|of these articles describes the metal tin. For further meanings of this term see tin (term clarifying).|
Tin (old-Germanic designation: z. B. old-high-German zin = staff, tin) is a chemical element in the periodic system of the elements with the symbol SN(lat. stannum = tin) and the ordinal number 50. It is a silver-white shining and very soft heavy metal, which can be cut with the fingernail. Its low melting point and the relatively high boiling temperature are remarkable.
|name, symbol, ordinal number||tin, SN, 50|
|group, Period, block||14 (IVA), 5, p|
|appearance||silvery shining grey|
|proportion at the Earth's shell||3 · 10 -3 %|
|atomic radius (computed)||145 (145) pm|
|Kovalenter radius||141 pm|
|van the Waals radius||217 pm|
|Elektronenkonfiguration||[Kr] 4 D 10 5 s 2 5p 2|
|electrons per energy level||of 2, 8, 18, 18, 4|
|oxidation conditions (oxides)||4, 2 (more amphoter)|
|normal potential||-0.138 V (SN 2+ + 2e - → SN)|
|Elektronegativität||1,96 (Pauling scale)|
|electron affinity||4.38 eV|
|1. Ionization energy||708.6 kJ/mol|
|2. Ionization energy||1411.8 kJ/mol|
|3. Ionization energy||2943.0 kJ/mol|
|4. Ionization energy||3930.3 kJ/mol|
|5. Ionization energy||7456 kJ/mol|
|state of aggregation (magnetism)||firmly|
|density (Mohshärte)||7310 kg/m 3 (1,5)|
|melting point||505.08 K (231.93 ° C)|
|boiling point||2875 K (2602 °C)|
|molecular volume||16,29 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol|
|heat of vaporization||295.8 kJ/mol|
|heat of fusion||7.029 kJ/mol|
|steam pressure||5,78 · 10,-21 Pa with 505 K|
|speed of sound||2500 m/s with 293,15 K|
|specific thermal capacity||228 j (kg · K)|
|Electrical conductivity||9,17 · 10 6 S /m|
|heat conductivity||66.6 w (m · K)|
| as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.|
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.
Table of contents
the metal is supposed since 3500 v. Chr.admits; however became insouthTurkish Taurus mountains discovers the Zinnbergwerk Kestel and the tin processing place Göltepe, which on approximately 3000 v. Chr. one dates. By the alloy bronze, whose components are copper and tin, is it of great importance (Bronzezeit). The Roman writer Pliniustin called as plumbum album (white lead; on the other hand lead - plumbum nigrum). In latin tin is called “stannum”, therefore also the chem. agitates. Symbol SN. After the bronze was displaced by the iron, attained in the middle 19. Century tin throughthe production of tinplate industrielle meaning.
production and occurrence
tin can be won easily from Zinnstein (Kassiterit, red-brown/ black ore also tin oxide, SnO 2). In addition the ore is first cut up and then by differentProcedure (mix into a paste with, electrical/magnetic divorce) enriched. After the reduction with carbon the tin is heated up scarcely over its fusing temperature, so that it can flow off without higher-melting impurities. Today one wins a majority here by recycling and by electrolysis.
In that Earth's crust is represented it with a portion of approximately 0.0035 mass per cent.
According to current estimations existing stores hand still about 35 years. Tin occurs too over 80% as accumulation in washing land deposits (secondary stores) at rivers as well as on the sea-bottom. Herea region is beginning in central China over Thailand until Indonesia preferentially. The material in washing land stores has only one metal portion of approximately 5%. Only after different steps for concentration on approximately 75% a fusion process is used.
The largest promotion nations
the most important promotion nations for tin China is followed, of Peru and Bolivia. In Europe Portugal and Spain are to be called as largest tin producers.
|rank||country|| Deliveries |
|rank||country|| deliveries |
|2||Peru||40202||12||the Congo, that. Rep.||900|
- Industry - the largest producers of: Fertilizer, iron, artificial fibers, paper, steel, cement
- mining industry - the largest promotion nations of: Bauxite, lead, iron ore, diamond, gold, copper, platinum, silver, zinc, tin
tin can accept three modifications with different crystal structure and density. Α-tin (cubic lattice, 5.75 g/cm 3) is stable below 13,2 °C, β-tin (tetragonal lattice, 7.31 g/cm 3) to 162 °C and γ-tin(rhombic lattice, 6.54 g/cm 3) above 162 °C or under high pressure. Natural tin consists that of ten different sturdy isotopes, is the largest number of all elements. In addition 28 radioactive isotopes are well-known.
