of these articles describes the metal tin. For further meanings of this term see tin (term clarifying).

Tin (old-Germanic designation: z. B. old-high-German zin = staff, tin) is a chemical element in the periodic system of the elements with the symbol SN(lat. stannum = tin) and the ordinal number 50. It is a silver-white shining and very soft heavy metal, which can be cut with the fingernail. Its low melting point and the relatively high boiling temperature are remarkable.

Indium - tin - Antimony

[Kr] 4d 10 5s 2 5p 2

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name, symbol, ordinal number tin, SN, 50
series of metals
group, Period, block 14 (IVA), 5, p
appearance silvery shining grey
proportion at the Earth's shell 3 · 10 -3 %
atomic mass 118.710
atomic radius (computed) 145 (145) pm
Kovalenter radius 141 pm
van the Waals radius 217 pm
Elektronenkonfiguration [Kr] 4 D 10 5 s 2 5p 2
electrons per energy level of 2, 8, 18, 18, 4
oxidation conditions (oxides) 4, 2 (more amphoter)
normal potential -0.138 V (SN 2+ + 2e - → SN)
Elektronegativität 1,96 (Pauling scale)
electron affinity 4.38 eV
1. Ionization energy 708.6 kJ/mol
2. Ionization energy 1411.8 kJ/mol
3. Ionization energy 2943.0 kJ/mol
4. Ionization energy 3930.3 kJ/mol
5. Ionization energy 7456 kJ/mol
state of aggregation (magnetism) firmly
crystal structure tetragonally
density (Mohshärte) 7310 kg/m 3 (1,5)
melting point 505.08 K (231.93 ° C)
boiling point 2875 K (2602 °C)
molecular volume 16,29 · 10 -6 m 3 /mol
heat of vaporization 295.8 kJ/mol
heat of fusion 7.029 kJ/mol
steam pressure 5,78 · 10,-21 Pa with 505 K
speed of sound 2500 m/s with 293,15 K
specific thermal capacity 228 j (kg · K)
Electrical conductivity 9,17 · 10 6 S /m
heat conductivity 66.6 w (m · K)
Isotope NH t 1/2 ZM CPU M eV ZP
110 SN {syn.} 4.11 h ε 0.638 110 in
111 SN {syn.} 35.3 min ε 2.445 111 in
112 SN 0.97% SN is stable with 62 neutrons
113 SN {syn.} 115.09 D ε 1.036 113 in
114 SN 0.65% SN is stably also64 neutrons
115 SN 0.34% SN 116 SN 14.54% SN are
stable are stably with 66 neutrons 117 SN 7.68%
SN are stably with 67 neutrons 118 SN 24.23%
SN are stably also with 65 neutrons68 neutrons
119 SN 8.59% SN 120 SN 32.59% SN are
stable are stably with 70 neutrons 121 SN {
syn. with 69 neutrons} 27.6 h β - 0.388 121 self-service
121 m SN {syn.} 55 A IT
121 SN
121 self-service
122 SN 4.63% SN 123 SN are stable {
syn. with 72 neutrons} 129.2 D β - 1.404 123 self-service
124 SN 5.79% SN 125 SN are stable {
syn. with 74 neutrons} 9.64 D β - 2.364 125 self-service
126 SN {syn.} ~100000 A β - 0.380 126 self-service
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs.
If not differently notes,
the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

Table of contents


the metal is supposed since 3500 v. Chr.admits; however became insouthTurkish Taurus mountains discovers the Zinnbergwerk Kestel and the tin processing place Göltepe, which on approximately 3000 v. Chr. one dates. By the alloy bronze, whose components are copper and tin, is it of great importance (Bronzezeit). The Roman writer Pliniustin called as plumbum album (white lead; on the other hand lead - plumbum nigrum). In latin tin is called “stannum”, therefore also the chem. agitates. Symbol SN. After the bronze was displaced by the iron, attained in the middle 19. Century tin throughthe production of tinplate industrielle meaning.

production and occurrence

tin can be won easily from Zinnstein (Kassiterit, red-brown/ black ore also tin oxide, SnO 2). In addition the ore is first cut up and then by differentProcedure (mix into a paste with, electrical/magnetic divorce) enriched. After the reduction with carbon the tin is heated up scarcely over its fusing temperature, so that it can flow off without higher-melting impurities. Today one wins a majority here by recycling and by electrolysis.

In that Earth's crust is represented it with a portion of approximately 0.0035 mass per cent.

According to current estimations existing stores hand still about 35 years. Tin occurs too over 80% as accumulation in washing land deposits (secondary stores) at rivers as well as on the sea-bottom. Herea region is beginning in central China over Thailand until Indonesia preferentially. The material in washing land stores has only one metal portion of approximately 5%. Only after different steps for concentration on approximately 75% a fusion process is used.

The largest promotion nations

the most important promotion nations for tin China is followed, of Peru and Bolivia. In Europe Portugal and Spain are to be called as largest tin producers.

The largest promotion nations world-wide (2003)
source: Trade paper the world in figures (2005)
rank country Deliveries
(in t)
rank country deliveries
(in t)
1 China 55600 11 Thailand 980
2 Peru 40202 12 the Congo, that. Rep. 900
3 Bolivia 16754 13 Rwanda 427
4 Brazil 13800 14 Laos 360
5 Indonesia 10656 15 Portugal 218
6 Russian Föd. 7200 16 Myanmar 190
7 Viet Nam 4600 17 India 54
8 Malaysia 3359 18 Mexico 21
9 Australia 1465 19 the Niger 17
10 Nigeria 1300 20 Spain 4

see also:



tin can accept three modifications with different crystal structure and density. Α-tin (cubic lattice, 5.75 g/cm 3) is stable below 13,2 °C, β-tin (tetragonal lattice, 7.31 g/cm 3) to 162 °C and γ-tin(rhombic lattice, 6.54 g/cm 3) above 162 °C or under high pressure. Natural tin consists that of ten different sturdy isotopes, is the largest number of all elements. In addition 28 radioactive isotopes are well-known.

