All well-known cells,
with exception of some specialized cell types, certain components have cell (biology) together:
- Desoxyribonukleinsäuren (DNS, or English „deoxyribonucleic acid “, DNA), which the genetic information contained and which serves as structural drawing for the proteins, which steer all cell procedures,
- proteins,as structure proteins for the building of the cell or as enzymes for all metabolic processes or as signal proteins for communication of the cell, diaphragms,
- which distinguish the cell from their environment, when barrier function, are responsible, the contact with thatExternal world upright receive and more complex cells in different reaction areas, which divide Kompartimente so mentioned,
- Cytosol, which aqueous environment, in which the processes in the cell inside run off,
Cells have alsocommon fundamental abilities:
- them operate metabolisms: the admission of food molecules and trace elements, transformation of the Nahrungsstoffe in energy or in new cell components and the removal of waste products.
structure of the cell
- the Plasmalemma (or also the plasma membrane) is a thin Lipiddoppelschicht (diaphragm), which defines the Cytoplasma outward. The Plasmalemma leaves water by certain structures, so-called. Aquaporine, diffuse. Aquaporine are proteins (proteins),into the diaphragm layer are built and a water-permeable channel form. Water can diffuse thereby from the cell and into the cell. Other materials are controlled and transported selectively by certain structures (proteins) through. It becomes therefore as semipermeable =halfpermeable designates.
- The Cytoplasma is a colorless, slimy mass (similarly raw Eiklar). In the Cytoplasma all are embedded in the following cell components mentioned.
- The cell core is the Steuerzentrale of the cell. It contains the hereditary factors, i.e. control information, those in the Chromosomen asCousin sequences of the DNA are contained. It is from a double diaphragm over closed, which are formed from the Endoplasmati Retikulum. By pores in the core covering the core inside with the Cytoplasma stands in connection. These core pores are so large, macromoleculesthrough to step can.
- The Mitochondrien is the “power stations” of the cell. In them the oxidation of organic materials with O 2 takes place , whereby energy is set free and converted into another form of chemical energy ( than ATP). In sugars the storedEnergy is so again set free and can be used for the production of other materials, for example building materials.
- Golgi apparatuses (- bodies): The Golgi bodies manufacture secretions like oils, cell wall substances and Schleime.
- That Endoplasmati Retikulum (IT) is the fast transport system for chemical materials.
The cell surrounds
- and lends characteristics of vegetable cells the cell wall to the plant body firmness. It is permeable for water, solved nutrients and gases. It consists mainly of cellulose. With cellswith thick cell walls, by which materials are transported nevertheless, there are Tüpfel in the cell walls. Those are openings in the cell wall, by the neighbouring cells - only by a thin diaphragm separately - among themselves in contact andby those the exchange of materials is facilitated.
- The Chloroplasten contains the green coloring material chlorophyll and operates photosynthesis. The energy of the sunlight is converted caught (absorbed), into chemical energy in the form of grape sugar (glucose) andin the form of strength (Polyglucose) stored.
- The Vakuolen are cavities in the Cytoplasma, which can be filled with coloring materials, poison materials, odoriferous substances and others.
- The Tonoplast is a semipermeable diaphragm, which defines the Vakuole against the plasma.
Organization of a typical eukaryotischen animal cell.
1. Nukleolus. 2. Cell core (nucleus). 3. Ribosomen. 4. Vesicle. 5. Raues of Endoplasmati Reticulum (IT). 6. Golgi apparatus. 7. Mikrotubuli. 8. Smooth IT. 9. Mitochondrien. 10. Lysosom. 11. Zytoplasma. 12. Mikrobodies. 13. Zentriolen.
Web on the left of
- cell structure with Organellen - graphics