Cambuslang

Cambuslang (Camas 长期) 是最佳知道为是最大的村庄 , 有人口大约20,500 。 村庄是被找出的正义南部 - 大约6 英哩城市的东南部 .

Cambuslang 大街包括购物和快餐出口的一个大范围。 火车站并且是在大街和是唯一15 分钟火车乘驾入中心 .

内容

Schooling

Primary Schooling in Cambuslang includes- West Coats Primary School, James Aiton Primary School and St Brides Primary School.

Secondary Schooling in Cambuslang includes- Cathkin High School and Trinity High School. There is also Uddingston Grammar School only one train stop down on the Motherwell line.

History

Name

The name of Cambuslang is very old. With very few exceptions, we can only guess at the origins of old place-names, though it helps if the guess is supported by some more or less well-founded speculation. The Reverend Dr John Robertson, Minister of Cambuslang, suggests in the Second Statistical Account of Scotland (1845), a reasonable derivation for the name of his parish. "Cam, in the British and Celtic, transformed by the Scoto-Saxons (sic) into cambus, signifies bending or bowed- usg or uisg means water- and glan, which in composition becomes LAN – denotes a bank or bank of water. Thus Cambuslang appears to signify the water with the bending bank. But whether the camb or cambus is to be sought for in the bending banks of the rivulet which passes the church or in the magnificent sweep of the Clyde, as it winds round the northern end of the parish, it is impossible to say." He gently contradicts his predecessor, and father-in-law, the Reverend Doctor James Meek, who had written the account in the First Statistical Account of Scotland in 1791-99. Dr Meek had said "Cameos, now changed into Camus or Cambus in the Gaelic language, signifies a crooked torrent or rivulet; and LAN or Launse, now changed into Lang, was the name of a saint famous as the founder of many monasteries".

Origins

The Parish of Cambuslang in the Barony of Drumsargard – whose castle ruins can be discerned to the south-east of Hallside - can be traced back to the time of King Alexander II of Scotland (1214-49) when it belonged to Walter Olifard, justiciar of Lothian. The Barony of Drumsargard passed to Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas in 1370, as part of the settlement in his marriage to Johanna, daughter of Thomas Moray of Bothwell. In 1452 the Douglases were displaced in favour of James Lord Hamilton, who became tenant-in-chief in 1455. This feudal superiority remained with the Dukes of Hamilton – who were also the largest landowners – up until 1922, though the abolition of feudalism in Scotland did not come until the end of the 20th Century.

Topography

The Reverend Dr John Robertson, Minister of Cambuslang Kirk, described it, in the Second Statistical Account of Scotland 1845. “It is bounded by the Clyde on the north, which separates it from the Parish of Old Monkland; by the Calder on the east, which separates it from Blantyre; by part of Blantyre and Kilbryde, on the south; and by Carmunnock and Rutherglen on the west.” The highest points in this low-lying Parish are Dechmont Hill (602ft) and Turnlaw (or Turnlea) Hill (553)ft. There are remains of an iron age fort on Dechmont. The land slopes gently downwards to the North West to the River Clyde. The Clyde can overflow the lower parts. Dr Robertson is rather more optimistic, suggesting that ‘the town is traversed by a romantic brook running into the Clyde’. He describes the course of the brook as a ‘romantic gorge’, which is nowadays a park.

The church

The origin of the Parish Kirk of Cambuslang is lost in history, though it is traditionally supposed to have been founded by St Cadoc in the 6th century. Certainly, St Cadoc (or Cadow) is recorded as wandering about the hills of Strathclyde and finally founding a monastery at a spot most likely to have been the current site of the Old Parish Church. However, we hear of its first ecclesiastic about 1180 in relation to the Barony. Later, John Cameron of Locheil was Rector of Cambuslang before he became Bishop of Glasgow. In 1429, as Bishop, he made Cambuslang a prebend of Glasgow Cathedral – meaning that the Rector (or Prebendary) could siphon off its teinds (that is tithes) to pay for one of his officials. The prebendary and his successor were to be perpetual Chancellors of the Cathedral. A later Archbishop of Glasgow James Beaton (or Bethune )was uncle to David Beaton, the Cardinal murdered at the Reformation. James made David Rector (and so prebendary) of Cambuslang in about 1520. The prebendaries had a very fine view of the Cathedral from Cambuslang, but the distance meant they had to reside at Glasgow. Instead, they appointed vicars to care for the souls of the Parish. The vicars were allocated a house and 6 acres (24,000 m²), in an area near the Kirk, which is still called Vicarland. This indicates that the area was (relatively) prosperous. A post-reformation church was erected in 1626 and a village (Kirkhill) grew up around it. A new kirk was built in the middle of the 18th century and this was replaced by the current building during the 19th century.