The recrystallisation of β-tin in α-tin at low temperatures expresses itself as the tin pest in such a way specified.

When bending the relatively soft tin, for example of tin seaweeds, a characteristic noise, the “Zinngeschrei” (also “Zinnschrei”) arises. It results from the frictionthe β-crystallites together. The β-tin has flattened tetrahedrons as room module structure, from which additionally two connections are formed.

By the oxide coating, with the tins, is very steady it becomes encrusted. From concentrated acids and Basen it becomes howeverunder development of hydrogen gas decomposes.


as proof reaction for Zinnsalze is accomplished the shining sample: The solution is with 20% HCl and zinc powders to transferred - it develops for hydrogen (nascently, atomically - good reducing agent). Into this solutiona test tube immerse, which is filled with cold water. In the dark one into the nonluminous Bunsen burner flame hold. After short time typical blue fluorescence results, from the gas Stannan with presence caused by SN.

biological effect

Metallic tin is actually innocuous even in larger quantities. The poison effect of simple tin connections and salts is small. Some organic tin connections against it are highly toxic. The tri alkyl tin connections (in particular TBT, English. „T ri b utyl t in “, Tributylzinn) and Triphenylzinnin paint for ships are used, in order to kill the micro organisms and shells settling at the hulls. Thus it comes in the environment from large ports to high concentrations at TBT in the sea water. The toxic effect is based on denaturingsome proteins by the reciprocal effect of the sulfur from amino acids for example Cystein.


for centuries is used Zinnblech wide for the production of organ pipes in the range of vision. These keep their silvery color over many decades. The soft metal becomes asAlloy used and has very good vibration-absorbing characteristics for the sound development. To low temperatures are harmful because of the transformation in α-tin for organ pipes. Many household effects, Geschirre, tubes and doses were manufactured completely in former times from tin, approximately the simpler processing technologythe time accordingly. Meanwhile however the relatively precious material was usually replaced by more inexpensive possibilities. Ziergegenstände and costume jewelry become further from tin alloys, hard tin and/or. Britanniametall manufactured. Industrially one makes tinplate so mentioned of tinned iron sheet metal , for example for cans or baking tins. Tin, the English word for box and/or. Can is related to the word tin. To thin foil rolled one calls it also Stanniol, here is tin in 20. Century displaced by much more inexpensive aluminum.With some Farbtuben and wine bottle catches tin still comes to meet us.

As alloying constituent tin is used variously, alloyed with copper for bronze or other materials. Nordi gold, the alloy of the gold-colored euro coins, contains among other things 1% tin.

As a component ofMetal alloys with low melting point it is irreplaceable.Weichlot (so genanntes "Lötzinn") zur Verbindung elektronischer Bauteile (beispielsweise auf Leiterplatten) wird mit Blei(eine typische Mischung ist etwa 63% Sn und 37% Pb) und anderen Metallen in geringerem Anteilalloyed. The mixture melts with approximately 183 °C. In the floating glass production the viscous frit up to the solidification on a mirror-smooth liquid tin melt swims. In the modern industry tin connections are added to PVC plastic as stabilizer. Highly pure tin of single crystals is suitablealso to the production of electronic construction units.

In form transparent tin oxide Indium oxide of a connection it is electrical conductor in indicators such as process card displays. The pure, white, not very hard Zinndioxid possesses a high refraction of light and becomes within the optical range and as mildPolishing agent assigned. In the dental technology tin is used also as a component from Amalgamen to the filling. The very toxic organic tin connections find as fungicides or disinfectant use.

The yearly world consumption at tin is with approximately 300,000 t. Of it become about 35% for Plumb bobs, about 30% used for tinplate and about 30% for chemicals and pigments. By the conversion of the tin lead plumb bobs to lead free plumb bobs with tin portions > 95% will grow the annual need by approximately 10%. The prices rise by the highDemand continuously. In the year 2003 at the LME (London Metal Exchanges) about 5,000 US Dollar per ton were paid. 2004 layer the prices in the meantime with approximately 8,000 to 10,000 US Dollar per ton. The largest 10 tin consumers (2003) are world-wide to Chinaat place 1 the countries the USA, Japan, Germany, remaining Europe, Korea, remaining Asia, Taiwan, Great Britain and France.

Tin is used in place of lead also for the lead pouring.

Stannum metallicum (= metallic tin) finds also with the production of homöopathischen medicaments use.

Under the designation Argentin was used Zinnpulver in former times for the production of false Silberpapier and false Silberfolie.



tin (SN): A silver is white shining metal and has an oxide coating opposite chemicals is very stable. SNcan be rolled out well and occurs in 2 modifications.

Modification: The alpha is - SN. This develops only under 13 °C and is pulvrig.

Modification: The beta is - SN. This is stable only over 13 °C.

Work on []

See also

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to the Montangeschichte

[1] K.A. Yener, A. Adriaens, B. Earl, H. Özbal, Analyses OF Metalliferous Residues, Crucible of fragment, experimental Smelts, and Ores from Kestel Tin mine and the Tin processing Site OF Göltepe, door key, in: P.T. Craddock, J. Long (Eds.), Mining and MetalProduction Through The Ages, The British museum press, London, 2003, pp. 181-197.


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