When bending the relatively soft tin, for example of tin seaweeds, a characteristic noise, the “Zinngeschrei” (also “Zinnschrei”) arises. It results from the frictionthe β-crystallites together. The β-tin has flattened tetrahedrons as room module structure, from which additionally two connections are formed.
as proof reaction for Zinnsalze is accomplished the shining sample: The solution is with 20% HCl and zinc powders to transferred - it develops for hydrogen (nascently, atomically - good reducing agent). Into this solutiona test tube immerse, which is filled with cold water. In the dark one into the nonluminous Bunsen burner flame hold. After short time typical blue fluorescence results, from the gas Stannan with presence caused by SN.
Metallic tin is actually innocuous even in larger quantities. The poison effect of simple tin connections and salts is small. Some organic tin connections against it are highly toxic. The tri alkyl tin connections (in particular TBT, English. „T ri b utyl t in “, Tributylzinn) and Triphenylzinnin paint for ships are used, in order to kill the micro organisms and shells settling at the hulls. Thus it comes in the environment from large ports to high concentrations at TBT in the sea water. The toxic effect is based on denaturingsome proteins by the reciprocal effect of the sulfur from amino acids for example Cystein.
for centuries is used Zinnblech wide for the production of organ pipes in the range of vision. These keep their silvery color over many decades. The soft metal becomes asAlloy used and has very good vibration-absorbing characteristics for the sound development. To low temperatures are harmful because of the transformation in α-tin for organ pipes. Many household effects, Geschirre, tubes and doses were manufactured completely in former times from tin, approximately the simpler processing technologythe time accordingly. Meanwhile however the relatively precious material was usually replaced by more inexpensive possibilities. Ziergegenstände and costume jewelry become further from tin alloys, hard tin and/or. Britanniametall manufactured. Industrially one makes tinplate so mentioned of tinned iron sheet metal , for example for cans or baking tins. Tin, the English word for box and/or. Can is related to the word tin. To thin foil rolled one calls it also Stanniol, here is tin in 20. Century displaced by much more inexpensive aluminum.With some Farbtuben and wine bottle catches tin still comes to meet us.
As a component ofMetal alloys with low melting point it is irreplaceable.Weichlot (so genanntes "Lötzinn") zur Verbindung elektronischer Bauteile (beispielsweise auf Leiterplatten) wird mit Blei(eine typische Mischung ist etwa 63% Sn und 37% Pb) und anderen Metallen in geringerem Anteilalloyed. The mixture melts with approximately 183 °C. In the floating glass production the viscous frit up to the solidification on a mirror-smooth liquid tin melt swims. In the modern industry tin connections are added to PVC plastic as stabilizer. Highly pure tin of single crystals is suitablealso to the production of electronic construction units.
In form transparent tin oxide Indium oxide of a connection it is electrical conductor in indicators such as process card displays. The pure, white, not very hard Zinndioxid possesses a high refraction of light and becomes within the optical range and as mildPolishing agent assigned. In the dental technology tin is used also as a component from Amalgamen to the filling. The very toxic organic tin connections find as fungicides or disinfectant use.
The yearly world consumption at tin is with approximately 300,000 t. Of it become about 35% for Plumb bobs, about 30% used for tinplate and about 30% for chemicals and pigments. By the conversion of the tin lead plumb bobs to lead free plumb bobs with tin portions > 95% will grow the annual need by approximately 10%. The prices rise by the highDemand continuously. In the year 2003 at the LME (London Metal Exchanges) about 5,000 US Dollar per ton were paid. 2004 layer the prices in the meantime with approximately 8,000 to 10,000 US Dollar per ton. The largest 10 tin consumers (2003) are world-wide to Chinaat place 1 the countries the USA, Japan, Germany, remaining Europe, Korea, remaining Asia, Taiwan, Great Britain and France.
Stannum metallicum (= metallic tin) finds also with the production of homöopathischen medicaments use.
Under the designation Argentin was used Zinnpulver in former times for the production of false Silberpapier and false Silberfolie.
tin (SN): A silver is white shining metal and has an oxide coating opposite chemicals is very stable. SNcan be rolled out well and occurs in 2 modifications.
Modification: The alpha is - SN. This develops only under 13 °C and is pulvrig.
Modification: The beta is - SN. This is stable only over 13 °C.
- Indium tin oxide
- to the historical tin dismantling in the ore mountains see Plattner Kunstgraben#Der tin dismantling
Web on the left of
|Commons: Tin - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Tin - word origin, synonyms and translations|
to the Montangeschichte
 K.A. Yener, A. Adriaens, B. Earl, H. Özbal, Analyses OF Metalliferous Residues, Crucible of fragment, experimental Smelts, and Ores from Kestel Tin mine and the Tin processing Site OF Göltepe, door key, in: P.T. Craddock, J. Long (Eds.), Mining and MetalProduction Through The Ages, The British museum press, London, 2003, pp. 181-197.