Our Lady of Cambuslang

Another source of prosperity might have been derived from pilgrims to Our Lady of Cambuslang. Pilgrims had long come to Cambuslang to venerate the "ashes of St Cadoc" so it was not surprising that a chapel was founded in 1379 by William Monypenny, Rector of Cambuslang, and this had been ratified by a Charter of King Robert II (dated the 8 August 1379). The chapel was on the edge of the ravine near Sauchiebog and was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. No trace of the chapel remains. Even its location is in doubt, but local Catholics like to think their current church of Saint Bride’s is built on the spot. Nineteenth Century maps suggest it was situated where the Kirkburn gorge crossed the Caledonian Railway. Moreover, there are vestiges of an ancient hospital at Spittal (still called so to this day) some 2.5 miles SE of the Kirk. This again is suggestive of pilgrimages, in search of cures, which is confirmed by the fact that the Chapel was recorded as a valuable commodity at the time of the Reformation.

Prosperity

The soil in Cambuslang was a light loam, suitable for cultivation but its mineral reserves are what brought modern prosperity. There was a limestone so fine as to be called ‘Cambuslang marble’. This is capable of a very high polish. A good example can be seen in an 18th Century fireplace in the Duke of Hamilton’s old hunting lodge at Chatelherault Country Park near Hamilton. (The Hamiltons were Jacobites who got French titles during their exile). However, coal was mined from the 16th century and ironstone from the 18th, and it was these that brought industrial wealth. The extensive ironworks also attracted engineering and manufacturing during the 19th and 20th Centuries - the most prominent being Mitchell Engineering and Hoover (in the process of being shut down). There is also reference to a trade in violet quartz and turkey-red dyeing, associated with the textile industries of nearby Dalmarnock. The standard limestone of the area was used in building – most of the elegant 19th century villas which cover most of today’s Cambuslang were built of limestone, quarried on the spot, or from several quarries, including two at Wellshot and Eastfield.Nowadays, Cambuslang takes advantage of its proximity to the motorway system and has developed several industrial estates and distribution centres.

The Reverend Doctor James Meek wrote the entry for the First Statistical Account of Scotland (published 1791 to 1799). He writes clearly, elegantly, and enthusiastically. He was a true Enlightenment cleric. On the one hand he records personally-gathered and extensive data on weather, population, farming, industry, history, transport and local personalities. He gets quite carried away with enthusiasm in describing the great improvements brought to Cambuslang in the late 18th Century as a result of applying reason and science to practical problems. The opening of the turnpike road to Glasgow was a particular joy. This allowed locals access to a burgeoning market (and allowed them to bring in cartloads of city manure in return). But he lays out a parallel table showing the vast improvements between 1750 and 1790.

The Cambuslang Wark

On the other hand, he is rather distrustful of any suggestion of ‘enthusiasm’ in religion. He realises he is on contentious territory so he affects to tell the whole story of the ‘Cambuslang Wark’ (Cambuslang Work) of 1742 with due dispassion. At the top of the gorge, near the kirk, is a ‘natural amphitheatre on the green side of the ravine’ where the Methodist preacher George Whitefield came to preach in the open. This was part of the Great Awakening or Revival, affecting the whole of the U.K. and stretching to the colonies in North America. As Dr Meeks successor (and son-in-law) Dr Robertson describes it in the Second Statistical Account it occurred from the 15th of February the 15th of August 1742 under the ministry of the Rev Mr Mcculloch ‘when in an encampment of tents on the hillside, Whitefield, at the head of a band of clergy, held, day after day a festival, which might be called awful, but scarcely solemn, among a multitude calculated by contemporary writers, to amount to 30,000 people.’ Dr Robertson had inherited his father-in-law’s suspicion of ‘enthusiasm’.A centenary event was held on the 14th of August 1842 attracting from 10,000 to 20,000 participants.

