particularly (see Mk 7.1-23) - he stressed rather the purity of the heart/thatConvicition as the crucial criterion for acting. So the argument of the ritual purity has itself because of the daily Zelebration of the holy measuring victim since the early church up to 2. Vatikani council as aspect of official thinking and Lesartvatikanischer announcements received, however in the long run under the impression of the back meditation of this council on the Biblical statements one dropped.
a further motive, that for fixing the obligating Zölibats in the 11. Century led, sees one in thatAttempt of the Roman church to prevent the reduction of the church Pfründen administered by priests. This Pfründen was dezimiert by necessary living costs of the family of married priests as well as by inheritance. The transmission of the offices of the father usual in the medieval societyon the son led to conflicts with the centralistic self understanding of the church. By the introduction of the Zölibatsverpflichtung for priests it was prevented that legitimate sons could take over the priest or office for bishop. A Sicherstellung of the equality took place at the same time of the with this regulationEntrance to the office for priest, if prinziell and ideally each male layman, who fulfilled the necessary conditions, could take over this office independently of the social position or of wealth and possession.
a further aspect is those social position of the priest, connected with appropriate prestige. In the Christianity immediately among other things this very day the two-condition church actually existing in the Roman-catholic range (Klerus and a layman ) developed, within those the Klerus the socially higher position as well as (overmany centuries with it connected) power and possession held. In addition the higher formation of the clerics and their reputation at that time than came “improve Christians”, which should be still supported by the Zölibat. This aspect was related certainly by the Biblical ideal of theServing instead of prevailing, which in particular the office-holders in the church should follow.
as a further reason is called the complete serviceability and availability for the activities in the priesterlichen service. Marriage lots priests can do itself more forwith the practice of their activity no consideration for a wife or common children uses and needs their municipality to take. This applies in particular to the confrontation with anti- klerikalen for states (unmarried priests are less extortable), in addition, to the area of conflict for examplebetween family and Beichtgeheimnis in family-relevant affairs. In addition those is not to be sublimated genuin satisfied Sexualität and converted into seelsorgliche energy by the Ehelosigkeit. Critics of the Zölibats mean however that it needs again Kraft, those from priests into the maintenancethe zölibatären way of life and sublimating not the feelings and thought desired therein to be invested must, which are misplaced for their part the pastoralen commitment. On the part of the church laymen comes a criticism, which addresses another form of the restriction of zölibatär priesterlichen working:beforeless living priests do not possess therefore sufficient Empathie for the concerns and emergencies of the laymen, because they cannot to make/be allowed to do the experiences of a marriage life.
as crucial becomes of the Roman-catholic church the Zeichenhaftigkeit of the Zölibats asReference to the realm of God outstandingly, where it will give the God and next love, however no more anyhow after church teachings the marriage and the sexual combination of man and woman (see. Mt 22.30). Who lives beforeless and virgin, putsthus certification off for the future world expected in the faith, in which the human love for women and men will find its definite fulfilment. In relation to a on one side mirror-image-ritualistic or binaryistic understanding it is stressed at the same time that in this future life conditions alsothe conjugal love their completion experiences and into this completion with the Auferstehung also the physical glory is enclosed. Zölibat and marriage become an indication so in each case of the all exceeding love God for humans.
Under the theological arguments plays in particular the understanding of the Zölibats as Charisma, as gift of God a role. Opponents of the Zölibats mean however that those, to which the charismatische Ehelosigkeit was actually given did not need an obligation, there it voluntary theseWay of life selected. In addition they that the appointment is to be separated to the Priestertum from the appointment to the Ehelosigkeit, stress and refer among other things to the second Vatikani council, which the Ehelosigkeit necessarily for the Priestertum not as, however as“appropriately” and for the range of latin church to it marks holds: “The church recommended, in all centuries until today from few Gläubigen gladly did not accept the perfect and constant abstention SAMness for the sky realm, those from Christ to the gentlemanand praise-worth practiced is particularly estimated regarding the priesterliche life always highly. It is an indication and at the same time a drive of the Hirtenliebe and a special pours nevertheless religious fertility in the world. It is not ofNature praise ore around demanded, how the practice of the earliest church and the tradition of the east churches show, where gives it beside such, which choose the beforeless life from graceful appointment as well as all bishops, also high-earned priests in the earliest and. “(2.Vaticanum, Presbyterorum Ordinis, 16).
