twelve-clay/tone music strictly speaking is called a music, if it on basis of a twelve-audio engineering and/or. a “twelve-clay/tone row “one composed. In the broader sense one understands music by twelve-clay/tone music, into on more or less close area all twelveTones occur. There is this far calm kind of the twelve-ton Niger music also in tonal music for instance since that 16. Century. Twelve-clay/tone music strictly speaking is an invention 20. Century. Here it takes the place of the tonality as musical order principle. Twelve-audio engineering is a method of the conscious kompositorischen use of all twelve tones of the clay/tone system level kept at a moderate temperature, usually under the requirement of the tendentious equal rights of all tones (Atonalität). There this conscious application just like the hearing experienceto be very different can be, can of a twelve-audio engineering as such no speech, on the contrary there is large variety at techniques. Twelve-clay/tone music is thereby no music style (like e.g. the Impressionismus) or a music direction, but it designates rather onethe music piece to reason lying way of thinking or composition method.
Twelve-clay/tone music and twelve-audio engineering are general, style-spreading terms. However the expression Dodekaphonie is usually associated with the technology of the “composition with 12 tones”, how it was developed by Arnold beautiful mountain.
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around 1920 in Vienna two different twelve-audio engineerings were developed. The temporally earlier was that Josef Matthias's of Hauers off 1919. Music-historically much influence and consequence-fraughter was however by Arnold the beautiful mountain off approx. 1921 justified „method with twelve tones referred only one on the other “. Today twelve-clay/tone music/technology or Dodekaphonie is predominantly meant the direction decreasing/going back on beautiful mountain with the terms.Starting from approximately 1930 third Viennese was developed a twelve-clay/tone school by the former beautiful mountain pupil Othmar stone farmer. Stone farmer proceeded from Hauers Zwölftonharmonik and sound row formation and developed one around logical sound spread endeavored zwölftönige music, the sound row music, as well as their satztechnische basis, the sound row teachings,a zwölftönige syntax. It would be still another further zwölftönige composition way to call i.e. those of the Viennese composer Fritz Heinrich small (1892-1977) which did not make mentioned above school contrary to the three. Assistant of Alban mountain was small andprovided for instance the piano excerpt to its opera “Wozzeck”. It composed 1920 a zwölftöniges piano work with the title “the machine”. The “discoverer” of the first all interval row, which is used also in mountain “lyric Suite”, was in addition small.
twelve-clay/tone musicafter Josef Matthias Hauer
of Hauers twelve-audio engineering as such, if there are it at all, cannot be described so easily, because within its twelve tonus towards work (see. its biography) different phases and composition techniques can be described.
Hauer developed 1919, on the basis ofits “tone quality theory”, the demand for a tone quality Totalität within a atonalen melody, whose “law” consists of it,” that within a certain clay/tone row clay/tone and be omitted none it may not repeat themselves “(of the nature of the musical one, 1920 - this is at the same timethe earliest description of a twelve-clay/tone row). Its “Nomos” op.19 (1919) is considered as the first twelve-clay/tone composition at all. Hauer developed the 44 Tropics, an order system in the twelve-clay/tone area, with their assistance the over looking and conscious use of the characteristics in the year 1921 (e.g. Symmetries)all possible twelve-clay/tone rows (12! = 479.001.600) is possible. 1926 took place the development twelve tonus towards continuum, a chord sequence formed from the twelve-clay/tone row, which is used further as basis of a composition. Its compositions between 1919 and 1940 are based as far as possible upVariants of a component technology, on tropical technology or on the continuum technology. After 1940 Hauer, constructing on its philosophical considerations, writes only so-called “twelve-clay/tone plays “.
The differences between Hauers twelve-audio engineering and beautiful mountain “composition with 12 tones” are serious. Hauers thinking is increasingly coined/shaped of philosophy and world view, of which Vergeistigung of music, of which break with each individual artistic expression, in addition, with melody and Harmonik, which makes its music also today still an extremely sound-beautiful alternative, where alsoReason for the increasing interest in its compositions to be seen can.
twelve-audio engineering after Arnold beautiful mountain
determining element of the “composition with 12 tones” with Arnold beautiful mountain are sequences, in which all 12 half-tones seem to a Oktave only once(Twelve-clay/tone rows). The tones of the Oktave are regarded thereby contrary to the traditional tonal music as completely equal, the Fasslichkeit of dissonances, is regarded as equivalent with the Fasslichkeit of Konsonanzen (“emancipation of the dissonance “). In factbut are consistently avoided in the Dodekaphonie Konsonanzen, partly even forbidden. The twelve-clay/tone row, their cancer, their reversal and their cancer reversal as well as all 12 Transpositionen of these four forms form the melodische, in addition, the harmonious material source data for a twelve-clay/tone composition.
After that“Dissolution” of the tonality at the beginning 20. Century saw one, since the tonality was overcome as form principle in the music as and regarded become outdated, in the twelve-audio engineering a fundamentally new principle of musical shaping and a logical, evolutionary continuation of music history.
Starting from 1950 composers over twelve-clay/tone rows apart from the pitch began to specify further parameters (clay/tone duration , Tonstärke , tone quality) of the tones. One speaks when this advancement of serial music.
- Arnold beautiful mountain
- Anton webers
- Alban mountain
- Josef Matthias Hauer
- Othmar stone farmer
Web on the left of
- beautiful mountain and the twelve-clay/tone music
- for the history of the development of the twelve-clay/tone music
- Institut for sound row music
- harsh ore Eimert: Text book of the twelve-audio engineering. Broad head & Härtel, Wiesbaden 1952
- Nikolaus Fheodoroff: Josef Matthias Hauer. Writings. Communist manifestos. Documents. Edition Austrian music time, Vienna 2003
- Eberhard Friday: Beautiful mountain. Rohwolt, Hamburg 1973
- Josef Matthias Hauer: Of the nature of the musical one. Waldheim Eberle, Leipzig/Vienna 1920
- Helmut Neumann (Hrsg.): The sound row composition teachings after Othmar stone farmer. 2 volumes, Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Vienna 2001
- Arnold beautiful mountain: Harmony teachings. 3. Edition, universal edition, Vienna 1922
- Arnold beautiful mountain: Style and thought. Fischer paperback, Frankfurt/Main 1992
- Arnold beautiful mountain: Preparatory school of the counterpoint. Universal edition, 1977
- Anton ofWebers:The way to the new music. Universal edition, Vienna 1960
- Johann Sengstschmid: Between Trope and twelve-clay/tone play. Gustav Bosse, Regensburg 1980
- Josef Rufer: The composition with twelve tones. Bear rider, 1966