Population

Dr Robertson also carries on Dr Meek’s own enthusiasms – for collecting detail of the progress of science and industry in Cambuslang, as indicated by a growing populations which he tabulates thus:

Year Population
1755 934
1775 1096
1785 1088
1791 1288
1796 1558
1801 1616
1807 1870
1811 2035
1815 2045
1821 2301
1831 2697
1835 2705

Census data (given in the Gazetteer of Scotland in 1901) shows that the population had grown in 1881 to 5538. By 1891 it was 8323. Dr Robertson says that most of the population lived in ‘villages’ (really very small hamlets) while the rest lived in ‘rural areas’. None of the villages bore the name of Cambuslang (this was the parish). Their names are retained in district names to this day but Dr Robertson recorded the thirteen villages as Dalton, Lightburn, Deans, Howieshill, Vicarland, Kirkhill, Sauchiebog, Chapelton, Bushy hill, Culluchburn, Silverbank, East Coats, and West Coats.

Heritors

He also gave details of the ‘heritors’ (the landowners who appointed the minister and schoolteacher and set the rates to pay for them and the poor rate). The most important heritor was still (in 1845) the Duke of Hamilton but all the estates, big and small, were listed, with their area.

Estate Area
(acre) (m²)
Cambuslang 3507 14 190 000
Westburn 800 3 240 000
Newton 361 1 460 000
Spittal 203 822 000
Moriston 50 202 000
Rosebank 50 202 000
Daviesholm 50 202 000
Hallside 50 202 000
Crookedshields 50 202 000
Caldergrove 20 81 000
Chapel 5 20 000
Letterick 4 16 000
Do. 3 12 000

Not all these heritors lived in the Parish (for example the Parish Records indicate that the Duke was always represented by a minion), but Dr Robertson opines. "The number of families of independent fortune residing occasionally or permanently in the parish is about 5. There are about 7 fatuous persons and 2 blind." (not among the heritors, one presumes).

A railway suburb

By the end of the 19th century, many of the population were ‘well-off Glasgow businessmen’ (according to the Gazateer of Scotland) who could now reach their country seat by train. Many of the heritors had sold off their estates for building. In the late 1860s, Thomas Gray Buchanan sold of the ‘lands of Wellshot’ on which elegant limestone and slate roofed mansions were built. His own mansion house still exists – a very modest, and not very pretty, early 19th century country house, situated in Milton Avenue off ‘Buchanan Drive’ – though it is divided into flats. The original wall to its orchard and garden can be seen on Brownside Road – the limestone blocks are roughly hewn as opposed to more ‘modern’ villas whose machine cut stones are very regular.

Buildings

The following is largely taken from Williamson et al (see Bibliogrpahy)

Churches

Cambuslang Baptist Church (1895, by William Ferguson). New Testament Greek ‘classical style’ typical of Baptist churches, with an ‘ingeniously planned’ Memorial Hall at the rear (1932, by Millar and Black).

Cambuslang Flemington Hallside Church (1885, with halls of 1929) in simple lancet style.

