the Cistercians (lat.: Ordo Cisterciensis, briefly: OCist; in former times: Sacer Ordo Cisterciensis, briefly: SOC) are a Christian monastischer medal in the Roman-catholic church. It resulted from reforms from the Benediktinerorden. Among the Cistercians ranksbeside the Ordo Cisterciensis also the medal of the Cistercians of the stricter Observanz (Trappisten).
Table of contents
establishment of medal
a substantial cause for the establishment of medal was in fewKilometers removed Cluny to search. This large and Benediktinerabtei in Burgund, famous in the whole Christianity , had acquired a large fortune and a far Ländereien by donations and inheritances. Few years before (1088) one had with the building thatat that time largest church of the Christianity begun, which exceeded even old sinking Peter in Rome in size. Also the interior equipment with Fresken was complex. In this powerful and influential abbey (several Popes went out of the numbers of their monks out) the Liturgie played oneoutstanding role: services for hours and solemn Prozessionen were at the agenda.
The original simplicity of the monastischen way of life and the ideal were by splendour folding and wealth to live from the own hands work to void. A back meditation on the original values seemednecessarily. The new community was subjected to the goal of living strictly after the medal rule of the Benedikt of Nursia (Regula Benedicti). On this basis they wanted to live exclusively on their own hands work. Incomes from farm lease and interest as well asthey rejected the collection of the tenth. Separatingness of the world and simplicity of the way of life were basic ideals of the group of reforms.
On their basic intention Robert wanted to be and its monks nothing else as Benediktiner and live faithfully according to the benediktinischen rule. Howeverthe way of life of the monks differed from Cîteaux crucially from the other Benediktinerklöster, in particular from Cluny. Thus a new medal developed, for that at the same time the first centralistic organized monk medal of the Christian from the reestablishment thought as reform within the BenediktinertumsEvening country was.
Robert von Molesme was already recalled 1099 after Molesme. To its place as an abbott of Cîteaux stepped Alberich of Cîteaux, which led monastery ten years long. 1109 replaced it Stephan Harding. These three founder abbotts ofCîteaux becomes to 26. January meant.
from Cîteaux came it to reestablishments of daughter monasteries. Stephan Harding with its Charter Caritatis gave a condition to the new medal; 1119 became this by Pope Kalixt II. confirmed. ThusStephan Harding is the actual founder of the Cistercian medal.
Under abbott Bernhard von Clairvaux began the actual ascent of the Cistercian medal. Its teachings and theories, its defaults to the monastery construction, above all however its untiring employment coined/shaped the medal so much that the Cistercians are called sometimes also „St. Bernards “.
Under Bernhard in completely Europe countless new monasteries were established; also many former Benediktinerabteien (so for instance Fontfroide in Southern France) closed inspire the new reform movement on.
Against the actual basic ideals of the Cistercians Bernhard practiced large influence outside of the medal upthe policy of the Middle Ages out. The powerful ones accepted it as an intermediary among themselves. Its call was consequence-fraught to the second crusade (1147 - 1149). Bernhard however always rejected high church offices. Beyond that Berhard became due to its religious writingsadmits. Its literary gift because of Bernhard Doctor is called melifluus (honey-flowing teacher).
The first four establishments of Cîteaux, the so-called primary abbeys were La Ferté (1113), Pontigny (1114), Clairvaux and Morimond (both 1115). 1120 became those Abbey Tart, the first monastery from Cistercian inside, based.
development of GermanyThe first Zisterzeinserkloster in Germany was that 1123 created monastery Kamp. In Germany the Cistercians attained by their colony sowing ion activity in 12. and 13. Century, particularly in the area east the Elbe, outstanding meaning.
After the reformation (about 1535) the Cistercian monasteries in the Evangelist areas of Germany were closed and the churches to parish churches were converted. Some monasteries became nevertheless inreceive to new form, for example as Predigerseminar. Thus Loccum to today the monastery, which has an abbott and in each day since 1600 one hears is gebetet , exists. The Evangelist Cistercian conventions have themselves in the community Evangelist Cistercian inheriting inGermany united and take over the care of the religious-cultural inheritance of the Cistercians on Evangelist side.
development of Lower Saxony
as the first Cistercian monastery in Lower Saxony was created 1135 the monastery Amelungsborn (by count Siegfried IV. of Boyneburg), the last layBranch of the Northeimer of count sex. “Mansion Amelungsborn”, which belonged to its name after this very day provable the source in the monastery area, for which “fount” of the Amelung carries, to the hereditary goods of the prince sex.
The positive economic development of the monastery made possible the propagation of the medal.Already 1138 placed the establishment abbott for monastery Mariental to Amelungsborn with Helmstedt. 1145 sent Amelungsborn a complete convention for the establishment of the monastery Riddagshausen with Braunschweig. There the medal brothers put on a pond landscape for the pisciculture, which is today protected area; of thatformerly to 28 ponds today still eleven exist.
