Cyprus

Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία
Kypriakí Dimokratía (griech.)
Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti (türk.)
Republic of Cyprus< /font>
Flagge von Zypern Wappen von Zypern
(Detail) (detail)
office language Greek and Turkishly
capital Nikosia (Lefkosía/Lefkoşa)
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Tassos Papadopoulos
surface 9,251 km ²
number of inhabitants 775,927 (July 2004)
population density of 83.9 inhabitants per km ²
independence from Great Britain to 16. August 1960
currency Cyprus Pound
of time belt UTC +2
national anthem Imnos pro tin Eleftherian
Kfz characteristic CY
Internet TLD .cy
preselection +357
Lage Zyperns

the Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία / Turkishly: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island state in the Mediterranean. The island lies in Asia, before which south coast of Turkey removes, not far from Syria and Lebanon. Purely geographically seen Cyprus is in Asia. Many Zyprioten rank themselves among the European culture area.

The authority of the government of the Republic of Cyprus is limited to the griechischsprachigen south part of the island. , As consequence of the Turkish intervention of 1974, since 1983 the internationally not recognized Turkish Republic of north Cyprus forms the northern part of the island. The Republic of Cyprus sees itself as agency of Cyprus. It can with the Cyprus Pound, into which royal-British Basen is paid to sovereigns partially with British Pound and in the north of the country with the new Turkish Lira. The date desired for the introduction of the euro is January 2008. In Turkey the south part of the island becomes official as “Greek part south Cyprus” (tr: Güney Kıbrıs Rum Kesimi) designates.

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geography

Cyprus is the easternmost island in the entire Mediterranean. With a surface of approx. 9,251 km ² (Greek part approx. 5,384 km ², Turkish part approx. 3,355 km ², SBAs Akrotiri and Dhekelia approx. 255 km ², buffer zone approx. 4%) are it after Sicilies and Sardinien the third biggest island in the Mediterranean (west east expansion approx. 230 km, north south expansion approx. 95 km). The distance to the south coast of the Turkish mainland amounts to approx. 75 km, to the west coast of Syria approx. 95 km, to Egypt approx. 325 km and to the nearest Greek island approx. 450 km. Thus Cyprus forms the interface between the continents Europe, Asia and Africa.

Two mountain courses pull the island through: To the coast the sloping, otherwise schroffe chain of the Pentadaktylos (Beşparmak) in the northeast and the volcanic, forest-rich Troodos mountains in the southern interior, with the Olympos (1,952 m) as highest collection. Those approx. 780 km long coast offers partly expanded sand and gravel beaches as well as steeply dropping rock coasts with small bays.

Karte Zyperns

Cyprus possesses today a mediterranes climate with clearly continental development. The southern situation causes higher temperatures than in the northern Mittelmeeraum and the proximity for the Arab part of Asia lets quite often hot desert hoist over the sea blow. The Mediterranean around Cyprus has the highest water temperatures in the entire area. In February about 17 is reached °C, in August around 28 °C.

The country suffers chronically from Wassermangel. The rain time is actually limited to the months Decembers until April. From May to November it is drying and particularly in the interior z. T. very hot. Nikosia has an average maximum temperature of 37 in July and August °C, which is only to 2 °C under the temperature in Dubai, but 8 °C is warmer than on Mallorca. In extreme cases the thermometer in the center of the island in the high summer rises to 47 °C. At the coasts it is during the summer usually on the day 30 to 35 °C warm, at the night cools down it on 23 to 20 °C. The west of the island around the city Pafos is often 2 to 4 °C coolly as the east. In the winter the temperatures between 15 lie under it °C and 20 °C by day, occasionally over it, also rarely. Above 1.500 m there can snow be.

Flora and fauna

satellite photograph of Cyprus

Cyprus is a green island, the forest-richest in the entire Mediterranean area.

Aleppo Kiefern, Steinpinien, plane trees, Zedern and oaks grow „the Black Forest of “Cyprus in the Troodos mountains -. The flat dropping edges of the Troodos are covered with apple -, pears -, peach -, almond - and nut trees as well as with wine fields. In all other respects the picture of the island is coined/shaped by Zypressen , olives - and Johannisbrotbäume.