Cambuslang Old Parish Church (1839-41, by David Cousin; chancel rebuilt in 1919-22 to plans drawn up before the First World War in 1913 by MacGregor Chalmers; War Memorial 1921 by MacGregor Chalmers; Halls 1895-7 by A Lindsay Miller, extended 1968). This is the successor to the original and subsequent parish churches, with some memory of it medieval predecessors in its Transitional style, if a bit ‘English’ in perspective. A stone inscribed ‘AMT 1626’ inside the spire may be a relic of the first post-reformation kirk. The arms the Heritors are displayed on the walls of the kirk, with those of the Duke of Hamilton, as chief Heritor, appearing a dozen times. The current decorative scheme dates from 1957-58 includes stained glass windows (by Sadie McLellan) 显示圣Cadoc, 基督生活和工作作为教会的激情的头, 标志和天使。 挂毯, 还由McLellan, 包括安格斯・Dei, 灼烧的布什。 器官1896 年是 方丈& 史密斯 1968 年利兹和被重建了 彼得・Conacher Huddersfield 。 响铃是题写的MIH 1612 年(为 约翰・休斯敦, heritor) 和CH (查尔斯・Hogg, 爱丁堡响铃创建者) 。

苏格兰St Andrews 教会 (1961-6, Beveridge & Dallachy). 这是新市中心` 的一部分以许多普遍的动作的。 在一个庭院里是' 基督和圣安德鲁' 安心(由 托马斯・Wallen, 并且设计字体和圣坛路面) 。 陈设品和污□玻璃窗是19 世纪遗物从被拆毁的Rosebank 和西部教区教会。 器官是 坎顿.

St 新娘的天主教教会 是一个小教会1902 年, 可能在中世纪教堂的站点致力我们的夫人。

St Cuthbert 的主教教会 1909 年是教会的大厅计划由HD Walton 但从未被修建。 土地是有天赋的 Anne, 哈密尔顿的公爵夫人.

St 保罗' 团结的自由教会 (1904-5, 亚历山大・Petrie).

三位一体教区教会 (1897-99, 威廉Ferguson). 原始一个团结的长老派教会, 它是红色Corncockle 砂岩在自由地被解释的Perp 样式, 给周围的郊区的财富做广告。 被弄脏的玻璃展示, 在画廊, ` 复活' 斯蒂芬・亚当 (在1914 以后) 并且, 在东部走道, ` 基督的词条入耶路撒冷' 由Gordon 韦伯斯特(1947)

其它大厦

Drumsargard 城堡 在Hallside 附近。 一个圆土墩是非常保留, 虽然石头是半新c1775 修建Hallside 农场。

Gilbertfield 城堡 - 17 世纪筑堡垒于的房子柔和地现在腐朽。

Wellshot 议院 - 原物及早19 世纪豪宅房子 托马斯灰色Buchanan, 在土地19 世纪后期世纪别墅郊区被修造。 墙壁对他的果树园能被看见对Brownside 路, 并且(因此此被要求) gatehouse 。

Westburn 议院Do'cote(18 世纪) - 现在在Cambuslang 高尔夫俱乐部地面。 1685 年Westburn 议院被修建了和被拆毁了在19 世纪的结尾。 dovecote 是非常保留。 这是八角型, 唯一有房间, 与ogee 板岩屋顶, 二个圆窗口和一个低门。 在上面, 四个鸠孔和他们附近一支连续的stringcourse 附带笔。 1978 年Harled 。 在有里面488 个巢孔与板岩鸟类栖息处。

Cambuslang 公立图书馆 - 县理事会架设 约翰・Stewart 1936-38 - ` 一个长距离以被剥离的古典细节' 。

时髦宾果游戏 被修造了在1929 作为剧院(开胃菜剧院, 约翰・Fairweather) 哪些成为了一个戏院(时髦戏院) 在30 年代。 它有典型的19 世纪古典fa1cade 和未损坏的内部和被刻记的玻璃商店前线。

Cambuslang 保龄球俱乐部, 1874 年建立, 当这个郊区被计划了, 有一个古典门户和亭子与也许是更晚) 的一个微型华丽的塔(。

Cambuslang 公立学校 (1882-83, Lindsay 米勒; 以后大厦贸易的Cambuslang 学院附录; 目前老人院) 。 附近有Tudor 哥特式样式一装饰fa1cade, 和pre-1910 更加简单的引伸。

