of the Zionismus (of Zion) is one during the second half 19. Century developed Jewish national - movement, which used itself for the emergence of its own Jewish state in Palestine. The term became 1890 of the Jewish Viennese journalist Nathan Birnbaum coined/shaped.
The Zionismus developed among the Jews in the European Diaspora. He sees himself common as the modern form of the millenium-old Jewish dream of liberty and his own state in the country Israel, to all Jewbelong and to be fairly distributed should. This idea gave it already in the Jewish community, since the Roman realm destroyed the country Judäa before approximately 1900 years. Their origins go up to the beginnings of the people Israel in the Bible back (see. Genesis 12, 3).
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roots of the Zionismus
the expression„Zionismus “is derived from „Zion “, the name of the Jerusalemer of temple mountain. It plays on on the prophetische expectation of the home coming after Babylon of the refugees Jews after „Zion “, which is inseparably with the expectation of the people of peace connected in the Bible(Jes. 2, 3f/Mi. 4, 2f). It developed for about 550 v. Chr.
The term is usually attributed to Theodor Herzl (1860-1904). The roots of this Jewish national movement continue to go back however much. Already since that 12. Century pilgerten pious JewsEurope to their holy places in the lost country (Eretz) Israel.
Moses Montefiore (1784-1885) already planned the settlement of Jews in „the country of the fathers “: With it it to the systematic discrimination of the Jews and cruel Pogrome in the Russian realm ( Kischinjow reacted). It won rich Jews for a settlement project, bought country of Arab large basic owners in Palestine and put it to pursued Jews at the disposal. It was supported by Christians and Russian Jews.
Moses Hess wrote 1862 Rome and Jerusalem, whereit as a first Jewish author the thought to a home coming of the Jews into the “praised country” expressed. He was socialist at the same time. Thus it is considered to movement and the Israeli work party as Vorbereiter of the socialist Zionismus , from the late Kibbuz - came out.
End 19. Century led flashing the religious and racistic Antisemitismus to Pogromen in Russia and Eastern Europe, which led all promises of the clearing-up of equality and tolerance ad absurdum. As consequence it came into completely Europe to oneWave of the Jewish emigration to Palestine. 1882 came the first group of young Russian Jews there and made deserts proverbial fruitful field. This project only considered by Herzls book the Jew state internationally admits and.
In the same year published Leo Pinsker its work Autoemanzipation (“self release”), which thought after several ineffective approaches about its own country of the Jews. Also it reacted with it on at that time ever more aggressively arising Antisemitismus in Europe (esp. Russia).
But only Herzls book the Jew state -Attempt of a modern solution of the Jew question 1896, which developed in connection with the Dreyfus affair, implemented a striving to national organization. This was not yet absolutely connected with the country Israel in Palestine.
1897 found in Basel of the 1. Zionistenkongress instead of. There Herzl, which remained up to its death of 1904 chairmen of the Aktionskommitees, demanded for the first time a publicly secured homestead in Palestine. On that 6. Zionistenkongress in Basel to 26. August 1903 it struck British Uganda - program asa provisional solution forwards, since the Russian Jews were by Pogrome in direct danger. It stressed that this program does not affect the actual goal of the Zionismus of establishing a homestead in Palestine. Its suggestion caused violent protests nevertheless,led nearly to splitting the zionistischen movement. It came to an alliance of different groups, which supported the Uganda of suggestions concerned in the time of 1903-1905. From this the Jewish territorialist Organization (JTO) came out. The Uganda program became however on that7. Zionistenkongress in the year 1905 finally dropped.
To 6. Zionistenkongreess 1903, when the Pogrom of Kischinew , participated also Vladimir Jabotinsky took place at the same time and identified themselves on this occasion completely with the personality Herzls and its political program. Jabotinsky, off1923 founders and general agents of the revisionistic wing and the youth movement Betar, developed to one of the beredtesten speakers of the Zionismus.
While Herzl saw its and the congress major task in diplomatic efforts, his successor David Wolffsohn required (1905 -1911) already the practical conversion of the Kolonisation of Palestine, and this also independently of agreement on the part of the states relevant for it. The “perspective Palestine”, also without own State of, had also the “cultural Zionismus in such a way specified”, like it ashtray Ginsberg (Ahad Ha'am)represented, in the eye. Only Chaim Weizmann succeeded it then after 1914 to cause reconciliation between both tendencies.
