Zuckerrohr

Zuckerrohr
Zuckerrohrpflanze
sugar tubing plant
systematics
Subclass: Commelinaähnliche (Commelinidae)
order: Sweet-grass-well-behaved (Poales)
family: Sweet grasses (Poaceae)
Unterfamilie: Panicoideae
kind: Saccharum
kind: Zuckerrohr
scientific name
Saccharum officinarum
L.

Zuckerrohr (Saccharum officinarum) is a plant from thatFamily of the sweet grasses (Poaceae) and is assigned there the Unterfamilie Panicoideae with approximately 3270 further kinds.

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description

from the appearance resemblesit the bamboo or corn or every other einkeimblättrigen plant. The stems can reach a diameter of up to 5 cm and a height of up to 4 m.

history

its history probably began on new Guinea,where one 1928 relatives close a wild plant, which discovered grass Saccharum robustum.

Up to breeding the sugar beet from the Runkelrübe was the Zuckerrohr the only source, in order to win sugars. As original origin areas island becomes India, in addition, new Guinea (and China) indicated, the exact genetic origin is however still unclear. In the Mediterranean area the Zuckerrohr was already well-known during the Roman time, it experienced a further spreading by the Mauren, Arab and traveled with the developing plan day economy of the Spaniards to South America. The Portuguese brought it into the bay of Benin, on the Kanaren, into the Karibik and to Central America. The sugar tubing cultivation in the new world in such a way specified has crucially for kidnapping Black African Ethnien into those Slavery (10 - 15 millions Humans) and led to the extermination of whole groups of peoples in Central America. Today Zuckerrohr is cultivated world-wide and places about 55% to sugar production. Main cultivation countries are India, Australia, Thailand, South Africa, the Caribbean islands how Cuba, Jamaica and the Dominican republic and naturally Brazil. The conditions of work on the sugar tubing fields are partly catastrophic. Frequently children and women are used as workers, bad payment are in the regions of the sugar tubing cultivation anyway at the agenda. Accordinglycheaply the Rohrzucker can be offered, in the European Union is it however because of very high tariffs nevertheless not competitive against the Rübenzucker.

use

sugar tubing plant (Saccharum officinarum), illustration from charcoal burner of 1887

contents materials of the Zuckerrohrs are sugars(predominantly Saccharose) with a portion of up to 18% and a wax, which is partly also industrially used.

With the industriellen tubing sugar production the fibrous components of the Zuckerrohrs ( the Bagasse) are used as fuel for sugar production.

The cultivation of the Zuckerrohrs takes place over Stecklinge. Halmstücke from the lower range „of the sugar tubing stems “, which exhibit two to four knots, are put by machine by the dozen closely one behind the other depending upon mechanization degrees either manually or into the soil and concerning up ELT, so that thoseHalmstücke are easily covered with soil. The row distance amounts to 1.2 to 1.5 m (per hectare of 15.000-20.000 Stecklinge). After short time (in until two weeks) the Stecklinge drive, D out. h. they form roots and drive at the eyes new stems(Pipes) out. Approximately 3 to 4 months growth period needs the existence up to the series circuit.

The first harvest, cutting the pipe, can take place 9 to 24 months after the Auspflanzen. The harvest time depends on sugar content and Reifegrad. The stemsdirectly over the soil and in a height under that to sugarless sheet apparatus are cut off. The “stem stumps” strike and after further 12 months can the next harvest be cut. Up to 8 harvests can grow on a sugar tubing field. InIndia amounts to the service life z. B. 2 cuts, in Brazil against it 5 cuts. A sugar tubing plant can become years old up to 20.

In Brazil Zuckerrohr is used also for it to burn a liquor ( the Cachaça) that for the production of Caipirinha is needed. The out fresh Zuckerrohr pressed, usually cooled juice is e.g. in Cuba or Spain as Guarapo a popular beverage. In Colombia from Zuckerrohr and anise Aguardiente is burned. In addition won alcohol serves as fuel for from ZuckerrohrCar (see flexible Fuel Vehicle).

Zuckerrohr was famous for its tooth-maintaining characteristics. In old reports on a journey from that 19. Century was described again and again, what for excellent teeth the plan day workers or natives would have, which attributed to chewing the Zuckerrohrsbecame. It appears paradoxical that a zuckerhaltige plant has tooth-maintaining effects - this is probably to be due to the “brush function” of the rauen plant parts. Besides the fresh pipe is not for a very long time durable. Therefore this aspect of the plant came again into oblivion.

pictures

see also

ethanol (fuel)

literature

  • Henry Hobhouse: Six plants change the world. Chinarinde, Zuckerrohr, dte, cotton, potato,Kokastrauch. Klett Cotta, Hamburg 2001 (4. Aufl.). ISBN 3-608-91024-7 (history with completely different perspective, excitingly which can be read)
  • Christoph Maria Merki: Sugar against Saccharin. To the history of the artificial süssstoffe. Campus, Frankfurt A.M. - New York 1993. (Diss. Berne 1990) ISBN 3-593-34885-3 (over historydes Wettbewerbs zwischen natürlichen und künstlichen Süßungsmitteln)

Weblinks

Commons: Zuckerrohr - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)