詹姆斯・Aiton 小学 (1974 的县理事会架设年, 爱德华・亚伦) 这是岗位廉价公寓发展的一部分。 这是一个故事, 通报, 打开计划和预制。

St 新娘的小学 (1936 年, 约翰・Stewart 县理事会) 。 修造作为RC 推进了分部学校, 以他的` 特殊严厉被剥离的古典方式' 。

Cambuslang 学院 (1892-8, Lindsay 米勒; 延伸1906 年和1910 年。 1978-83 内部现代化了。

健康学院 (1926 年, 约翰・Stewart, Lanarkshire 县委员会建筑师) 。 它是相似在样式与他的其它大厦如果一少许更加国内。

警察营房 (1911 年, 1982 转换成被庇护的住房) 有一有吸引力的17 世纪doorcase 附寄Lanarkshire 警察的胳膊。

Rosebank Dyeworks (1881 年直到1945) 结合以希腊关键样式在白色砖在红色和视觉上非常醒目, 与一栋双重被投的屋顶和响铃塔楼。

胡佛工厂 (1946 年和以后) 是大和现代和现在被倒空。

新市中心 1965 (完成) 有一个美好的公开正方形在现代派样式, 由商店二个故事和高公寓单元围拢, 所有形成一中意整体。 更多brutalist 块是进一步对西部。

社会住房 是宜人和各种各样的- 村庄舱内甲板` 适合为英雄的(20 年代); 艺术装饰砖修剪在漂白回报(30 年代); ` modernist ' (50 年代和60s) 并且brutalist (60 年代和70 年代) 。

郊区别墅 以各种各样的样式, 但主要标准苏格兰Victorian (以Italianate 的提示) 新公寓被架设在所有区域。

政治

Westminister

Cambuslang 是在 Rutherglen 和哈密尔顿西部 英国议会顾客为Westminister 竞选。 有全体选民73,950 在大选的2003 年5月1 日, 43,261 投票(ie 出席者是58 。5%) 托米・McAvoy 保留了位子为 以大多数16,112 (37.2%) 。 其他人是 伊恩・Robertson (自由派民主党人) - 7942 个表决(18.4%); Margaret 公园 () - 6023 个表决(13.9%); 彼得・Crerar () - 3621 个表决(8.4%); Bill ・Bonar () - 1164 个表决(1.1%); Janice Murdoch () - 457 个表决(1.1%)

Holyrood

Cambuslang 是在 格拉斯哥:Rutherglen 苏格兰议会顾客为议会在Holyrood 。 在2003 年6月, 49,512 味选举人是有资格投票。 出席者是23,560 (47.6%) 。 Janice 休斯 保留了位子为 以10794 个表决, 大多数6303 (26.8%) 。 其它候选人是 罗伯特・布朗 (自由派民主党人) - 4491 个表决(19.1%); Anne McLaughlin () - 3517 个表决(14.9%); Gavin 布朗 () - 2499 个表决(10.6%);Bill Bonar () - 2259 个表决(9.6%) 。

南Lanarkshire 委员会

委员被选举为Cambuslang 在2003 地方选举是

病区63 Cambuslang 中央 鲍伯・Rooney (劳方)

病区64 Cathkin/Springhall Russell Clearie (劳方)

病区65 Fernhill Patricia Osbourne (劳方)

病区66 Kirkhill/Whitlawburn 大卫Baillie (自由派民主党人)

病区67 Eastfield JohnMcGuinness(劳方)

著名居民或连接

圣徒 CadocCadow (死去的c 570) 驰名建立了一monestary 在当前老教区教会的站点在第六个世纪的第二个一半。 Cadoc 是足够有名望的在他的一生使地方院长求助对他解决争端。 这名誉很好持续了入中世纪, 庄严的债券和誓言发誓他的(或他的追随者的) 遗骸的。 在改革之前, 欲望是interred "的地方著名的左边与圣Cadoc 灰". 他今天记住以一所地方小学的名义。

- , 是驰名横渡了克莱德在"飞行物浅滩" 当她出逃了到英国从 , (). 浅滩位于Kirkburn 进入河的地方, 在桥梁之下在超级市场附近。

主要 大卫Beaton 是神父和prependary Cambuslang 从1520 年。 (参见上面) 。

Lt , ' 先生s 生活 , 住在17 世纪城堡遗骸的, 虽则在废墟的Westburn 和Gilbertfield - 。 他对应了与 阿伦・Ramsay 并且他的诗歌被称赞了在书信 - 他提到了他作为"Gilbertfield" 的地方。

