Zarathustra (in the Greek name form Zoroaster), was an Iranian priest and prophet of the Zoroastrismus. Its possible place of birth and/or. its effect place is limited meanwhile to three areas. Once the area around Baktra (Baktrien), to second the area around Sistan and toThird in the area of the Urmia lake (Urmia) (media). Over his lifetime prevails to today no agreement in the research.
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- Zarathustra lived around 1800 v. Chr., more exactly 1768 v. Chr. Represent this opinion in particular Iranian scientists (Behrūz, Derakhshani) and Boyce. In the context of the settlement Iran Zarathustras occurrence would be with the first immigration wave to be already set.
- The mention of the God Mithra in the Gathas saves thereby dating problems since secured referring to this God are only present at later time and its cult was condemned by Zarathustra according to the Avesta.
- Zarathustra lived around 1000 v. Chr.This opinion represent among other things Eilers, Wiesehöfer, back-up mountain. This dating sets the occurrenceZarathustras in the area around Baktrien ahead.
- Zarathustra lived around 600 v. Chr. This late variant is based on the excessive quantity of the Islamic scholar aluminum beer university, after sassanidischer tradition Zarathustras specified the time of the appointment to which on 258 years before Alexander. Lommel represent this opinion,Old home and Hinz. Thus one defines its lifetime on * 630 v. Chr. to † 553 v. Chr. After Hinz one assumes a meeting of Zarathustra and Kyros II. (601-530), which did not take over its teachings, but tolerantly in relation to the other religions arose.
- A confirmation of theof Zarathustra of highest God specified (Ahura Masda, other way of writing: Ahura Mazda), became only under Dareios I. (* 549 v. Chr., † 486 v. Chr.) surely proven. This Hertel and heart field compelled, those with Ammianus Marcellinus delivered identification of the prince Vistaspa, to thatZarathustra promoted to take over with Hystaspes, the father Dareios I., and to make Zarathustra the older contemporary of the latter.
Apart from different scientific methods and arguments also ideological motives play a role in this argument.
at times of the Persian world realm was that Zoroastrismus (= Zarathustrismus) the state religion. Beside the Manichäismus this faith up to Islamic conquest remained strongly common. Nouruz, „the spring celebration” (on Zarathustra going back), today still becomes in Shiite Iran, in central Asia and Indian Subkontinent and/or. in all countries with the suffix „stan” of Hindustan India (as Holi and with Parsen in India as Jamshidi celebration) to Kazakhstan celebrated. Possibly also in Armenia, which is called in the national language Hajastan and thus likewise one “- stan “ending possesses. In the Greek world (Herodot) the Zoroastrer was well-known as „Feueranbeter”, becausein its Heiligtümern always fire burned.
Zarathustra created the new conception of the world of the Zoroastrismus (also Mazdaismus or Parsismus called). There are today world-wide about 120,000 members of this religion, most in India. One calls the today's trailers only Parsen.
fundamentals thatTeachings Zarathustras
the religion strongly binaryistic (property/bad) coined/shaped, is however a pure Monotheismus is. The teachings Zarathustras contain three principles:
- the world created
- good thoughts
good words good acts Ahura Mazda, the wise God according to a binaryistic principle. Everything contains a good anda bad aspect. The property spirit (Spenta Mainyu) and the bad spirit (Angro Mainyu) twins are sense-figurativy spoken, by whose cooperating the world exists. So that property can exist, it needs the bad in reverse and. In the midst of this interaction it is freely left to each humans, itself forto decide property and to support thus the fight the Ahura Mazdas against the bad and/or. to contribute to the implementation of the plan of God. Important it is here that the Zarathustrismus and/or. Ahura Mazda humans to nothing forces - who humans born as a reasonable nature freelyand can arrive alone by free decision and personal insight at God.
Six exist (or sieve - see also detention Sin [seven decoration bowls], to seven meals, detention Mewa [filter fruit beverage] and Samanak [Keimlinge from seven sorts grain] in the Nouruz, those the seven virtues of theZoroastrismus symbolize) aspects of God (Amesha Spentas), which sometimes in the Avesta, the holy book of the Zarathustrismus, when angelful natures are personifiziert.
- the good sense
- the best truth
- the desirable realm
- the Frömmigkeit benediction-bringing
- (the spirit benediction-bringing) - by some one to it-counts.