Beginning of the immigration to Palestine
1901 was created the Jewish national rear (JNF) (Hebrew: (קרןקימתלישראל) Keren Kajemet (Lejisrael), “continuing fund forIsrael ") to convert this.1907 were created (Jewish ) the office for Palestine in Jaffa, which led Arthur Ruppin. 1909 were created the Jewish colonial bank (“Jewish Colonial Trust”) - like also the first Kibbuz at the Tiberiassee and the city Tel Aviv, to already 1938 150,000 inhabitants counted. However to 1914 already 85,000 Jewish immigrants in Palestine were to be registered, from whom however some remained not long-term in the country.
To 2. November 1917 signaled the British government their support of the Zionismus with that Balfour Declaration for the creation of a national homestead in Palestine for the Jewish people, briefly before 1918 became transferred Palestine as mandate at Great Britain (and there the Colonial Office subordinated). The Zionisten aimed at international agreement with all enterprises. Also oppositethe Arab population of the region acceptance was aimed at and also reached.
1920 were created the zionistische trade union Histadrut, with the goal, which becomes of private investors avoided industries in such a way to occupy and in the course of the time of largest employers in Palestineshould.1923 were divided Palestine. The smaller part was called from now at “Palestine ”, while from the larger part Transjordanien (only as sultanate, then than Kingdom of Jordanian one) developed. Since center of the 1920er years was then the zionistische Hachschara(“Preparation” for the emigration) in Germany.
Jew pursuit in Germany
to 30. January 1933 became Adolf Hitler after its appointment by realm president Paul von Hindenburg of German realm Reich. The seizure of power was stresses anti-Semitic election campaign preceded. After as more idealPretext for national terror realm tag fire holding of 27. First purposeful measures were February against Jewish Germans. Followed among other things the realm tag fire regulation (28. February); Book burns; the” enabling act “(5. March); in such a way specified“Jew boycott “(1. April) and the “law for the re-establishment of the civil service with tenure “(7. April). Therefore already left 1933 about 150,000 Jews Germany. Many pulled however not to Palestine, but in European neighbour states.
Off 1935 worsened the situation of the German Jews crucially. After bloody anti-Semitic, from the speeches Goebbels 'angefachten road riots (July) and the Nürnberger laws (15. September) grew their readiness for the Palestine emigration, although conservative Jewish federations further toRestraint reminded.
Already 1933 came into force the Ha'vara agreement in such a way specified (” transfer “) between the Jewish Agency and the German Reich, which had existence until 1938. It was the purposeful attempt of the LV politicians to promote the deprivation of citizenship of Jewish fellow citizens. Partly underto substantial, partly under smaller financial expenditure in such a way Zionisten arrived to Palestine.
The number of the Palestine immigrants to 1938 straight 130,000 Jews reached nevertheless. From 1933 to 1941 came only approx. 55,000 Jews from the German Reich to Palestine (which approx. 25%Portion of the total immigration corresponded). From 1933 to 1938 moved even over 100.000 Jews into the USA, over 50.000 to Great Britain, over 30.000 to France, over 60.000 to Argentina and over 25.000 to South Africa, however onlyapprox. 33.000 to Palestine out. In addition belonged also approx. 15.000-20.000 illegal immigrants, there starting from 1934 the Alijah Beth (“secondary ascent” and/or. “second immigration wave”, which was called illegal entry) began.
Palestine became not only by crew power, but also by those 1936 using Arab rebellions, which flowed then into a general strike, increasingly unattractively. In July 1937 the British Peel commission finally rejected the division of Palestine between Arabs and Jews.
1938, briefly after the connection of Austria to the German Reich to 12. March, was intensified again the situation for Jews in realm Germany. With the realm crystal night in such a way specified, the Pogromen of 9. November on the 10. November, went with many perhaps last hope for a “temporary phenomenon Hitler”lost. In Palestine 1938 continued to increase the Arab rebellions. In addition, now the notices committed by the illegal Jewish organization Etzel against the British began.
1939 were furnished the realm center for the Jewish emigration with the Gestapo in Germany.With the invasion into neighboring countries, like Poland (1. Septembers), were also already in security illusion-end themselves Jews again endangered. The invasion into the neutral Netherlands to 10. May 1940 forced alone approx. 20.000 Jewish emigrants from Germanyto the renewed escape, in Belgium then 25,000, in France (June) 35.000.
1941 were intensified discriminations in Germany, as to 9. January by police regulation carrying the Jew star was prescribed. With the attack on Russia to 22. Junealso the Deportationen began (Octobers). An emigration prohibition for Jew, the Himmler to 23. October issued, cut off now besides the possibility of leaving the country legally. The arrangement followed that with the Deportation the fortune introduction and loss of the nationalitywould accompany (November).
