Future literature

future literature is not homogeneous literary form or kind, in it gives it most diverse currents, tendencies and directions, it acts of a conceivable, hypothetical (fictitious) future and sets the emphasis rather on possible and feasible science and technology. It becomes a futuredevised, in substantial and crucial ranges of humans, in which hopes or possibly also existing fears, by science, are affected technology and research.

The term future literature as literature kind formed for at the beginning 20. Century in the German-speaking countries and applies starting from the 1920erYears as standard description of this literary form.

The future literature makes it possible to the reader to throw a view into a possible future.

Not to confound one should the term with the substantially more extensive Science Fiction, with which future literature represents only a subsection.

Table of contents

Introduction

future literature is a literature direction popular since end of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth century, which acts in the future. This is generally the time interval after the reference time, D. h. the present (at the time of the emergence of the literary work). The actual reason of the popularity was the interest of broad population masses in science, research and technology, risen strongly, and their positive attitude to it. In this time in the areas mentioned a great many progress and realizations were obtained. Before it there were already individual novels and stories, which are assigned today to the future literature,but the category became only important since approximately at the beginning of the twentieth century so that this literature range became its own literature direction. Strongly the future literature was affected at first by the adventure novel (unusual journeys, escape, bets, pursuit, release or capture), which very clearly at the novels of Jules Verneto recognize is. Some its books, like z. B.In 80 days around the world, can be quite assigned to the adventure novel, other books of it are clearly than future novel to be arranged. As a founder category is seen to Jules Verne, it is considered as the father to thatFuture literature.

category direction, name

was often called the future literature (particularly in the start time of the future literature) also utopian literature. The name Utopia does not come from the Greek, which so much is called, like good place into „anywhere “. A novel resemble name of Thomas Morusout of the year 1516 acts of an ideal social order. Since this time one calls literature, stories and novels, which describe a future, ideal society, utopian literature. This is thus only one part of the future literature and should therefore not for the whole category be used.The future literature, which one calls also in the English-language area Science Fiction, (the term from the following words was formed: science = science and fiction = invention, narration) was coined/shaped 1929 in the USA by Hugo Gernsback, it is only one of two branches from thatlarge family of the Fantastikliteratur, the other branch is the category of the Fantasieliteratur (English: Fantasy). Fantasieliteratur has often fairy taleful courses, hardly purchase to the serious technology and science and by Fantasiewelten and Fantasiegeschöpfe is determined, which reflect hardly still ranges of the reality, z. B. J. R. R.Tolkiens Romantrilogie „master of the rings “. Usually play one or more hero figures, which are represented as a kind light shape, which in other worlds a life and a suffering way continuously and thus experiences collect, the main role. Frequently occur also Zauberer, Magier, Dämonen, dwarves and other Fantasiegeschöpfe therein.Fantasieliteratur, with the characteristic of nearly highly transparent black-and-white painting and z. T. very trivial representational forms, ever more gains significance and seems the category away future literature to force in the today's time. A reason for this displacement phenomenon could have to be searched in the technology-sceptical present tendency. The trivial designthe Fantasieliteratur is affected also by the dominance of the USA within the range film and picture stories (Comic), those today very much meaning with young people and adults has [z. B. Hype (strong revaluation, much advertisement, much presentation) around Harry Potter]. Always a literary work does not leave itself, with some works are flowing the borders assign exactly (combinations). (See also futurology, Phantastik, Fantasy, new one German Phantastik.) for the reasons mentioned it is very heavy, a short, concise definition of the future literature, which becomes fair literature-scientific and academic criteria to deliver. Unfortunatelythe future literature, particularly strengthened after the Second World War, has the smell of the Trivialität. Particularly some flat and plakative works of the US-American scene (Comics or extremst simply knitted works) harmed the European literature, which is sufficient for higher intellectual requirements within many ranges.