Amelungsborn was not waived, when abbott and convention Augsburger accepted confession. 1655 issued the duke a new monastery order and ordered the Generalsuperintendenten used again in Holzminden to the abbott of the monastery. 1760 becamethe monastery school after Holzminden shifted and with the there city school combines. Around 1810 each korporative co-operation ends, although the office of the abbott also in 19. Jh. further to exist remained. As 1875 the school tasks of the monastery by the nationalization thatSchool ends, existed the office for abbott still as honour title for high braunschweigische religiousness away.
By the area reconciliation of 1941 the circle Holzminden at the province and the church arrived at the regional church Hanover. The church senate stepped into the rights of the former national gentlemanand the competence for monastery Amelungsborn took over. New possibilities the “Loccumer brought to contract “, a convention between the country Lower Saxony and the five regional churches. The responsible church authorities knew now the “Prälaturen” Amelungsborn, Königslutter, Mariental and Riddagshausen withoutnational co-operation regulate.
development in the Mark Brandenburg
of extraordinary importance for the stabilization and development of the Mark Brandenburg was 1180 25 kilometers southwest that from potsdam created monastery Lehnin.Only some decades before 1157 the first Mark count Albrecht of the bar the Mark from the baptism had lifted. The residents Slawenstämme could have done the Germans several times with their previous attempts of the Ostkolonisation back urge, so that the first askanischen Mark counts knew,that the country with the victory of 1157 was won not yet. The son Albrechts, the second Mark count Otto I. the monastery based 1180 among other things with the goal, over the Missionierung of the “heidnischen” Slawen and over the economic Leistungskraftto consolidate and gradually expand the monks the country. In the sense of their self obligation to a miss-rich, asketischen and God-obliging/pleasing life the Cistercians here almost found ideal “virgin” cultural and landschaftliches area.
stagnation and reform thatReform
altogether set 13 starting from that. /14. Century adjustment of the way of life of the Cistercians to those the Benediktiner. Exactly like these now also the Cistercians had left their ideal of the withdrawals and into the service of the world had placed themselves. Activityand wealth led to the gradual waste of the monastischen basic ideal. Besides an arising and the propagation of the begging medals led to a stagnation in the propagation of the Cistercian medal. Nevertheless the number of the monasteries remained largely. Thus there were in the middle 13. Century647 Cistercian monasteries and 1675 belonged 724 monasteries to the medal on< ref name= " SchuetzRath "> Christian contactor, Philippa Rath (Hrsg.): The Benediktinerorden: God look for in prayer and work. Mainz: Matthias Green forest publishing house, 3. Aufl. 2003, S. 188. </ref>.
Starting from 1425 closed because of the far geographical propagation of theMedal and the associated difficulty of a central guidance of Cistercian monasteries after the model of the Benediktiner to Kongregationen together.
The medal was strongly weakened by various war periods of the late Middle Ages; the reformation did its remaining.
To the council of Trient (1545-1563) camein the Cistercian medal reform movement for the renewal of the medal life up. From this reform movement it came into 17. Century to a reform of the Cistercians under abbott arm and Jean Le Bouthillier de Rancé in the monastery La Trappe, from that the medal thatCistercian of the stricter Observanz (Trappisten) came out.
in the course of the French revolution became Cîteaux, which drove nut/mother abbey out of the Cistercian medal, waived and the monks. Thus the central guidance of the medal broke down, there the general chapter, thatso far in Cîteaux had met, to take place no longer there could. After the last conference of the general chapter before the revolution in the year 1786 the next conference followed only again 1880 in Vienna.
In 19. and 20. Century became a majority thatCistercian monasteries closed.
To the final separation of the Reformkongerationen from the medal it came 1892 by the union of the different reform movements to its own medal, „the medal of the Cistercians of the stricter Observanz “(Trappisten). Since that the Cistercian medal is in two independent medals alsoper own general abbott and general chapter split.
After the conditions of 01. Septembers 2005 belong to the Cistercian medal (without Trappisten)1499 monks, of it 696 priests, and 883 nuns on.< ref name= " OCistStatistik ">http://www.ocist.org/statistics.htm </ref>
the Cistercians were the first central organized monk medal of the Christianity. Each abbey of the medal is in principle independently, however on the uniform statutes of the Cistercian medalobligated. Each abbey remains responsible opposite their nut/mother monastery. The abbott of the nut/mother monastery visitiert as Pater Immediat (direct church superiors) the Tochergründungen (Filiationsprinzip). Up to its abolition in the course of the French revolution the abbey Cîteaux became, first abbey andNut/mother monastery of the medal, of which abbotts of the first four establishments of Cîteaux, which visietiert primary abbeys La Ferté, Pontigny, Clairvaux and Morimond. In Cîteaux also the general chapter under the presidency of the abbott of Cîteaux met. Since the reorganization of the medal aftera selected general abbott, who resides in Rome, at the point of the medal stands for the French revolution. The interests of the medal are regulated on the general chapter, in which all abbotts of the medal participate.