1941 were created in Palestine with the Palmach a Jewish “elite unit” the Hagana, meanwhile itself shark amine aluminium-Husseini, which solidarized Mufti of Jerusalem, in Berlin with Hitler and Erwin Rommels Africa corps already was in Libya. To 20. January 1942 decided then the when sea-conference in such a way specified the “final solution of the Jew question “, which meant the purposeful and organized mass murder at all Jews in the German sphere of influence (thus nearly whole Europe) in practical conversion. First attempts began immediately,to arrange practicable the “final solution”, like shooting, poisoning with exhaust gas in closed truck etc. Both the unjustified demand and the later execution of the Holokaust obviously quite fast also ignored outside of Germany admits, but. Despite Jewish brigadebrigade brigade in the British one Army (see also Chana Szenes) and the Biltmore conference of (9. May - 11. May) in the USA, on which one demanded, “the gates of Palestine to open”, the British political representatives remained in view of the further smoldering ArabUnrests with their rejecting policy. Only Rommel could be stopped before El Alamein, before he reached Jewish settlements.
In January 1943 it came to the rebellion in the Warsaw Ghetto. To 18. February gave its sport palace speech to Goebbels (” want you the totalWar? “). The British government deportierte the increasing number of illegal Palestine immigrants now to Cyprus. Settlement searches and arrests accumulated themselves up. Zionisti newspapers were forbidden. 1944 increased the organizations Etzel (Irgun) and Lechi their notices against the British, meanwhilethe Palmach to a release expedition in Europe found. Etzelmitglieder were determined of the Hagana and partly delivered the Britisher.
To 27. January 1945 freed the Red Army Auschwitz. To 8. May was the 2. World war in Europe to end.The Alijah Beth to Palestine continued to strengthen however - now increasingly with Shoa - survivor (“Bericha”), who was led by Hagana and Mossad. However from Poland, where already to 4. July 1946 in Kielce Pogrom took place, came 95.000Refugees in addition, as well as further thousands from the Soviet Union. However 1945-1946 was deportiert of the British 50,000 illegal ones from Palestine as “Displaced person “back to Germany (into the US zone).
Establishment of the State of Israel
|The neutrality of this article or paragraphis disputed. The reasons stand on the discussion side or on the side for neutrality problems. Attempts to formulate the article neutral and remove this component only if it is no longer necessary.|
Starting from 1946 then Etzel attacks took up, above allBritish railway lines, further too.Palmach - units blew up (of 16. May - 17. May) ten bridges. In response to terrorist attacks arrested the political representatives all zionistischen leaders (29. June). Irgun blew up finally a Seitenflügel of the King David hotel in Jerusalem, in which British headquarters was (22. July). The escalation of unrests pulled itself then by the whole year 1947 - to the United Nations to 29. November for the division of Palestine and thoseEstablishment of a Jewish and an Arab state tuned.
With the UN-resolution now Arab unrests and notices increased again. The assault on two (Egged -) penalty (30. November) is considered as beginning of the” Israeli war of independence “outPalestinian view “aluminium-Nakba” the disaster. The end of the British mandate became on the 15. May set. First Arab notices on Jerusalem took place.
To 14. May 1948 proclaimed David Ben Gurion in Tel Aviv the State of Israel and fulfilled therebythe zionistischen dream of an own Jew state. An attack of the Arab neighbors (Jordanian ones, Egypt, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon) failed. The acknowledgment of the State of Israel by the USA and (three days after) followed by the Soviet Union- now the legal mass immigration from Europe began. As the first legislative act the Knesset passed 1950 the return law, which makes world-wide all Jew possible independently from its economic situation the immigration to Israel.
|The neutrality of this article orParagraph is disputed. The reasons stand on the discussion side or on the side for neutrality problems. Attempts to formulate the article neutral and remove this component only if it is no longer necessary.|
A diplomatic high point of the argument was in the year 1975 the resolution 3379 of the UN-general assembly, in the Zionismus as a formthe racingism one designated. The resolution became to 16. December 1991 taken back by the general assembly with 111 to 25 voices when 13 abstentions (resolution 4686) and of UN-Secretary-General Kofi Annan 1998 as a Tiefpunkt of the history of the United Nations designates.
Also in Europe there are to organizations and persons, which arise antizionistisch. These are not inevitably also anti-Semitic.