Claudius Buchanan 1766 年出生在Cambuslang 对男校长。他的姥爷被转换了在Cambuslang Wark 。 1815 年他死了在Hertfordshire 。 他的研究在剑桥支持了 , 反奴隶制运动家。 他的书和出版物寻求加强基督徒存在在印度导致一个教育和ecclessiastical 结构的安装。 , 在她的信件的当中一个中, 公开宣称爱这些书。 他被尊敬了为他的传教士工作由格拉斯哥并且牛津大学和他似乎挣足够的金钱在印度资助几个奖促进传教士活动后面家。

大卫山谷 , - 、苏格兰实业家和慈善家。 他的努力建立一家棉花转动的工厂在Flemington 失败了但是非常成功的作为共同创立者 新Lanark 1786 年磨房。 山谷拥有了Rosebank 庄园在Cambuslang, 他使用作为一个夏季修养所从他的连栋房屋(驰名仍然站立) 在夏洛特街道格拉斯哥里并且对他退休了和居住直到他的死亡的地方。 庄园被卖了在他的死亡以后对Caledonian Railway Company, 划分它在二(容纳新铁路) 。 一半对包括的Rosebank 议院) 的北部铁路线(最终成为了Rosebank 工业庄园(包括Rosebank Dyeworks 。 南部的一半被卖了 托马斯灰色Buchanan, 格拉斯哥客商, 与建立Buchanan 街道在格拉斯哥, 建立国家撤退在Wellshott 议院的Buchanan 有关(仍然站立) 仅他的儿子迈克尔卖土地修建郊区别墅在19 世纪60 年代的。

约翰・Claudius Loudon - 著名花匠(或宁可"园艺作家、dendrologist 和设计师") 出生在Cambuslang 对一个可敬的种田的家庭。 他写了 百科全书从事园艺 , 被发明做可能如此巨大的温室象的一flexibible 钢酒吧框格 棕榈议院在 并且 . 他并且放下了样本semi-detatched 房子(在Porchester 大阳台, 伦敦), 满足紧急(和追求者) 中产阶级的需要。

先生 托马斯・Lipton 茶名望居住在Johnstone 别墅在Cambuslang 并且(detatched) 别墅在Wellshot - 现在北部街道健康中心的当中一个- 由伯母占领了。 他经常驾驶在样式在a 支架和四向格拉斯哥。

空气副法警约翰B 华莱士 (负担1907) 来自Cambuslang 。 他是Director-General 医疗服务, 皇家空军代理从1961 年到1966 年。

Mick ・McGahey, ( - ) 苏格兰矿工领导, 工作在Cambuslang 矿。 有一份重大纪念品(以矿工作的形式) 对他在大街的东边。

大卫Forbes Martyn, 物理学家和家伙 皇家社会, 基础家伙 澳大利亚科学院 1906 年并且它的总统在1969-70 出生在Cambuslang 和死1970 年

麦克・华森 - a 生活同辈, 2005 年1949 年华森阁下Invergowrie - 谁被给了16 个月做牢为恣意的fire-raising - 出生在Cambuslang, 及早虽则行动向Invergowrie 在邓迪附近。

Midge Ure 流行歌手 Slik 并且 和主导的运动家反对世界渴望- 包括 居住8. 他是出生詹姆斯・Ure 在Cambuslang 在1953 年10月10 日和被授予了名誉学位信件的医生在在2005 年10月的邓迪Abertay 大学。

斯科特・哈里逊 世界拳击组织, (WBO), 羽量级冠军在2002 年出生在1977 年8月19 日和带来Cambuslang 。

更多信息

对于更多信息关于Cambuslang 参见:

Cambuslang & Rutherglen 地区办公室
城镇厅
Rutherglen G73 1BR
苏格兰

参考书目

外在链接

 

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