religious the life of the Cistercians
The Cistercians are a kontemplativer medal. They lead an outwardly undirected life, to be over free for their search for God. Core characteristics of the Zisterzienserspiritualität are a steady life in the examination (stabilitas loci), the connection of world-separated lifeand at the same time community lives within the monastery, the care of a simple and strict way of life, high estimation of the manual work as well as a kontemplative internalness, which settle both in joint choir prayer and private meditativen and regarding prayer. Those takes a special value in the Cistercian lifeMarienverehrung .
admission and training
A Cistercian monastery to occur each adult, who is mentally and physically for it suitably and ready, can in-permit itself completely on a life with God and look for „trueful God “, howit Benedikt of Nursia in its rule requires. A condition is an final professional training or Abitur. Who decided itself to want to lead a life in the monastery the monastery visits first as a guest. After this first becoming acquainted with phase the candidacy follows taken up.This serves for the examination whether the candidate for the Cistercian life is suitable. At first the candidate spends some weeks in the examination of the monks and can view in such a way into the there life take. The candidacy can last differently long, usually becomesin this time training begun outside of the monastery life terminates.
If one terminated the candidacy, follows the postulate, which usually takes several months. The Postulant participates in the concrete medal life and takes over smaller tasks within the community.The difference to the life as monk lies in the fact that the Postulant of course more or less belongs to to the medal community, is not firmly bound to it however yet and the monastery can leave at any time again.
To the postulate closesthe Noviziat on, which takes at least one year. The Noviziat begins with the admission of the brother into the community of the medal. This takes place via the coating. Here the Ordenstracht is presented to the Postulanten. With the coating the Postulant says„“To a life in the monastery, to a life with God, in which it tightens with the Ordenstracht „God “.
The Novize is integrated firm into the medal life, takes over independently tasks, is however still learning, thus instruction receives approximately over thoseSpiritualität of the medal and its organization and history.
If the Noviziatszeit over is, the Novizen the Profess placing on time. They commit themselves the medal. In this time one has still the possibility of leaving the medal. With thattemporal Profess changes not much for the Novizen.
of this happens only if it puts three down after year the temporal Profess the eternal Profess. Here praised the Novize „klösterlichen life change,Stability and obedience “. In addition poverty belongs just like Keuschheit and Ehelosigkeit. With the eternal Profess always commits itself the brother to his concrete monastery, on which he puts the Profess down (stabilitas loci).
When desired a monk can a further Ausbilung make, for instance the Meistertitel in a handicraft acquire. For high school graduates the possibility exists of studying theology and of preparing for the Weiheämter. In the German-speaking countries this geschiet usually on the medal university in the pin holy cross with Vienna.
the Cistercians live and work not only behind their monastery walls, but also within the social and cultural range. Many monasteries operate schools beside their own workshops or the Seelsorge to individual municipalities transferred.
routine of the day
The routine of the day is coined/shaped by seven prayer times Vigil, Laudes, third, Sext, Non, Vesper and Komplet. The first prayer time takes place at night, usually between 02:00 clock and 04:00 clock, the latter after sunset. Is centralthe daily celebration of the holy fair. By the services, to which according to the rule of the holy Benedikt nothing is to be preferred, the day of the monks arranged into reading and work. After the last prayer time the night rest begins for the monks,up to the first prayer time of the next daily lasts.
the monks should
of the monasteries ideal plan of a Cistercian monastery the monasteries of the Cistercians not by external influences in after the defaults of Bernhard in separated areas, in thosethe practice of their way of life to be disturbed could. Differently than with the begging medals, which arose short time after the Cistercians, is therefore no Cistercian monasteries in cities.
Usually the monasteries in an up to then uninhabited and with difficulty accessible side valley were established,its Talaue enough for agriculture and cattle breeding was broad, whose forests could supply the necessary building material and whose watercourse could serve pisciculture made possible or as drive for a Schmiede at the slopes. In this way the Cistercians in the Middle Ages openednumerous regions again and carried true pioneer work out.
A typical - if also not always held out - characteristic is the square choir area, on the right of and left flanks from further Nebenchören with smaller side length. Until into the today's time has itself this prototype receive, approximately in Fontenay (Burgund /Frankreich) and Maulbronn (Baden-Wuerttemberg) this form was exemplary alsofor other medals. Imitations are for example in the church Santa Maria Novella of the Dominikaner of Florenz.