Zarathustras serviceexisted in any refusal of victim actions. The devotion actions were held in the free one, with which the priest sang the praise praising around a fire altar with raised hands.
Humans have the choice in the this-lateral life between property and bad. If property in humans outweighs, that arrivesHumans after its death over the Činvat bridge (see. Mt 7.14 as well as Eschatologie in the Islam) in the Paradies. For honest humans the bridge is broadly like a path, narrow for the other one like a knife edge.
updating of the theory
in a laterTransformation, particularly under the Sassaniden, is called the Zoroastri religion by a time God, Zrvan, supplemented. This viergestaltige God (Ahura Mazdā, quality, religion and time) stands over God and devil, which are its sons. Zrvan is the infinite space and the infinite time.By the emergence of God and the bad one the light of the darkness becomes divorced.
the religious book of the Zoroastrier originally consisted of 21 books. Yasna one calls the delivered 72 chapters of the Awesta (today still with the Parsenin the service to be used), whereby 16 chapters, the Gathas (singing), directly on Zarathustra to be retraced to be able. Minute of the Avesta can be proven starting from 1278.
the skies created by Ahura Mazdā (by the long-dominant wind breath) has the shape of an egg. The lifedeveloped thereafter in the order: Water, earth, plants, animals and then humans.
Zarathustras teachings flowed in partially important way over the Judentum (Babylonian shank) also into the Christianity. Particularly the terms skies and hell are not before in the Judentum well-known. The propagationangels - nature goes probably also on Zarathustra back (angel shapes and the faith in it to find itself already in the archaischen advanced cultures, for example in Babylonien and Assyrien). See also: Auferstehung.
Admits became the name Zarathustra in the western world by Friedrich Nietz philosophical dichterischesWork “thus spoke Zarathustra “, which does not act contentwise however of that Zarathustra specified here (!) and by smelling pool of broadcasting corporations bunch 'symphonische seal of the same name (however hardly purchase has to the historical Zarathustra). Zarathustra is selected for this role, because he - so Nietz - thatFirst is, which brings the terms to property and bad into the world.
for this count:
- Freddie Mercury (skirt volume Queen) - a musical interpretation contains The Prophet's Song of 1974.
- Zubin Mehta, conductor, among other things with the Viennese and Berlin Philharmonics.
- The family Tata, an Indian entrepreneur dynasty
- Boyce, Mary: A History OF Zoroastrianism, 1975
- Boyce, Mary: Zoroastrians. Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge 2001 (orig. 1979)
- Brentjes, Burchard: The Iranian world before Mohammed. Charcoal burner &Amelang publishing house, Leipzig. 1967
- Brünner, Elizabeth: The Zarathustralegende in the zoroastrischen tradition, Hamburg: Kovac 1999 (studies for the historical research of the antiquity 4)
- Christensen, Arthur: Manual of the antiquity science. Culture history of the old person Orients. 3. Section, 1. Supply. Small Asia, the Iranier. C. Beck publishing house, Munich. 1933.
- Derakhshani, Jahanshah: ThoseArier in the Middle East sources of the 3. and 2. Millenium v. Chr.. Teheran 1998. ISBN 964-90368-1-4
- Frye, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations, N.: Zarathustra in: The founders of the large world religions. Herder publishing house. 1998. ISBN 3-451-04669-5
- Hinz, roll ago: Zarathustra. W. Kohl hammer publishing house. 1961
- cook, Heidemarie: It tellsDareios the king. Philipp of Zabern publishing house, Mainz. 1992
- Schlerath, Bernfried (Hg.): Zarathustra. Ways of the research 159. Stock, Darmstadt, 1970
- back-up mountain, Michael: The religion Zarathushtras: History - present - rituals, Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne: Kohl hammer 2002.
- Widengren, geo: Iranian world of thought. Hell publishing house. Baden-Baden.1961
- Widengren, geo: The religions of Iran, Kohl hammer, Stuttgart, 1965
Web on the left of
| | * Literature of and over Zarathustra in the catalog of the DDB
- Zarathustri forum
- Sartosht Iranian-German culture association
- over Zarathustra
- biographic-bibliographic church encyclopedia
- the Gatha
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of old-Iranian priests and prophet, religion founder of the Zoroastrismus|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1800 v. Chr. - 630 v. Chr.|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Iran|
|DYING DATE||around 1800 v. Chr. - 553 v. Chr.|