Hard labour

under hard labour one understands work, to which a person under menace of a punishment or an evil is forced.

The international Labour Organization (IAO) defined 1930 in kind. 2 exp. 1 of the convention over obligation and obligation work the hard labour as involuntary work or service, which is exercised under menace of a punishment.

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hard labour during secondWorld war


during the Second World War in Germany prisoners of war and civilians of the occupied areas were forced to it to replace the missing workers, who were in the war, and to keep above all war production upright. The forced laborers became of the national socialists themselves playing down“Immigrant workers “mentioned. Forced laborers were predominantly used in the agriculture and industry, in addition, public mechanisms, the church, even private people requested forced laborers. The forced laborers received usually knappe a food (in many cases only for the receipt of the worker), partly to one - small- Wages. They were accommodated in forced laborer camps, often barrack camps, with Stacheldraht enclosed. The plenipotentiary for the work input was responsible, Fritz Sauckel.

There the forced laborers many regulations (e.g. over security on the job), were frequently so desired they were not subject that the German Reich a so-called East worker delivery to introduce had, in order to avoid the complete displacement of German workers by forced laborers.

processing after 1945

the hard labour was since end of the war always topic, last end of the 1990er, after forced laborer increases complaints of the survivors with courtswere received. Thereupon decided the German Bundestag, a fund in form of the federal donation “memory to furnish responsibility and future ” which was to compensate former forced laborers. The fund assets amounted to 10 billion D-mark (approx. 5,1 billion euro). This sum became in each case the half of the German state andthe German industry made available, whereby the industry did heavily to apply their portion.

Also conditions of 26. April 2004 at 1.547 million achievement-entitled 2.847 billion euro disbursed (source: Fourth report of the Federal Government over the conditions of the disbursements [1]). According to press release of 15. October2004 [2] are confident the donation to be able to essentially lock the disbursements to the former forced laborer inside up to the summer 2005.

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also in Japan during the Second World War civilians of the occupied areas were forced to the hard labour. Thus hundredthousands of Koreans were shipped to Japan and had to work in Japanese mines and factories. Many men from the Japanese colonies at that time Korea and Taiwan were obligation-recruited in the Japanese military, while many women occupy into that areas to the obligation prostitution and/or sexual slavery were forced and as comfort women so mentioned Japanese soldier to serve had.

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a form of the hard labour places the slavery, with which humans were likewise forced to the work and until today become. Of it to differentiate is the hard labour, which must be carried out in the prisons of nearly all countries in the world.

criminal law

the obligation to works in the youth criminal law as edition has a punishing character, and kind remains in the context. 12 exp. condition in accordance with 2 and 3 GG, as also the work obligations in accordance with § 56b StGB not against condition and one offended.

military service/civil service

according to above definition would be also military service and civil service as well as the so-called in euro-jobsForms of hard labour. An appropriate remuneration would not give it. This form of the hard labour, which discriminates against partially men and which right to free choice of the job undermines, is disputed. The article 4 of the European human right convention, the hard labour forbids, calls the military service as exception.


  • harsh ore, Ulrich: History of the policy on foreigners in Germany. Seasonal worker, forced laborer, immigrant worker, refugees. Beck, Munich 2001 ISBN 3406474772
  • Stephan Jegielka: The KZ-external bearing Genshagen.Struktur and perception of the hard labour in a Rüstungsbetrieb 1944/45, 1. Edition. Tectum publishing house, Marburg 2005, 3-8288-8895-X
  • who spoke of „the immigrant worker”?, FAZ, 5. July 2005, S. 31. Interview with Ulrich harsh ore for the origin and meaning of the term “immigrant worker”.


  • so someone does not want to work, which is not to eat also. (Apostel Paulus in 2. Letter to the Thessalonicher of the Bible)
  • of everyoneHumans have a life right. Who does not work is nevertheless well to eat! (Anna Eberle, member in the executive committee of the federal unemployed person committee of the trade union ver.di)
  • socialism agrees with the Bible if this says: Who does not work, is not to eat also.(August Bebel 1883 into “thoseWoman and socialism ")

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Web on the left of

forced laborer Polish forced laborers (teacher-on-line , Bonn)!

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