Oranges - and Grapefruithaine prevail in the environment of Lemesos and Güzelyurt forwards. The “country of the red earth” in the southeast is considered as vegetable garden of Cyprus with potatoes, Auberginen, tomatoes, cucumbers, bulbs and other kinds. Cowardly ones and Granatäpfel grow in the northwest. In the southwest, with Paphos, there are important wine gardens and expanded banana plan days.

In spring a flower carpet covers the island. Not less than 1,800 bloom plants flower, above all Anemonen, narcissuses, Gladiolen, iris, gold-pepper, to tulips and Klatschmohn. Also 44 kinds of Orchideen occur. In the autumn, with the first rainfalls, sprout among other things grape/cluster hyacinths, Weihnachtsstern and cock foot. Bougainvillea flowers through the year.

The Cyprus of the antique ones was covered with forests, today's forests covers only about 17% of the surface of the island (essentially in the Troodos mountains and in the Beşparmak), there interferences of humans, large number of goats and frequent Waldbrände contributed to decrease the forest stand. Nowadays one strives to increase the forest stand by new planting. Surviving newly implanted trees is made more difficult by the lack of water. Some stranger kinds were introduced (different kinds of fir, acacias, spruces, Eukalyptus).

Fossils and archaeological finds prove that on Cyprus into the Nacheiszeit a verzwergte fauna lived mainly from Nilpferden and elephant, which however already became extinct in the Neolithikum. Pigs, cattle, goats, Damhirsche and game sheep as well as foxes and game cats were bring along by the first farmers. The sheep wild ores and lived on the peninsula Akamas. The likewise introduced cattle disappeared after relatively short time and to the Endneolithikum again were only introduced. Today there is the game sheep on Cyprus only, falsely Mufflon mentioned.

The sea turtles come annually to the coasts of Akamas, Varousha and the Karpaz, in order to put eggs. In order to protect and its unhindered reproduction make these animals possible, the zyprische government a program adopted. For the duration of the oviposition the beaches, which sneezed the turtles to prefer, for humans become closed.

Apart from the fish types usual in the Mediterranean tummeln itself at the beaches in the east of the island also animal species, which came by the Suez channel from the Red Sea into the Mediterranean. Like that rust neck parrot fish are, yellow fin doctor fish and. v. A. to admire.

The bird world of Cyprus covers 340 kinds. The island is a passage area of many migratory birds. 46 kinds spend the whole year on Cyprus, and 27 of the kinds of migratory bird sneezed on the island and reproduces themselves there. The forests of the large Troodos mountain chain and the altitudes of the Besparnak are the bird-richest areas. And. A. here the Buchfink , the spruce cross bill , is the zyprische Rebhuhn to find the nightingale and the silk singers.

Round

78% of the population constitute population the 721,000 Cyprus Greeks (2004). The number of the Turkish Zyprer amounts to about 200.000. After the intervention of Turkey as guaranteeing power in the year 1974 in the occupied north under protest of the United Nations about 40,000 Turks were resettled. In addition 30,000 Turkish soldiers come. Exact computations are only difficult because of the lack of current numbers to employ. While in the southern part of the island over 60.000 Turks live, there is in the northern part only 500 Greeks. One goes today from 78% Cyprus Greek and 20% Cyprus Turk (inclusive Settler of the mainland) on the island out.

Beside Greek and Turkish also English becomes and. A. as education and traffic language spoken. The English language is nearly just as important for young Zyprer as the Greek, since most students complete their study directly in Athens or in other countries of Europe or in North America. Since the Turkish intervention live approx. 200.000 Greek Zyprer from the Turkishly occupied north as refugees in the Greek south of the island, the many Turkish refugees from the south created partial localities, whose name reminds of their old places of residence. All older Turkish Zyprioten speaks also Greek, in some villages is the black sea dialect traffic language.