To differentiate are today:
- the political Zionismus: the national movement of the Jewish people, who led to the establishment of the State of Israel
- the Jewish territorialism, thata Jew state on own territory aimed at, without with it on Palestine being fixed (Herzl would have e.g. also Argentina accepted)
- the cultural Zionismus, that it primarily around a Vitalisierung of the Jewish culture and the Jewish self-confident unity goes
- to thatreligious Zionismus, Messianismus
- the practical Zionismus: Settlement of the country Israel by Jew
- the Christian Zionismus, the Jews during the immigration to Israel supported and also beyond that with Israel sympathizes
- synthetic Zionismus: Ideenkonstrukt Chaim Weizmanns. Connection between the politicaland the practical Zionismus (see: J. H. Schoeps: Zionismus)
as Zionismus becomes from so-called. Antizionisten also a political current designates, which endorses an enlargement of the Israeli territory debited to the Palestinians. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict becomes in this aspect on thatZionismus as an exclusive cause seen. By others, like the author Norman Finkelstein, is represented also the theory that the key word Zionismus was used from Israeli parties to hold Israel in a continuous state of war over thereby own power toostrengthen. It goes even so far a kind pact with the Palestinian terror organizations subordinating to the today's zionistischen groups of interests.
- Herzls “the Jew state” on-line
- Simcha Flapan, the birth of Israel. Myth and reality; Melzer publishing house, new Isenburg 2005 (ISBN 3-937389-55-5) - over zionistische historiography and their myths. A classical author of the history of Israel.
- Wolfgang Benz (Hg.), the exile of the small people. Everyday life experiences of German Jews in the emigration; Munich 1991 (collection from essays to the everyday life in the emigrationin Latin America, the USA, Palestine, Sweden, France, England, the Netherlands, Shanghai etc.)
- Michael burner, history of the Zionismus; Munich 2002 (ISBN 3-406-47984-7) (short and good representation of the history of the Zionismus from the beginnings to the establishment of theState of Israel with resuming literature data)
- John per cent. Dippel, the large illusion. Why German Jews did not want to leave their homeland; Weinheim and Berlin 1997 (successful representation of the motives not to emigrate on the basis six parallel told biographies (Leo Baeck, Bella pious, Hans Joachim Schoeps, max of being castle, Robert Weltsch, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Willstätter))
- Norman Finkelstein, the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians, Munich 2002 (ISBN 3720523683)
- Nathan M. Yellow one, for the prehistory of the Zionismus. Jew state projectsin the years 1695-1845. Vienna, Phaidon 1927
- Sawi Hadami, bitter one harvest. Palestine 1914-1967; (=Palästina Monographien, volume 5); Restcorrode 1969 (by a Arab-Marxist view coined/shaped Monographie for the Palestine settlement from the beginnings to the six-day war)
- Rudolf deer, exile in Palestine; in: Ludwig Hoffmann and others (Hrsg.):Exile in Czechoslovakia, in Great Britain, Scandinavia and Palestine; (= art and literature in the anti-fascist exile, 5); 2. erweit. Aufl., Leipzig 1987; 605-670 (clearly in a marxist manner coined/shaped overview of the Palestine emigration)
- walter Laqueur, The way to the State of Israel. History of the Zionismus; Vienna 1972 (Israeli zionistisch coined/shaped, but around objectivity endeavored representation up to the state State of)
- Amnon ruby stone, history of the Zionismus. Of Theodor Herzl until today, Frankfurt/Main 2001 ISBN 3-423-24267-1
- Philipp Theisohn, the arableness of the indications. Zionismus and literature - another Poetik of the modern trend. Stuttgart 2005 ISBN 3-476-02072-X (in this study the Zionismus is regarded not primarily as political movement, but understood as a Kulturpoetik)
- Raid Sabbah, Death is a gift, Munich 2002 (ISBN 3-426272-97-0) (regards the causes of terror and force in Israel and Palestine from Palestinian view.)
- Leny Yāhîl, the Shoah. Survival fight and destruction of the European Jews; Munich 1998 (extensive,but nevertheless clear and liquid readable representation of the Holocaust and the rescue and emigration attempts)
Web on the left of
- zionismus.info (=hagalil.com)
- idgr.de (encyclopedia articles)
- talmud.de “the Jew state” in the full text
- 100 years Zionismus
- compactmemory.de Jewish Periodika 18. , 19. and 20. Century to the Download
- wzo.org .il (English)
- Magisterarbeit over Zionismus
- wzo.org .il (Uganda) (English)