discussion around the Zölibat
the legal regulation of the obligating Ehelosigkeit was through controversially discussed by entire church history, and in the present the voices - also of church office-holders - become louder, thosean abolishment of the Zölibatsgesetzes demand. One stresses that there is Biblically no anchorage of the Ehelosigkeitsverpflichtung for priests. Above all, since in the gospels of the “mother-in-law of the Petrus” one speaks. The question, to what extent sexual abuse by priests with the Zölibatsverpflichtungor however with the affektiven Unreife of the priests concerned are connected, heats the discussion up around the Zölibat occasionally.
The discussion around the Zölibat becomes lively also by the number of catholic priests decreasing/going back strongly in many countries. In many municipalities can take place because of the lack of priest no more sun-daily you air low eggs. As consequence of the lack of priest it comes in the dioceses to fusions of the church municipalities and to the creation of so-called. Seelsorgeeinheiten. Against the “appropriate”, but not necessary Zölibat stands the fundamental right of the Gläubigenon the receipt of the Sakramente. Critics ask the question whether before this background the Zölibatsgesetz is still justified in its current form.
interestingly enough have themselves in the course of the time again and again persons of the public lifeadmits to live voluntarily in the Zölibat. Thus above all Popstars announced such as Morrissey (“I always found it particularly unenjoyable” - “I found it simply always particularly unpleasant”) and Boy George into the 1980er year (“I wouldhave A cup OF tea than sex " - “I would have rather a cup of dte than Sex”) that they would not have interest in sexual relations and zölibatär lived.
|Wikiquote: Zölibat - quotations|
- George Denzler: The history of the Zölibats. Herder, Freiburg 2002, ISBN 3451041464
- Stefan Heid: Zölibat in the early church (Schöningh 2003) ISBN 3506739263
- refuge gentleman man: The holy fathers. Popes and their children.Berlin 2004, ISBN 3746681103
- refuge gentleman man: Sex and torture in the church. Munich 1998, ISBN 3572100100
- Hubertus Mynarek: Eros and Klerus. Of the misery of the Zölibats. Econ, Vienna and Duesseldorf 1978, ISBN 3-426-03628-2
- Uta climb Heinemann: Eunuchen forheaven. Catholic church and Sexualität. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-426-04079-4
- A.W. Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Sipe: Sexualität and Zölibat. Schönigh, Paderborn - Munich - Vienna - Zurich 1992. ISBN 3-506-78559-1
- Alfons Maria Stickler: The Klerikerzölibat. Maria Aktuell1994, ISBN 3-930309-08-4
- combination of catholic priests and its wives e. V. (Hsg.): Life ways - hope ways. Per Business, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-937343-41-5 (pro Business)
- Heinz Jürgen of bird: Priests may marry. Biblical, historical and legal reasons against the Pflichtzölibat. Köllen, Bonn1992, ISBN 3-88579-060-2
- Hans Conrad Zander: Ten arguments for the Zölibat. A black book. Patmos, Duesseldorf 1997, ISBN 3-491-72375-2
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Zölibat - word origin, synonyms and translations|
Zölibat in the Roman-catholic church
- “Zölibat -Obligation or love? “- Information of the Karl Leisner youth
- Pope Johannes Paul II. over the Zölibat
- difficult talking over the Zölibat
- of the Zölibat - meaningful or traditional tradition?
- Combination of catholic priests and its wives (VkPF)
- “priest without office” (Austria)
- initiative group ofZölibat Mrs. concerned (Germany)
- association of the Mrs. (Switzerland), concerned by the Zölibat