At the north point of Cyprus there are villages, whose maronitische population speaks an Arab dialect. The Kormakiti Arab spoken in Kormakiti is strongly affected by the Greek one in vocabulary, phonetics and grammar and aroused the interest from Arabisten. The young men work today due to its special statute (no military service) to a large extent in the south of the island, during women, children and old people the fields order.

In addition in the north 16,520 students live, on it 14,624 from Turkey. A great many students come also from Palestine.

Religion

the largest part of the inhabitants are orthodox Christians, about 78%. The eastern-orthodox church of Cyprus (also “zyprisch orthodox church”) is already since the council of Ephesos in the year 431 autokephal and is in complete religious community with the other orthodox churches. The türkischsprachige population is to 99% of Sunni - Muslim faith, which constitutes 20% of the population. Approx. 1% of the population belong to the Roman-catholic church . In addition there is also its own Apostoli Nuntiatur (seat of a Nuntius - Ambassador). Likewise approximately 1% the inhabitant are maronitische inhabitants. They possess only on Cyprus resident archbishop.

Administrative arrangement

under the Turkish occupation of the northern part of the island in August 1974 is split the island into a northern part, internationally not the recognized Republic of north Cyprus, and a Greek zyprischen south part. In addition the British maintain large Militärbasen.

Cyprus is distributed on 6 administrative districts: Gazimağusa (Famagusta), Girne (Kyrenia), Larnaka, Limassol, Nikosia and Paphos. Gazimağusa and Girne lie in the Turkish Republic of north Cyprus.

Cities

major items of cities in Cyprus

embedded into the two mountain chains the fruitful Mesaoria level lies, in their center the capital Nikosia (Greek: Lefkosía, Turkishly: Lefkoşa, approx. 195,000 inhabitants) lies. Further larger cities are the ports Larnaca (approx. 66,400 Einw.), Limassol (Greek: Lemesos, approx. 148,700 Einw.) and (Nea) Pafos (approx. 36,300 Einw.) at the south coast (from east to west), as well as Famagusta (tr. Gazimagusa, gr. Ammochostos, approx. 27,700 Einw.) and Kyrenia (gr. Keryneia, tr. Girne, approx. 12,500 Einw.) in the Turkish north. Besides at the southeast coast lain and to an important tourism center the village become earns Agia Napa mention.

Politics

the party system of the Republic of Cyprus are coined/shaped by four large parties:

  • DIKO (conservative) democratic collection - DISY (
  • right) combined democrat - OD (
  • liberal) beside it still four smaller parties
  • are represented a structure party of the worker of people -

AKEL (communist) a democratic party - in the parliament.

Cyprus conflict

1963 gave it to discrepancies between the Turkish minority (19%) and the Greek majority (80%) over condition and laws, practice of the government authority etc. This controversy, of extremists on both sides systematically escalated, not possibly made a further common governing. The Turkish zyprischen cabinet members withdrew themselves from the government and aimed at since then an administered area, during many griechischsprachige Zyprioten the connection at Greece (Enosis) aimed at. 1974 came it to the Putsch of the Greek zyprischen national guard against president Makarios.
After Makarios of the island had fled, Turkey accomplished an intervention on the northern part of the island as guaranteeing power under the impression of a threatening connection of Cyprus at Greece. Since then Turkey in an area has, that approx. 37% of the island correspond, to troops stationed. 1977 died Makarios, and Spyros Kyprianou followed as a president. This was not recognized by Turkey and the Turkish Zyprern however. Whereupon the Greek south arranged restaurant economics against the north. The north for his part answered after pursuits and killings of Turkish Zyprer with driving out of several ten thousands Greek Zyprern and the settlement of several ten thousand Turks from Turkey, whereby the numerical weight of the Turkish population portion was increased opposite the Greek Zyprern. 1983 were proclaimed on the northern part of the island the Turkish Republic of north Cyprus, which is recognized however only by Turkey.

