the penintentiary was a penal establishment with increasing the penalty prison conditions for prisoners, who were condemned to an imprisonment because of crimes not threatened with the death penalty. A substantial component of the penal servitude was the obligation to hard manual labor, often up to the exhaustion, for example in quarries orwhen peat stinging. Because of the substantially harder prison conditions a conversion ratio from 3 applied to 2 with (sometimes in the law necessities) a conversion of prison on penintentiary punishes.

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today's situation

in the Federal Republic of Germany became the penal servitude by the first law the reform of the criminal law of 25. June 1969 abolished. In Austria it was waived likewise.

Swiss the penal code knows the penal servitude still (kind. ), It differentiates 35 StGB into application however no more from the usual term of imprisonment, but only into their length (starting from 5 years.)

the history of the penal servitude than such went into Germany however not with the reform of the criminal law to end. The penintentiary lost by reform and liberalisation processes over the yearsaway its original regulation and served last as penal establishment for particularly heavy crimes under intensified detention and safety conditions. Today one speaks in principle of imprisonments, however there are further penal institutions with milder and harder punishing conditions. Dependent on the total period of an imprisonment different institutes are selected. ThoseCriteria can vary dependent on country-specific orders. In Hessen there are institutes with mild conditions for prisoners with a punishment of under two years and institutes with harder conditions for prisoners with a punishment of over two years.

situation in former times

in that GDR existed to last the penal servitude for heaviest acts of violence and political criminal offences. Well-known penintentiaries were the penintentiary Bautzen (“yellow misery”), the penintentiary Stoll-mountain-high-hit a corner and the penintentiary Brandenburg.

With the abbreviation Z in the jargon a penal servitude is veiled (z. B. three years Z). Penal servitudes appliedas entehrend and also social consequences (z had. B. with the search for employment or housing).

Detentions are an historically recent counterpart to body and life punishments.

In the time of the absolutism the first penintentiary in the Netherlands was opened. Shortly thereafter became after this concept into thatlikewise penintentiaries to most German cities establishes. The idea of the penintentiary made school in far parts of Europe. The first German penintentiaries developed in Bremen (1609), Luebeck (1613), Hamburg (1622) and Danzig (1629).

The penintentiary originally served not asPenal establishment in the actual sense, since it concerned with the passengers not primarily criminal ones. One understood the penintentiary at that time as social mechanism, which should therapieren work-indignant humans and lead back again into the society. Thus became among other things abandoned women, beggars, prostitutes and humans, itselfMoney in a dishonorable (however not criminal) way made into penintentiaries shipped. Farmers were allowed to bring farmhands and farm servants to the improvement in the penintentiary, in order to undertake something against achievement deficits. One saw hard work and prison conditions with as cure in order improving humans. The passengers becamenot judicially and the duration of a penintentiary stay condemns depended usually on the arbitrariness of the personnel. The prisoners should remain so long in the penintentiary, until they improved. Since there were no correct criteria for an improvement, the personnel could decide letzendlich freely, whenan improvement instead of found. Since behind the penintentiaries also an economic interest stood, usually great importance was attached to the fact that the institutes are full, so that people became to dismiss if new ones advanced. Letzendlich felt the civil society at that time arms as disturbing, which to the consequenceit had that mechanisms were introduced like the penintentiary (beside mad house, lunatic asylum and orphanage among other things), in order to punish arms for their poverty and banish from the society.

In the deepest times of the absolutism this development continued to go into Germany still another step, so that thosedifferent mechanisms for humans, whom one banished from the society together was put. Thus developed the hospital, an institute, in which by Waisenkindern over psychologically patient, dying humans and that penintentiary clientele all passengers of such mechanisms were accommodated together and treated under same conditions. ThatPrinciple of the hospital was converted fortunately only to limited extent. Even if a hospital at that time no physician busy changed this kind of mechanism gradually until today to a modern hospital. From the penintentiary the prison has itself over the time wiederrumas punishing mechanism develops.

To that the absolutism to end went gave it a slow moderation movement. Gradually a reasonable juridical system was converted and the conditions, on which humans were banished into such mechanisms intensified. Thus allmählig a penal establishment in the actual became from the penintentiarySenses. For differently heavy crimes one needed differently heavy punishments. Thus beside the penintentiary further kinds were introduced by institutes for detention.

See also: Alcatraz, fortress detention, prison, JVA

colloquial terms for the passengers


convict was in Germanya colloquial and clearly devaluing, almost stigmatisierende name for a prisoner in the penintentiary. With the abolishment of this form of the execution of sentences in Germany (1969) since that time also the term to a large extent lost itself.


Züchtling is an outdated, but not completely so abschätzige designationlike convicts.

see also to Knacki



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