Cigarette

a cigarette (franz. for small cigar) a tobacco product , which from the fermentierten , is dried and fine-cut sheets the tobacco - plant is manufactured, which are plugged or rolled in paper.

Zwei Zigaretten

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history

tobacco by Central American Indians in corn paper one rolled up and one smoked and from the Spanish Kolonisatoren in the middle 16. Century to Europe brought. 1586 were introduced the tobacco smoking into England and spread over Holland to completely Europe. Tobacco was otherwise mainly geschnupft. Cigarettes were made around 1850 for the first time in the cigar factories in France and south Spain of tobacco remainders. These were collected and wound in paper and smoked first particularly by the female workers of the factories, since they were very many more inexpensive than cigars. The first cigarette factory (eastern tobacco and Cigarettenfabrik Yenidze) was opened in Germany 1862 in Dresden, the first Austrian 1865. 1854 were already created in Cologne Sülz “engine works William Quester”, which first enterprises, which manufactured processing machines for cutting, drying and roasting tobacco. After the First World War those formed today well-known, large tobacco companies. In Germany outweighed to center 20. Century still the production in manual work in small and middle enterprises, while in the USA the machine production was common already further.

production

cigarette factory

the production of a cigarette in a cigarette factory is divided roughly into two ranges:

  • Tobacco preparation (Primary)
  • cigarette production, filter production (Secondary)

apart from these ranges, within which the individual components of a cigarette are manufactured and united, gives it naturally also ranges for the storage of raw materials and finished goods as well as a material store. A thought out logistics ensures for the fact that the raw materials and consumption materials always at the right time are at the correct plant/machine and the finished products arrive into the trade.

manual work

not insignificantly is also the production of cigarettes in manual work (colloquial: Tricks). In addition Feinschnittabak is rolled up loosely in Zigarettenpapier. This can happen either only with the hands or, if the Fingerfertigkeit is not sufficient, with simple cigarette centre lathes. Mostly rubberized Zigarettenpapier is moistened and stuck together to the conclusion with saliva. Projecting tobacco is abgezupft and supplied to the tobacco supply again. Usually one receives fine cut tobacco in 40-Gramm-Packungen. 25-Gramm-Packungen gives it however also.

sorts and marks

finished produced cigarettes are available in different strengths, which differ primarily by their nicotine content. The smoke of a cigarette may since 1. January 2004 in accordance with European Union - regulation according to standard measurement at the most 1.0 mg nicotine contain. Cigarettes starting from a value of 0,8 mg “fill Flavor” called. Besides there are medium (approx. 0.7 mg), lying cycle per second (approx. 0,4 - 0.6 mg) and super or Ultralight variants (0.4 mg and less).

The use of some of these terms for marketing purposes is forbidden in the European Union since 2003 (with the reason that expressions could be pointed like “Light” a health risk decreased of consumers as reference to). Therefore the cigarette manufacturers renamed their appropriate variants in non-uniform way: Thus it is called instead of fills Flavor partly “talks”, instead of Light frequently “Blue”, “Silver” or “Gentle Flavor” and instead of Superlight “One” or “NUMBER One”. The trend goes obviously ever more to smearing the old strength categories, since the consumer can differentiate these only over small printed indication of nicotine. Besides there are Varietäten of individual marks, which “fill Flavor” in the sense of “full in the taste” are (or to be applied at least in such a way), however smaller nicotine values to have.

Since nicotine of the main craze is producing contents material of the cigarette smoke (around its will thus one smokes), remains nevertheless the nicotine content the most important differentiation characteristic. It is considered however as proven that the nicotine quantity actually arriving at the consumer is affected crucially by the smoke behavior: Thus smokers are inclined with lying cycle per second cigarettes to deeper Inhalieren, in order to be able to absorb more nicotines. Besides fill Flavor smokers feel the “need” according to the consumption of a lying cycle per second cigarette often still further after nicotine, why the desire for a cigarette remains.

Isolated the Varietäten differs by those the cigarettes buried flavours; here is of Mentholzigaretten to be thought in particular, in addition, of specialities such as vanilla or carnation cigarettes (Kretek).

Nowadays cigarettes from blond tobacco mixtures, z enjoy the by far largest market share. B. the American in such a way specified dazzle, a mixture from 60% Virginia, 30% Burley and 10% Orienttabak. Cigarettes from black tobaccos have smaller and further decreasing market meaning.

Usually cigarettes with filter are offered, more rarely without. The filter of a cigarette consists of Celluloseacetat, a material with fibrous structure. This cigarette filter causes a partial mechanical restraint of particles and alkaloids (z. B. Nicotine) from the tobacco smoke. Additionally the mouthpiece can an activated charcoal filter contain and/or for taste refinement be gesüsst.

The usual length of a cigarette is called King Size and amounts to 74 - 85 mm. Besides there is excess length (100 mm, 120 mm), in addition, shorter 70-mm-Zigaretten. The latters are to be found for instance in Eastern Europe and North Africa still frequently.

Due to lower taxation the market for non--finished cigarettes, with rising tendency has special meaning in Germany. By this first of all the classical author turning tobacco, thus fine cut , falls which is only converted by the consumer by separately bought Zigarettenpapier and possibly rotary filters to cigarettes. As the newer variant so-called tobacco sticks (vorportionierter fine cut) are offered. These have already a covering of paper, are however thus smokable and do not have into a cigarette covering to be pushed in only manually. After a judgement of the European Court of Justice of 10. November 2005, the so-called tobacco sticks must be taxed however in the future like finished cigarettes.