Negotiations under guidance of the UN should bring an approximation of both sides - a tuning over a reunification failed however because of the referendum 2004 in south Cyprus, whose Greek population rejected the reunification attempt with overwhelming majority, while the Turkish population in north Cyprus with large majority was correct for the combination. A concept was intended after the model of Switzerland. Cyprus should confederation of states from two partial states to become, whose inhabitant receives both the zyprische and the nationality of the country, from which they originate. To 4. June 1990 was placed the entry request of Cyprus to the European union, for which in the long run to the entire island applies, since also the European Union does not recognize the Turkish Republic of north Cyprus. Since May 2004 Cyprus is member of the European union.

One may pass the border crossings meanwhile with the car and to foot. The conditions of entry were loosened. One must request only a visa in form of a note at the Turkish authorities at the border. This is then stamped with entry and departure. Direct entries in the passport are not made. The Ledra Palace checkpoint is the largest and most well-known border crossing between both island parts. Customs inspections take place also only sporadically. All in all the situation relaxed somewhat. A longer stay in the Turkishly administered part is problem-free possible with an entry over Turkey, however in former times Cyprus and Greece the entry refused the republic, if the passport were stamped in the TRNZ. Due to an European Union directive [1] European Union citizen the entry over all ports and airports (thus also those in the north) is permitted. Non--European Union citizens should inquire with their respective external office.

Cyprus in the European Union

Cyprus stepped according to international law at the 1. May 2004 of the European Union . Before however an attempt of the reunification of Cyprus was during a popular vote to 24. April 2004 failed because of the refusal in the Greek part. Due to the positive voting result in the Turkishly administered part the European Union decided to support the north annually economically with far over 200 million euro and to ignore the so-called Green LINE between the north and south part. By the Turkish crew it is not at present possible for the European audit office to control for cash flow. Since 1. May 2004 are attendance from and into the Turkishly administered part possible, however with substantial border controls. Before was the Green LINE almost impassable.

See also: List of the heads of state of Cyprus

economics

the data refer only to the part of the island controlled by the internationally recognized government. For the Turkishly administered part no exact numbers are present, it from a substantially weaker economic situation in this part of the island are however generally proceeded.

After a weakening of the economic growth from 4% 2001 to 2,2% 2002 the prognoses are with restraint positive for the year 2003 with approximately 2.3%.

The gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) amounted in the year 2004 on 12.4 billion euro. The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head amounted to about 17,400 euro. To the comparison: In Germany the value lay with approximately 23,100 euro. Nevertheless Cyprus has the highest value of all entry states of the European Union extension of the yearly 2004.

72% the Zyprer work in the tertiary sector, in the agriculture however only 5% of all persons employed. In the routistic developed regions many season forces, particularly active made of Poland, are.

The unemployment ratio amounted to 3,6% before the European Union entry. This value is under the European Union average. The inflation rate amounts to 2%, foreign debts is missing.

Due to the economic structure Cyprus, beside Malta , applies as state of the ten new entry countries developed the furthest.

On Cyprus many Lebanese banks reside since the civil war, which led to a large inflow of funds. Cyprus is one of the largest investors and export your in Russia. Many funds “are reinvested” over Cyprus in Russia (washed), which leads to this strange constellation.

There

are Bodenschätze on Cyprus to copper and asbestos, in the mountains is large marble areas and pyrite mines. There there are also to gypsum rock and salt deposits. At the beaches alumina is diminished.

Agriculture

on Cyprus frequently Zitrusfrüchte are cultivated. In addition the production of vegetable comes. It is nearly amazing that zyprische potatoes belong to the export hits (usually to Great Britain). In the Greek part further barley one cultivates. With many cultivation places (fruit, vegetable and grain) two harvests are expressed in the year by that friendly climate standard. Nearly each family of Greek Zyprer has somewhere on the island still another small piece country, on which for the power consumption one cultivates. However the agriculturally used surfaces become since the European Union entry ever smaller (particularly in the tourist regions), since the British strengthen country and houses for the age resting seat buy, besides in the European Union z. T. Fallow lands to be promoted. In the northern part prefers poultry and lambs drawn up. On the entire island gives it in addition some larger Olivenplantagen. Strange assistant in the agriculture come ever more frequently from the north - completely legal - differently, than in the tourism industry (here primarily Polish season forces).

