Diaguita

Diaguitas: denomination runa sini or kechua - disclosed soon by the Spaniards of a set of independent towns with a common language: kakán; they autodenominaban themselves pazioca or paccioca.

They inhabited hills and valleys of the northwest of -NOA, in which today it is , Tucumán, Catamarca, The Rioja, north of San Juan and the Chilean Great North ,Atacama,. Still rest of their ingenious constructions called by kechua are conserved púkara (better than it will pucará)como the Ciudadela of Quilmes, in Tucumán, or Tolombón,Chicoana,,Atapsi and Hard Burned in It jumps, etc.

In NOA and Great North Chilean, specially in Calchaquíes Valleys, as of year 850, the diaguitas developed a culture of great wealth, that, archaeologically corresponds with Santamariana culture. They lived in towns drawn up very well and organized, they used metals and they were excellent potters. First they offered tenacious resistance to the invasion kechua or -1471 to 1533 -; soon, with dignity and fierceness, they managed to resist more than one hundred years the advance of the Spaniards:Calchaquíes Warsthose,en that honored the heads Viltipoco(1561),Chelemín,Juan Calchaquí,Koronhuila (called by the Spaniards "Crown") and even the peculiar adventurer Andalusian "Bohorquez - or Pedro Chamijo -. When the Spanish conquest began, 1561, they formed a great army to the control of Juan Calchaquí obtaining to even reject the invaders Santiago of the Matting. But in 1665 conquerors, that had founded several cities as a wall (the foundation of the city of closed such wall by the North), managed to overcome them. In order to avoid rebellions, the Spaniards divided and uprooted to the diaguitas. Quilmes, was forced to walk from Tucumán to Buenos Aires, to the locality that today takes its name. Some diaguitas coming from Calchaquíes Valleys they managed to find refuge in the Austral Chaco making alliance with ethnic groups pampidochaqueñas like those of abipones and mok'oy or mocovís, this explains two questions partly: the great chaqueños rises immediate to the aim of Calchaquíes Wars, one of such rises meant the destruction of the Spanish city of Conception of Bermejo - located to borders of old cuce of Bermejo river, in territory of the present Argentine province of ; the other question that is explained almost to the knowledge of such exodus from the Calchaquíes Valleys to the borders of average the Parana river is the existence of topónimos that remember to them, for example the one of the city of Calchaquíes in the North center of the province of .In all these cases the group of paziocas or "diaguitas" must remember that that autodenominó "calchaquí" became in tribute its main leader, the mentioned head Juán Calchaquí (Kalchakí).

If practically all paziocas that they resisted to the Spanish invasion were uprooted or deported when concluding the Diaguita War (or, Calchaquí War), some parcialidades were dealt with something more of indulgence to not to have participated in such conflict, so is the case of Amaicha, which could thus remain in their ancestral territories (in sector Calchaquíes the Valley corresponding to the province of ).

Table of contents

Culture Pazioca or Diaguita

Although their origins differ from the towns andidos (pazioca had lineages huárpidos,pampidos and andidos); at least from the call Tiawanaku horizon they received important cultural influence (religious, styles of ceramic etc) from Walk Central - that is to say, from the Andean region located between 20ºS and the line of Ecuador -. Although of cultures very similars, by some characteristics - in special linguistic many etnógrafos they make a separation of pazioca or diaguitas themselves with respect to atacamas (or alpatamas of language cunza - become related to ilkam-antai) inhabitants of Puna, u omaguacas, lípe and tomata - of language ilkam-antai(inhabitants of the mountain ranges of Tarija and the north of ), capayán inhabitants of the Southeastern of and north of , and olongastas inhabitants of the Southeastern of and the west of Santiago of the Matting.


Pottery

The diaguitas made wonders with the ceramics. Each family made her pots, pitchers and vasijas. In addition, there were specialized craftsmen who made true works of art, like the funeral ballot boxes, where the diaguitas buried to their deads. Some of these decorated ballot boxes, have been conserved and are exposed in museums.


Society

The communities were governed by a political and military head. But to inherit the position, it was not enough with being the son of the head: the heir had to demonstrate that he had conditions to command, this way to the arrival of the Spaniards,el diaguita territory or pazioca was divided in headquarters and señoríos. The head was polígamo, but the rest of the population was monogámica. There was no sacerdotal class, as yes there were it between or . But each town had a priest (of type "chamánico")que was in charge of the rites, the religious ceremonies and the health of the population. They were divided in parcialidades like the one of kilme ("quilmes"), amaichas, abaucanes, tucumanaos, hualfines, yocaviles etc.


Religion

They adored to and to the Pachamama, mother earth. They thought that she had taught to them to cultivate, to raise and to make chicha. They carved menhires (placed monolithic monuments in vertical form) to render cultured to its ancestors, menhires of the NOA, as other similar constructions are itifálicos and asociabán with seasonal cults of the fertility, these monuments already were erected by the precedent archaeological culture Tafí.


Agriculture and cattle ranch

head it distributed earth and it organized the construction and the care of the terraces of culture in slopes of . The Earth in common worked, and part kept from the harvest in the communal deposits. They cultivated zapallo,,, porotos, red peppers, ("potato") and and collected wild fruits, like those of carob tree. Also they raised flames and alpacas, mainly in the high zones and you cold. The Popes and quínoa (a native plant) were seeded in the highest zones (in terraces and platform of culture). With "I mark" or Creole carob tree, the diaguitas or paziocas covered several with their basic necessities. They used the wood like firewood or for the manufacture of énseres; from the crust and the root they obtained red to dye wools and fabrics, and of its fruits they made flour to cook a called bread patay. Also they prepared a called drink it lodges, seemed to the beer. At the moment the zone where they lived is almost . The studies of Ana Maria Lorandi among others they reveal that at the moment the very barren ones when no, directly desert, territories that populated paziocas they were, until almost d.C, fertile zones to a large extent populated by forests of "carob tree", the immediate desertización was consequence of the Spanish invasion: in the first place the Spaniards destroyed or set afire earth to defeat by means of the hunger to paziocas, once gained the victory these natives, the conquerors introduced massively goat and ovine who taken one practice of sobrepasturing in the course of two centuries transformed the orchards into uncultivated.

Other Data

As it has been indicated, the culture pazioca or "diaguita" properly corresponds with the called archaeological culture Santamariana Culture * - circa 850 d.C to 1480 d.C and even until 1570, although, preceding to this culture, corresponds to observe other cultures that existed in the area of paziocas:

*:The periodización and even the classification of the Santamariana culture, like the one of the archaeological cultures, is put under actualmente(2005) a fort revision process, in spite of it, at the moment seems more the practitioner to rely on such denominations.

 

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