- The cyclic time calculation is sphere of activity of the calendar calculation and the time calculation.
- One calls the linear time calculation year calculation.
Table of contents
standardisations of the time calculation and its representation
in that European standard EN 28601 of 1992 is the format of date, i.e. the valid representation of the time calculation fixed, which is without reservation valid for Germany and Austria (derived from ISO 8601 from 1988). Therein becomes on a dating after Christian traditionrelative before or after Christ no more received. From the year 2000 one year zero and annual details with minus sign plans the ISO 8601 in the version .
in contexts of the clock it represented in:
- The movement of the sun in the sky is represented day and the time in year, whereby the year the circulation (revolution) and day and timethe revolution (rotation) of the earth describe.
- From the movement of the moon the month deduces itself , in addition, for example the moon day Tithi of the Vedi time calculation <ref> [[w: EN: Hindu unit OF measurement|]] - Wikipedia (English)< /ref>.
- Unite long-term periods (Ages) refer beside the sun also to other astronomical elements, as for instance that Platonic year to the precession movement of the Erdachse.
- The Sothi year Egyptian calendar refers to the fixed star Sirius.
A condition for linear time calculations (year calculation) is the agreement one or several acquisition data.
Acquisition date of the personal time calculation is that Birth year, which calendar year, into which the birthday falls. This form of the time calculation was transferred into many cultures with the person or the assumption of office of the respective ruler to „the offizelle time calculation “. Years indicated as in the soundsovielten year thatRain shank…:
- The Seleukidi era begins 312 v. Chr. (Seleukos I. Nikator start the rule)
- in older cultures formed for king lists the basis of the time calculation (z. B. Sumer, Egypt).
- The Roman time calculation goes on consul- Lists back. In them the two acting consuls were noted. They were resumed also in the Kaiser era and are received.
- The antique Chinese time calculation extends from the Vorzeit over the year 100 v. Chr., and/or. into the year 1084 n. Chr.
- In the Buddhismus one orients the time calculation at the traditional day of death of the Buddhas Siddhartha Gautama 543 v. Chr.(by singhalesische monks specified, actually the death year is probably Buddhasaround -483), our year 2000 was thus in the buddhistischen time calculation the year 2543.
- In the Roman world realm the annuity off urbe was referred condita from (legendary) the establishment of Rome by Romulus and the descent of Äneas.
- The Christianity followedfirst in the condition sparkling wines of the regionally in each case prevailing civil time calculation. The Roman monk Dionysius Exiguus († around 545) has (fictitious ) the time of the birth Christi from defaults of the old person and new will for the year 754 off urbe condita(since the establishment of Rome) fixed (see Christian time calculation). There the number zero as mathematical size at that time except with the Indian, Arabs, Egyptians and Juden -, designated he was not yet common the first yearthe life Christi with unity. In the Franconia realm of Karl of the large one it is a common scale and in the time of the European culture world-wide, beside others, spread.
- In the Hinduismus the Shaka age voucher? and the Kaliyuga - ages.
Other annual accounts orient themselves on certain cultural events (Memorialjahre)
- for the Judentum gave it from that Tora and other holy writings of the Tanach different time calculations. In the year the authoritarian person of the Patriarchen Hillel II. standardized 358.the beginningthe time calculation and. A. from defaults of the Bible and the Talmud for the year -3761 the Beriah in such a way specified era (since the creation of the world) fixed (see Jewish calendar). The year 2000 according to EN 28601 and ISO 8601the year 5761 corresponded after Jewish calendar.
- The oldest Greek time calculation is based on Olympiads, their first 776 v. Chr. took place.
- The age Islam begins with the Hidschra Mohammeds in the month aluminium Muharram (=Abbruch the relations and connections of theProphet and its trailer crowd to its hometown Mekka and its removal after Medina) in the year 622, (see also: Islamic calendar)
a number of systems is based however on astronomical basis:
For the simplification (machine) of the calculation with periods linear time calculation systems with more or less arbitrarily set points of zero were created:
- The Unixzeit counts the seconds since that 1. January 1970 00:00 h UTC
- the Julian date countsin its origin form the days since that 1. January 4713 v. Chr. 12:00 clock GMT
newer variants of the Julian date select the 17. November 1858 0:00 clock GMT („modified Julian date “), the 30. December 1899 (Microsoft Excel for Windows, StarOffice/open Office) or the 1. January 1904 (Microsoft Excel for Macintosh) as zero point.
- the Präkambrium replaced
- from the Paläozoikum, this
- of the Mesozoikum and this of the Känozoikum reaching
- up to the present.
Compared to 1 billion year behave the span of a human life like one second to 5 months.
history: absolute andrelative chronology
in history and related sciences gives it the distinction between absolute chronology and relative chronology. Here a temporal succession is meant as absolute with chronology (e.g. ) Applies for ruler lists, dendrochronologische succession, if it itself to thosePresent to tie up leaves; e.g. one knows by accurately dated fixed points, when before our time an element of this succession existed exactly. Thus now the whole succession can be absolutely dated. When relatively designated a chronology, if one events, findsetc. among themselves into a temporal succession to bring can, however during the age determination not to specify is, how long this succession before the present lay, since a being certain point of reference is missing to the present.
” see also “to calendar topics
- astronomical time calculation
- calendar date, a certain day of a monthly.
- Format of date, the form is fixed in writing in the one calendar date.
- Calendar (Julian calendar, Gregorian calendar), the definition of the timing of a yearly.
- off urbe condita - annuity of that(legendary) establishment of Rome at
- time measurement
- Era, Spanish era
- calendar, Jewish calendar, Christian calendar, Islamic calendar, Chinese calendar, v. and. Z., v. D. Z., v. Chr., n. and. Z., n. D.Z., n. Chr., Before Present
- Unixzeit, Julian date
Web on the left of
- some examples time calculation after-antique antique to the variant wealth and.
- WikiTimeScale, a Wiki for the diagram of historical events, etc.…
|Article to Chronology of mankind:|
|linear units of the time calculation||cyclic units of the time calculation|
|millenium||century||decade||year (calendar)||month||week||day (calendar)|
|starting from 10. Millenium v. Chr.||starting from 40. Century v. Chr.||starting from 390er v. Chr.||starting from 400v. Chr.||1. January to 31. December|
|further articles about time:|
|An overview of entire geologic history offers the geological time scale.|
|From the Big Bang to the emergence of the earth see early history of the universe.|
|For the units that Time measurement see: Second, minute, hour.|