Ideas, ideals

the future becomes well, bad, which changes? The future picture is always connected with that straight existing world and people picture, therefore there are also different directions of the future literature in the respective systems and times. The future literature is thereby for many humans the longingafter after better and more beautiful future, better life and progress (also fiction after other worlds and natures). Raus from for some engstirnigen, verkrusteten present (in the GDR willingly future literature was read, to Jules Verne gave it nearly only under the counter), from thatProblems of the now, off into a future those different is, but not the problems today has. How, by which, with what? (Weltraumfahrten, future wars, technology, science, inventions, strange nature, biology, chemistry, sociology and philosophy…)

Opposite some problem areas of the future literature stand, how Disasters, technical. Failure, fall, dictatorships, manipulations, invasions, etc., which represent the future everything else as beautiful for mankind. These negative visions are humans, which read the works, before problems and developments to warn and them the possibility give, possibly on such occurrences alreadyto react in the present. As example for this the novel of George Orwell 1984 might be considered. A German writer with similar problem consciousness is harsh ore W. Franke.

development

of Europe was particularly advanced the category by the works by Jules Verne. Italso in the old continent the largest variety and spreading found. Brought by emigrants from Europe the literature direction into the new world and particularly in the USA developed starting from the twenties of the twentieth century an active writer and read community. In the today'sTime tends the category (strongly dominated of the USA and England) to the stress of fantastischer and unreal elements. With respect to some ranges therefore Fantasieliteratur can be hardly still differentiated by future literature. A considerable municipality of the future literature, outside of Europe and the USA, still gives it in Japan.The reason might have to be found in the enormous technique falling in loveness of the Japanese.

literature directions

gives essentially three different directions of this literature category.

  • A direction of the future literature attaches very great importance to the erzählerischen part with a deep and partially branchedAction. The range future does not play a vordergründige role and is rather accessories as prime data area. A representative of this kind is Friedrich William Mader (1866 born in Nice, 1947 deceased). The author wrote an abundance of exciting books between 1900 and 1941, among other things also within the range future literature.He was by occupation a minister and from passion writer (miracle worlds, 1911). Another author is Kurd letting leaving, it was philosopher and writer, alias L. Velatus (1848-1910), one of its works is called on two planets and tells of the coexistence of two different society types.
  • Thosesecond direction is very technically and scientifically put on (z. B.Hans Dominik), but not necessarily only settled in space, but different technical developments and inventions, which described possible future, partially very exactly and in detail, become. This direction of the future literature is very much vision acre and took inventions and discoveries in some ranges in front (electro-technology, film, helicopter, submarines…). It is coined/shaped of Technikgläubigkeit and euphoria for the science.
  • The third direction describes space adventures. Exemplarily to call the popular German booklet series is Perry Rhodan and the Americans Robert A. Heinlein. This branch of literature speculates to z. B. with thought manipulation, time journey, robots, Androiden, clones or extraterrestrial intelligence, D. h. the future literature plays with periods removed far and is very unreal for many. Here increased also Fantasieelemente with are included.

Temporarily one formedcompletely special direction of the future literature in the states at that time of the Eastern Bloc out (predominantly Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia and GDR). Here the future was usually very optimistically represented and carried by the conception that technology and science would be used only for the well-being of humans (communist future).Stanisław Lem is initial to call here (the astronauts, 1951). Later Lems of works are less communist coined/shaped and other Polish authors. Another example is A. A. Bogdanow the red planet 1908.

A developing new variant is conscious political literature, thosewith Science Fiction Versatzstücken works, in order to open dry circumstances like political economics for new reader layers. Example for this is Christoph Spehr the Aliens is among us 1999.

forerunner

forerunner,

forerunners will generally give it many, who does not have yet dreamed to flyto be able to be invisible to be completely small or completely large? Many think, give it still somewhere in the widths of the universe life? But for the category future literature are only written recordings of stories or novels, of relevance. And there it givesa lot.

classical forerunners

already in the antique one employed humans considerations over flies. An example might be for it the Greek legend around Daedalus and Ikarus, or however the Greek writer Lukian of Samosata (it has for instance between 120to 180 of our time calculation lived) with its lie stories. There is good mountain, translations of some of its works in the project. (http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/autoren/lukian.htm ) its most important of vision acre work however has the title true stories (written about 160 of our time calculation). It describes among other things a travel to the moon andto the stars. In the early modern times the topic moon was particularly used gladly, for example of the baroque writer Cyrano de Bergerac (1619-1655). As example its both novels the journey to the moon and the journey are into the sun mentioned, latter novel unfortunately unfinished. Orthe works of the Englishman Francis Godwin (17. Century, anonymous published, since he was bishop, the flying moving man after the moon, poet travel to the moon, a Spaniard in the moon). A further important representative of the category is Thomas Morus with its novel Utopia,more exactly in the chapter, category direction & name, described. A particularly well-known forerunner, whom also today still many children and young person read gladly, appeared the Englishman to Jonathan Swift with its novel Gullivers journeys, 1726. One finds a scientific good biography among classical authors of the world literature,in the net under:http://www.klassiker-der-weltliteratur.de/swift.htm . The novel is a political satire and acts in the realm of giants and dwarves. A summary of the novel is to be reread under http://www.klassiker-der-weltliteratur.de/gullivers_reisen.htm.