- Hl. Bernhard von Clairvaux (1090-1153), abbott, writer, Mystiker
- Sel. Otto von Freising (1112-1158), historical writer
- Alanus starting from Insulis,also Alan de Lille or Alanus de Insulis mentioned, (1120-1202), scholastic
- Hl. Johannes of Valence († 1145), bishop
- Johann von Viktring (1270-1347), historical writer
- Mechthild of Magdeburg (1207-1282), Mystikerin
- Mechthild of heel fount (1231-1291), Mystikerin
- Gertrud of Helfta (1256-1302), Mystikerin
- arm and JeanLe Bouthillier de Rancé (1626-1700), reform abbott, founder of the Trappistenordens
- Thomas Merton (Trappist) (1915-1968), Mystiker
of Cistercian monasteries in the German-speaking countries
|name||notes, historical data, today's use|
|monastery Good cell|
|monastery holy cross valley|
|monastery Maulbronn||UNESCO - world cultural monument|
|monastery threshing floor brook|
|monastery quake living|
|monastery beautiful valley|
|of woman Mrs.|
|monastery Aldersbach||gegr. 1146|
|monastery Ebrach||gegr. 1127|
|monastery prince field||gegr. 1258|
|Monastery Heilsbronn||gegr. 1132|
|monastery long home||gegr. 1132|
|monastery sky-crown||gegr. 1279|
|monastery Himmelthal||gegr. 1232|
|monastery sun field||gegr. 1260|
at that time: Mark Brandenburg (Askanier), Marks of Lausitz, Magdeburg; is indicated the establishment and/or. Donation data.
For a general mapwith all breaking citizen Cistercian monasteries see:Monastery Marienfliess.
|monastery Dobrilugk, Doberlug||gegr. 1165/1184, Niederlausitz|
|monastery Zinna||gegr. 1170, donation of Magdeburg|
|monastery new cell||gegr. 1268, Niederlausitz|
|monastery Lehnin||1180, Askani donation|
|Monastery Paradies||gegr. 1230, establishment of daughter of Lehnin|
|monastery Chorin||gegr. 1273, Askani donation|
|monastery Himmelpfort||gegr. 1299, Askani donation|
|of woman Mrs.|
|monastery Marienstern, Mühlberg|
|monastery Marienfliess, Prignitz||gegr. 1231, donation of the noble Mr. Gans to Putlitz; since the reformation ev. Pin.|
|monastery pin to the holy grave|
|monastery Arnsburg with Lich|
|monastery Eberbach in Eltville|
|monastery Haydau in rotten|
|Marienschloss in skirt mountain|
|of woman Mrs.|
|monastery sank Maria at the Sonnenkamp, new monastery|
|monastery Ihlow, East Frisia|
|monastery Marienrode with Hildesheim|
|monastery Mariental with Helmstedt|
|monastery Riddagshausen with Braunschweig|
|of woman Mrs.|
|Lilienthal with Bremen|
|monastery Meerhusen with Aurich|
|monastery vienna living|
|monastery old person mountain||admits cathedral monastery Kamp|
|monastery hard living|
|of woman Mrs.|
|monastery prince mountain|
|monastery sank Jöris|
|of woman Mrs.|
|monastery Franconia living, Crimmitschau||today only ruin|
|monastery Sancta Maria ad Portam (Schulpforta)with Naumburg|
|of woman Mrs.|
|monastery Marienstuhl with Egeln|
|Rudekloster in luck castle|
|Cistercian monastery Reynevelde in Rhine field|
|of woman Mrs.|
|Reinbek in the duchy Lauenburg|
|monastery Georgenthal in Georgenthal||1525 destroys, today only ruin|
|then||after Stadtilm Stadtilm shifts woman Mrs. monastery Anrode|
|hall field||1275 moved from hall field, today as city hall used|
|Stadtroda||today only ruin|
- Immo Eberl: The Cistercians. History of a EuropeanMedal. 1. Edition, Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2002. ISBN 3-7995-0103-7
- Ulrich Knefelkamp: Cistercian. Springer, Berlin 2001. ISBN 3-5406-4816-X
- Terryl N. Children: The world of the Cistercians. Fast & Steiner 1997. ISBN 3-79541-297-8
Web on the left of
Wiktionary: Cistercian - word origin,Synonymous one and translations Commons: Cistercian monasteries - pictures, videos and/or audio files
- Cistercian medal
- medal constitutions
- medals of the Cistercians of the stricter Observanz (Trappisten)
Christian institutes for medal
monk medals: Benediktiner | Kamaldulenser | Kartäuser | Trappisten | Cistercian
Regularkanoniker: Augustiner choir gentlemen | Prämonstratenser
begging medal: Dominikaner | Franziskaner | Kapuziner
knight medal: German medal | Malteserorden | Templerorden
Regularkleriker: Dehonianer | Jesuiten | Legionäre Christi
Klerikale Kongregationen: Steyler of mission acres