Central bank

a central bank or a central issuing bank is an institution, which is responsible for the execution of money and monetary policy of a currency area. Both one calls the institution and the responsible persons persons also currency guardians. There it both national andsupranational currency areas, are central banks give both on national level (US Federal reserve system, bank OF England, bank OF Japan etc.) and on supranational level (z. B. To find European central bank).

Central banks are usually national institutions and haveto certain extent sovereign tasks.

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history

issuing banks were original clearing banks, the notes publications. This were receipts for coined money, thatby the issuing banks in Verwahrung one took. The receipts were used as currencies. They gave the right to their owners to require of a bank obligated to it the publication of the appropriate quantity coined money at any time.

From this the requirement of the issuing banks developed,the notes by existence first of coins, spent by them to secure later at precious metals (gold, silver) to cover (covering obligation). With the time the quantity of paper money exceeded the quantity of coins and precious metals clearly. Therefore notes must todayin many countries no more by gold reserves of the issuing banks taken off its (abolition of the gold reserve obligation).

For instance since end 19. Century turned into the states to extract the right to the expenditure from notes from the different issuing banks of their country and onecentral issuing bank, the central bank of the country to transfer. This supplies for its part clearing banks via credits with notes. A first attempt already found in 18. Century instead of in England and then France.

With the establishment from central banks was often alsoa centralization of the monetary system and the creation of a uniform currency connected. Up to then the individual issuing banks had often spent their own currencies. In addition two examples: 1907 were established the Swiss central bank and Franconias as new currency imported in place ofseveral kantonalen issuing banks with own regional currencies. And 1998 the establishment of the European central bank and the creation of the Euros as new European currency carried out in place of the central banks of the individual countries and the national currencies.

Central bank for Germany is those German Federal Bank in Frankfurt/Main. It is responsible for supply of money and exchange in Germany. For mastering their tasks you are attached state central banks within Germany. The German Federal Bank superordinately the European central bank is, those likewise their seat inFrankfurt has. This is responsible for the supply of money within the European union and for the euro. For the international exchange of the central banks in Basel the bank for international clearing payment BIZ exists.

tasks

the possible fields of oneCentral bank can be

Depending upon currency area the tasks of the central banks differ partly substantially. An overview of the fields of the EZB is here.

instruments

over a whole set of instruments can take central banks influence on the economic development within and outside of the currency area. The articles give an overview of the different instruments to monetary policy, monetary policy and supervision of financial market.

central bank balance

active:

liabilities

  • circulation of money (<math> C< /math>)
  • clearing banks
  • insertsforeign institutions
  • inserts of the State of
  • other liabilities

influence of the State of

the central bank in the individual currency areas in different measure by governments and groups of interests one affects. The countries of the European union had in the apron of the introduction of the monetary uniontheir central banks into legal and actual independence dismisses. In the central bank statute of the European Union the independence of the EZB is guaranteed, even if it can lead to conflicts that the members of the presidency of the EZB will appoint by the European advice.

see also

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