Zinc

of these articles treats the chemical element zinc. For further meanings of the term zinc see zinc (term clarifying).


Characteristics
copper - zinc - gallium
Zn
CD

[acre] 3d 10 4s 2
64
30
Zn

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generally
name, symbol, ordinal number zinc, Zn, 30
series of transition metals
group, period, block 12, 4, D
appearance bluish pale-grey
proportion at the Earth's shell 0.01%
atomically
atomic mass 65.409
atomic radius (computed) 135 (142) pm
Kovalenter radius 131 pm
van the Waals radius 139 pm
Elektronenkonfiguration [acre] 3d 10 4s 2
electrons per energy level 2, 8, 18, 2
1. Ionization energy 906.4 kJ/mol
2. Ionization energy 1733.3 kJ/mol
3. Ionization energy 3833 kJ/mol
4. Ionization energy 5731 kJ/mol
physically
state of aggregation firmly
crystal structure hexagonally
density (Mohshärte) 7140 kg/m 3 (2,5)
magnetism dia.-magnetically
melting point 692.68 K (419.5 °C)
boiling point 1180 K (907 °C)
molecular volume 9,16 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol
heat of vaporization 115,3 kJ/mol
heat of fusion 7.322 kJ/mol
steam pressure 192.2 Pa with 692,73 K
speed of sound 3700 m/s with 293,15 K
specific thermal capacity 390 j (kg · K)
Electrical conductivity 16,6 · 10 6 /m S /m
heat conductivity 116 w (m · K)
Chemically
oxidation conditions 2
Oxides (basicity) (amphoter)
normal potential -0.762 V (Zn 2+ + 2e - → Zn)
Elektronegativität 1.65 (Pauling scale)
isotopes
Isotope NH t 1/2 ZM CPU M eV ZP
62 Zn {syn.} 9.186 h ε 1.627 62 cu
63Zn {syn.} 38.47 min ε 3.367 63 cu
64 Zn 48.6% Zn 65 Zn are stable {
syn. with 34 neutrons} 244.26 D ε 1.352 65 cu
66 Zn 27.9% Zn 67 Zn are stable with
36 neutrons 4.1% Zn is stably with 37 neutrons
68 Zn 18.8% Zn is stably with 38 neutrons
69 Zn {syn.} 56.4 min β - 0.906 69 Ga
70 Zn 0.6% Zn 71 Zn are stable with
40 neutrons {syn.} 2.45 min β - 2.813 71 Ga
72 Zn {syn.} 46.5 h β - 0.458 72 Ga
NMR characteristics
67 Zn
nuclear spin 5/2
gamma wheel/T 1,673 · 10 7
sensitivity 0.00285
Larmorfrequenz with B = 4.7 T 12,5 M cycles per second
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Zinc is a chemical element. It is a bluish-white metal and becomes among other things galvanizing iron andAs well as steal-hurry for rainwater gutters used. The name zinc comes from Zinke, Zind „tooth, point/tooth “, since zinc solidifies zackenförmig.

Table of contents

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occurrences zinc in the following ores:

  • Zinc blende (ZnS): Zinc sulfur connection with approx. 65% zinc portion.
  • Zinkspat (ZnCO 3): Zinkkarbonat, also Galmei with approx. 50% zinc portion

of Zinkerze are diminished mainly in the following countries: People's Republic of China, Peru, Australia, Canada, the USA, Japan and South Africa. In Europe still some zinc mines in Ireland , Poland , Finland and Bulgaria are active. Furthermore still Spain and Sweden are to be called.

Also in Germanythere was zinc ore stores z. B. with Eschweiler in the Rhine country or at the Rammelsberg in the resin. Aboveground one can find rare plants, which grow z on zinkhaltigen soils particularly well - in these areas. B. the yellow Galmeiveilchen, afterthe old name for Zinkerz Galmei is designated.

Three Zinkhütten stood in 19. Century in Eschweiler.

the largest promotion nations

The most important promotion nations for zinc China is followed, of Peru and Australia. In Europe are Ireland, Poland, to call Finland and Bulgaria as zinc producers.