nineteenth century

in the nineteenth century novels with Gruselflair became modern. One the most well-known would be allowed to do Franconia stone(1818 appeared), of the English authoress Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley its (good contribution of the technical University of Hamburg Harburg in the net under: http://www.tu-harburg.de/rzt/rzt/it/shelley.html). In it scientific biology plays a central role, with the Erschaffung of artificial life. In former times a representative, who may not come into oblivion, is the Englishman Edward Bulwer Lytton (1803-1873) (in detail under: http://home.t-online.de/home/benina/Bulwer-Lytton.htm ) with its two works (Zanoni, 1842 and a strange history, 1861). The most well-known English Zukunftsliterat is harsh ore George Wells (the war of the worlds and the time machine). Wells is not a forerunner of the future literature,its Hauptwerke were temporally published after those by Verne. He is actually beside Jules Verne of one the joint founder of the kind future literature. It caused completely new topics to the category. Biology, (the island of the Dr. Moreau 1896 - the gruselige acts of irresponsible biologists,Monsters and creatures create) invisibility, (the invisible one 1897 - it acts of a serum that makes invisible) time journey (the time machine 1895 - acts of time journeys into the future and into the past where is stated that biologically to a weak species develops humanshave) or extraterrestial (the war of the worlds 1898 - destruction Yorks by extraterrestial ones) to harsh ore George Wells gives it in the net an interesting side: http://home.t-online.de/home/Donegal-Danny/wells.htm#Moreau

English representative of the twentieth century

the English future literature is very broadly varied and has a longTradition, as one can recognize forerunners by the chapter. As the first William Olaf Stapledon (1896-1950) would be to be called. It is Pazifist, socialist and professes itself to the Agnostizismus (meant: deny the possibility of being able to meet fundamental definite statements) by its view of life are also affected its works.(Load and roofridge Men, 1930), (load Men in London, 1932) (Odd John, 1935) (star Maker, 1937) (Sirius, 1944) topics in its works are space, Mutanten and religious considerations. A further important representative is CliveStaples Lewis, which lived 1898 to 1963. Its works are strongly affected of the Christian religion. Its most important work within the range is the Weltraumtrilogie (space Trilogie). (Volume 1: Beyond the being silent star, volume 2: Perelandra, volume 3: Bad power). Aldous Huxley (1864-1963) into the category of the future literature authors, its novel beautiful one new world of 1932 is belonged likewise a critical pointer into a world, which is not worth living by their perfection. Exactly the same as Huxley George Orwell with its novel belongs 1984 to the negative utopias.The book came 1949 on the market and points a horror scenario out of a total monitoring state.

famous one German representatives

as founders of the German future literature applies for Kurd letting leaving.
With his technical-industrial works Hans Dominik is called the German Jules Verne. Muchalso in the middle of the last century Paul Eugen victory with its technical future novels (December atom 1936 , southeast Venus 1940 , Insula 1953 , Angolesa 1954 ) or Otto Willi Gail ( the shot in the universe or the stone of the moon) was read, Thea of Harbou (Metropolis -see also the filming Metropolis or woman in the moon of Fritz long), to Friedrich William Mader (miracle worlds) and Otfrid of Hanstein (1869-1959) (Elektropolis or moon Rak I).

other media: Film, play, picture stories, radio play

the range that is described here,lies in the literary sector (novels, stories), but apart from this area gives it still different media, in which the future category is converted. These gained in the last decades strongly significance. There once the range of the film would be to be called, it gives many films andSeries in this area, partially are it book conversions, but partly also particularly for the area film, again brought out works. The next range is less the play, board plays (isolated exceptions). The computer and video games have greater importance. There the adventure play (Adventure) would above all be andto call the Actionspiel. A certain meaning has the radio play, but in this medium for a large part novel conversions were used. As the latter picture stories (Comics) would have sloshed to mention, from the USA after the Second World War to Europe, speak them above all young personon or fans of this medium.

see also

utopian literature, Science Fiction, utopia, Dystopie

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)