Likewise for reasons of the smaller tax and the thus smaller price there are cigarette-large filters zigarillos, which can be consumed like cigarettes to buy in Germany for some years.

The world-wide largest cigarette manufacturer is the Altria Group (in former times Philip Morris) with marks such as Marlboro, Merit, Chesterfield and many different.

contents contents of

the natural tobacco are added during the production a multiplicity of materials. Also in Zigarettenpapier additional chemicals put. Beyond that many further substances, which are in the tobacco smoke, result only from the Verbrennungsvorgang.

those are to the tobacco

added materials a large number of additives according to data of the tobacco companies for taste improvement, to damp stops, for conserving and for binding the components to be used at the disposal, [1]. Some these materials have however beyond that characteristics, which make the tobacco smoke and which Suchtpotenzial continue to increase still bearable for children [2]:

of the tobacco smoke major item can

be inhaliert: Tobacco smoke

in the smoke (average) of a cigarette are over 3000 different connections, under it:

** 14-23
mg of nitrogen oxides **
0.1-0.6 mg butadiene *
0.025-0.04 mg benzene *
0.012-0.05 mg formaldehyde **
0.02-0.1 mg acetaldehyde *
** 0.4-1.4 mg methanol
** 0.08-0.18 mg prussic acid **
1.3 mg nicotine **
1-3 mg Polyzykli aromatic
hydrocarbons * 0.0001-0.00025 mg
aromatic Amine* 0.00025 mg N-Nitrosamine* 0.00034-0.0027
mg * karzinogene connections
, ** toxic
connections acetaldehyde a look for-producing effect with
the burn of sugar and has like nicotine [3] develops for connections concentrations carbon dioxide 45-65 mg Carbon monoxide.

nicotine craze

Eine brennende Zigarette
belongs to health dangers

a burning cigarette the alkaloid nicotine to the fastest addicted making substances at all and causes. Smoking cigarettes can lead to heavy health damage or early death; it is and. A. a secured cause of cancer of the lungs, laryngeal, mouth and bronchial tube cancer as well as heart illnesses. About each fourth smoker dies at the consequences of his craze, annually is that approx. 110,000 humans in Germany. The health endangerment by smoking is treated in detail in the article tobacco smoking, the material causes in the article tobacco smoke.

spreading of smoking cigarettes

pro head consumption in Germany was 1936 with 571 cigarettes, 1966 with 2214.

Smokers of cigarettes were predominant very long time men. In the last years and decades it is to be observed however that also ever to the cigarette seize more women. The health dangers, which result for women from smoking, are even still higher than with men. So far the differences in the frequency and number of deaths of cancer of the lungs, existing between men and women, adapt themselves by a superproportional rise with the women increasingly. Scientists see the causes for „the Aufholen “of the women in the fact that smoking is still regarded as an indication of the maleness and therefore as emancipatory action.

In Germany the portion of the juvenile smokers particularly is high and lies with approx. 30 per cent. The average entrance age for the cigarette smoking in Germany is according to newest studies about 11.6 years. In no country as many cigarette automats are as in Germany, which makes age control more difficult naturally substantially. In Switzerland it is similar. There 38% of the 15 - to 24-Jährigen smokers are. With increasing age the portion sinks.

In California however the percentage of the juvenile smokers lies with approximately 8, which is attributed to the fact that smoking is socially less accepted there than in Europe.

A resolution of the European Union ministers of health prescribes since 2004 that within the European Union on the cigarette packings larger and more urgent warning references than before, as for instance „smoking can be deadly “, „smoking leaves your skin to age “or also „smoking can to lead to a slow and painful death “, have to be imprinted. Also pictures are planned by smoker lungs and tumors, with which a deterring effect is to be obtained. In Switzerland these references were inconspicuous and with less provocative references laid on (“smoking endangers your health”), are however the references in the European Union adapted since 1.12.2005.

the tax portion constitutes 2006 scarcely 75 per cent of the price of a packing cigarettes.

cigarette advertisement

into the 1930er and the 1940er years reached the cigarette pictures in Germany a million-public and the tobacco enterprises were present by informative and aufwändig arranged collecting albums to many topics in nearly all living and children's rooms of the German Reich.

In the radio and television of the German Federal Republic cigarettes may do 18 since that. June 1974 not to be no more applied. Also into the next years a European Union-far cigarette advertising prohibition for cinemas, newspapers and magazines will reach. Of it also the Sponsoring becomes z. B. affected by Formel-1-Rennen its. The advertising economy is afraid substantial income losses. The Federal Government, both the Kohl - and the Schröder - government, tried to proceed in Brussels in vain against the advertising prohibition.

Due to the advertising prohibitions already valid in many countries it is to be observed that the tobacco companies seize to substitutes, in order to go around the official prohibition. Thus strengthened “special editions” of the cigarette boxes brought on the market, which have (limited) an advertising effect, however no advertisement in the traditional sense to represent. Sponsoring prohibitions are gone around frequently by the fact that running cars or - motorcycles are graphically strongly ajar against the cigarette mark concerned, without the label name emerges (examples: “Go!!!” white on blue reason “Biaggi stands in Camel for Gauloises , - character type, “team mirror-image-guessed/advised” in mildly Seven character type). A further gap by advertising prohibitions is to be often found in Tabakläden: If tobacco companies money pay for the fact that its marks are issued remarkably in special displays, then that is considered not necessarily as advertisement. Also, z become last. B. in France, matches and other smoker implements with the Markenlogo of the cigarette manufacturer applied.

see also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Cigarette - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Cigarette - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

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