The largest promotion nations world-wide (2003)
source: Trade paper - the world in figures (2005);
*Daten for the USA in accordance with Fischer world yearbook (2006) supplement
rank country deliveries
(in Tsd. t)
Country struggled deliveries
(in Tsd. t)
1 China 2.200 11 Poland 181
2 Peru 1.373 12 Bolivia 145
3 Australia 1.355 13 Brazil 135
4 Canada 744 14 Morocco 90
The 5 USA * 738 15 Iran 80
6 Mexico 412 16 Namibia 45
7 India 294 17 Japan 42
8 Ireland 280 18 Honduras 34
9 Russian Föd. 268 19 North Korea 32
10 Kazakhstan 250 20 Finland & Bulgaria ever 31


See also:

production

zinc blende becomes in the reverberatory furnace, Zinkspatconverted in the shaft furnace into zinc oxide. With coal one mixes in a Muffelofen with approx. 1.400°C reduces, the vaporous hut or Rohzink (98%) develops. After the condensation it is poured in forms. By repeated Umschmelzen the zinc oxide with sulfuric acid becomesconverted to zinc sulfate. In the electrolysis procedure from it fine zinc (99.99%) is won.

zinc

forms characteristics at air a weather-proof protective layer from Zinkkarbonat. At the break it is silver white. Zinc is brittle at room temperature and above 200°C, it leaves itselfdeform only between 100°C and 200°C non-cutting.

Usually zinc in its connections in the Oxidationsstufe +II , in the salts is present is present it as Zn 2+ . Several salts bind crystal waters.

Chemically zinc ranks among the unedlen metals.This can be used for example to separate nobler metals from their salts by reduction elementarily:

<math> \ mathrm {CuCl_2 \ cdot2H_2O + Zn \ rightarrow cu + ZnCl_2 + 2H_2O}< /math>

Zn delivers two electrons and to Zn 2+ is oxidized (redox potential -0.763 V).Cu 2+ takes up these electrons and to elementary copper (cu) is reduced.

In individual cases the term seems „to zinc “also in names. Originally this surname comes from zinc-processing overseas trading stations to beginning of the late Middle Ages.

In order to prove zinc, one heats upa zinc connection with approx. two drops of diluted cobalt nitrate solution on a magnesia gutter in the Bunsen burner. On the gutter is to be recognized after short time the so-called Rinmanns green.

use

zinc is used frequently for production by economical cast parts, therethe die-cast zinc the fast manufacturing of large numbers of items of most different products permits. Further advantages of this material in the die-cast zinc procedure are high accuracy to size, suitability to different surface treatments as well as the high mechanical maximum stress. The spectrum of applications is enough from the Kfz industry, the machine andApparatus engineering, building fitting, sanitary industry, the fine equipment and electro-technology up to utensils and toys.

In the roofer and plumber handicraft titanium zinc is usually used, which is mechanically clearly more stable.

rust protection

the unedle character of the zinc becomes also with Rust protection by galvanizing used. The zinc coating forms an electro-chemical local cell with the iron. Since zinc has a lower redox potential than iron, one oxidizes under oxidizing conditions (mostly O 2 and H 2 O) more easily than iron. With thisRust protection becomes the zinc slowly Zn 2+ - ions oxidized and thus uses. For the rust protection effect it is not necessary that the entire piece of iron is galvanized. It hands a sacrificial anode in such a way specified, which must be exchanged however regularly. Throughthe low boiling point of 907 degrees the zinc can be recovered when melting galvanized Eisenschrott again.


zinc coal battery

due to the low redox potential and the simple mouldability becomes zinc also as negative electrode in galvanic cells, for exampleZinc coal mono cells assigned, of which also dry batteries are composed.

biological meaning

food, which zinc contain

zinc ranks among the essential trace elements for the metabolism of organisms. It is a component of several enzymes, for example the RNA polymerase and that Glutathionperoxidase.

Zinc fulfills many different functions in the body. Thus it takes key roles in the sugar, fat and protein metabolism and is involved in the structure of the hereditary substance and with cell growth. Both the immune system and many hormones need zincfor their function. An important role plays it with the Wundheilung. The trace element cannot be stored in the body, it must be supplied regularly from the outside. Due to wrong nourishing habits lack of zinc is also in western countries pretty often, in particularYoung person, which particularly need much zinc due to growth.

2005 a study presented to a conference of the American society for nourishing sciences in San Diego point on the fact that children, who receive daily sufficiently zinc (20 Milligramm), a clear improvementthe mental efficiency experience. Zinc improved the visual memory, the achievements in a word identification test and the concentration ability.

Zinc is beside Vitamin C also an important flu means, whose krankheitslindernde and - shortening effect in studies could be proven. Lack of zinc suppliesa subfunction of the gonads, growth ton run gene and blood poverty.

The following food is good sources of zinc:

see also: Hereditäres syndrome of lack of zinc

important connections

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Commons: Zinc - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Zinc - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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