Currency

the national currency of Cyprus is the Cyprus Pound (int. Contraction CYP). A Cyprus Pound is (since 1983) 100 cent (Σεντ) (and before it 1000 Mils were).

To 29. April 2005 stepped Cyprus the euro rate of exchange mechanism II with to a guidance course of 1 EUR = 0.585274 CYP and may around this average exchange rate ± 15% vary. The euro could be introduced at the earliest to the summer 2007. However is the introduction for the 1. January 2008 planned. Whether Cyprus will create it to make all necessary conversions in time is still questionable. With security one will see the first Cyprus Euros circulating at the latest in the year 2009.

Between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

history

castle of Kyrenia (Girne)

major item: History of Cyprus

the first constant settlement of Cyprus took place in the Jungsteinzeit. In Aetokremnos epipaläolithische findings were excavated, a longer persisting settlement are however uncertain. The neolithische settlement took place in 9. Millenium from Syria. The most well-known village of the Jungsteinzeit is Khirokitia with Kalavassos, further discovery sites from the präkeramischen Neolithikum (PPN B) is Kastros, Shillourokambos, Ais Yiorkis and Tenta. For the Bronzezeit Cyprus supplied the eastern Mediterranean with copper. In the outgoing Bronzezeit commercial towns developed such as Enkomi on Cyprus, which were located in close contact with the Levante.

To the Hethitern Cyprus was as Alasija admitted and is enough time for Handelspartern. Around 1200 v. Chr. the island came under Mykenes influence, ceramic(s) manufactured, which converts mykenische models, these found local to far spreading into the Levante. Afterwards Cyprus was part of the assyrischen, Egyptian and Persian sphere of influence. The Kingdom of salamis achieved gradually the supremacy over the island. 332 v. Chr. the kings changed from Cyprus to Alexander of the large one and Cyprus into its realm were merged. After the decay of the realm Cyprus belonged to the brightistic Ptolemäerreich.

58 v. Chr. arrived the island under Roman rule and remained Roman and eastRoman Byzantine until 1184, last under the independent emperor Isaak Komnenos. The Kreuzritter and the family Lusignan controlled the island until 1489, afterwards the island belonged until 1571 to Venice. 1571 became the island for well 300 years osmanisch.

1878 leased the Osmani realm the island at Great Britain, which assured in response to the Osmani realm support against a raid of the Russians; with the entrance of the Osmani realm into the 1. World war (1914) on sides of the Central Powers was annektiert the island by the British. 1925 became Cyprus crowning colony.

The former British colony became to 16. August 1960 due to the agreement independently of Zurich between Great Britain, Greece and Turkey (1959).

In one of the Greek junta inspired Putsch 1974 president Makarios were fallen. The Putschisten aimed at the affiliation at Greece. With reference to its role as guaranteeing power Turkey intervened and occupied the north of Cyprus.

1983 came the proclamation of the Turkish Republic of north Cyprus (TRNZ), which is not recognized however by all countries of the United Nations except Turkey (see resolution 541 of the United Nations).

In the year 2003 the border between the two regions became for the first time permeable again, it took place the opening of the border crossings for both groups of peoples for attendance in in each case different the part of the island 23. April 2003. 2004 failed however the Annan plan for reunification in a popular vote because of the refusal in the Greek part of Cyprus.

At the 1. May 2004 became Cyprus as divided country member of the European Union.

Historical map of Cyprus of 1888 from Meyers encyclopedia

culture

kitchen

of holidays

see also


Web on the left of

Commons: Cyprus - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Cyprus - word origin, synonyms and translations

literature

of special books

  • Cony Ziegler: Cyprus travel guide - Tipps for individual discoverers, Iwanowski publishing house Dormagen, 6. Edition 2004, ISBN 3-923975-14-7

barking trichloroethylene TIC


coordinates: 35° 07 ' N, 33° 24 ' O

 

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