estructuralismo it is an approach of human sciences that it grew until becoming one of the methods used more to analyze language, culture and society in second half of century XX. The term, nevertheless, one does not talk about a school of thought defined clearly, although the work of Ferdinand de Saussure he is considered habitually like a point of origen. The estructuralismo can be seen like a general approach with a certain number of variants. Their influences and developments are complex.
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In ample terms, estructuralismo it looks for to explore the interrelations ( structures) through which the meaning within a culture takes place. In agreement with the structural theory, within a culture the meaning is produced and reproduced through several practices, phenomena and activities that serve like meaning systems. A estructuralista studies as diverse activities as the preparation of the food and the rituals to serve it, religious rites, games, literary and nonliterary texts, and other forms of entertainment to discover the deep forms of production and reproduction of meaning in a culture. For example, one of the first and more prominent representatives of the estructuralismo, anthropologist and etnógrafo Claude Lévi-Strauss, it analyzed cultural phenomena like mythology, the systems of kinship and the preparation of the food.
When it is used to examine Literature, a critical estructuralista will examine the underlying relation between the elements ( structure) of, for example, a narration, more than to focus in the content. This approach allows to compare and to find bonds and similar structures in works pertaining to different times and cultures.
For some, the structural analysis aid to discover the structure logically completes that it sublies to many of the phenomena of the social and cultural life. For others, the estructuralismo reads too much deeply within texts (in ample sense) and it allows that the investigator invents meaning who is not really there. A great variety of intermediate tactically important positions exists between these ends and many of the present debates on this school are located in this line.
The Course of linguistic general of Saussure
Course of linguistic general of the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1916) he is considered generally like the origin of the estructuralismo. Although Saussure was, like its contemporaries, interested in linguistic historical, in Course it developed a general theory of semiología. Saussure elaborated a system of concepts or elements with the purpose of framing a science that studies the phenomena of the language; linguistic. And a science that includes all the theory of the signs; semiótica. The first elements of this system are: language that is simultaneously a social institution and a system of values. Besides to have the characteristic of being a system of relations that marks a difference, a distinction inside a system of oppositions and resistances. In language opposition it is the individual act of language, call speaks. The other fundamental elements of the semiótica are significant (it marks written or oral, acoustic impression), meaning or concept of the thing. The meeting of these two elements constitutes sign. But the significant relation between and meaning are arbitrary, a natural bow does not exist that can make analogy between the sound or the image with the indicated object. Both remaining elements, they are system and sintagma. It stops Roland Barthes the system, or the axis of the selection, one talks about to a set of units with marks common in which they are possible to be associated in the memory, in order to soon form groups in which it dominates diverse relations. On the other hand it is sintagma; Barthes relates it to the combination of signs that has like support the extension; for the language this extension is linear and irreversible. As it were indicated above, the object of the linguistic one is the language. It is the study that as much includes the written sign as articulated under the levels acoustic, morphologic, syntactic, semantic lexicon and. The linguistic one would not be interested in the speech, then the language to the being general science, one is interested in the constants that do not vary between languages.
Linguistic Estructuralismo and
Course of Saussure it influenced many linguists in the period between World War I and World War II. In The United States, Leonard Bloomfield it developed his own linguistic version of the structural one, whereas Louis Hjemslev it did the same in Scandinavia. In France, Antoine Meillet and Émile Benveniste they continued with the saussuriano program. The most important development came nevertheless, of the members of School of the Prague, like Roman Jakobson and Nikolai Trubetzkoy, whose investigations would be very influential. The clearest and influential example of the estructuralismo of the School of the Prague is in the concept of fonología (also called fonémica). Instead of simply compiling a list of the sounds that appear in a language, the members of the School tried to examine how they were these related. They determined that the inventory of sounds in a language could be analyzed in terms of series of resistances. For example, in English the words ' pat' and ' bat' are different because the sounds of ' p' and ' b' sound of resisted way. The difference is in which the hablante vocalizes ' b' and not it ' p'. Then, in English a resistance between vocalized and not vocalized consonants exists. To analyze the sounds in terms of sonorous resistance allows to make a comparative approach; it makes clearer, for example, that the difficulty that the hablantes of Japanese they must to differentiate ' r' and ' l' in English it must to the fact that the sounds of those letters are not contrastantes in Japanese. Although this approach is now standard in linguistic, he was revolutionary in its time. fonología convirtiría in the paradigmática base for the estructuralismo in a great variety of forms.
The estructuralismo of the second postwar period
After World War II and particularly in 60's, the estructuralismo acquired prominencia in France and was the initial popularity in this country the one that caused that it expanded everywhere.
During 40's and 50's, existencialismo, like the practiced one by Jean-Paul Sartre it was the dominant intellectual fashion. The estructuralismo rejected the notion of radical human freedom and it focused in the forms in which the human conduct is determined by cultural structures, social and psychological. The more important initial work in this sense was the work of Claude Lévi-Strauss Structural the elementary ones of the kinship (1949).
Lévi-Strauss had known Jakobson during estadía both in New York during the Second War and was influenced so much by the estructuralismo of Jakobson like by the North American anthropological tradition. In The elementary structures, Lévi-Strauss examined the kinship systems from a structural point of view and demonstrated how apparently different social organizations were in fact exchanges of few basic structures of kinship. In the end of the decade of the ' 50 it published Structural anthropology, a collection of tests that outlined a program for the estructuralismo.
At the beginning of the ' 60, the estructuralismo as movement were in the heat of development and some thought that it could offer an approach unified for the study of the human life that would include all the disciplines. Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida they were concentrated in how the estructuralismo could be applied to Literature. Jacques Lacan (and, in a different form, Jean Piaget) they applied it to psychology, mixing to Freud with Saussure. The book of Michel Foucault The words and the things it examined the history of human sciences to study how the structures of epistemología or episteme they forged the way in which the knowledge is used. (although later Foucault would deny explicitly any entailment with the estructuralista movement). Louis Althusser it combined marxism with the estructuralismo to create its own way of social analysis. Other authors inside and outside France have extended the structural analysis to practically any discipline.
Reactions to the estructuralismo
Today the estructuralismo has been surpassed by approaches like postestructuralismo and deconstrucción. Many reasons for this exist. The estructuralista school has been criticized by its ahistoricidad and to favor a structural determinism instead of emphasizing the capacity of action of the individuals. The political turbulences of ' 60s and ' 70s (and particularly the student rises of French May) they began to affect the academy, and they brought to the center of the scene the relations between the power and the political fight. In ' 80s, the deconstrucción and its emphasis in the fundamental ambiguedad of the language - more than in its crystalline logical structure - became popular. At the end of century XX, the estructuralismo considers an important school of thought, although the attention is put in the movements that it generated, more than in itself.
ESTRUCTURALISMO: Scientific and methodologic doctrine that studies the data within the groups to that they belong and considering the relations that settle down among them:
THE ESTRUCTURALISMO: descriptive functionality is a method eminently: Set of characteristics that cause that something is practical and utilitarian. The estructuralismo: it is an approach of human sciences that grew until becoming one of the methods used more to analyze the language, the culture and the society in second half of century XX. The term, nevertheless, one does not talk about a school of thought defined clearly, although the work of Ferdinand de Saussure is considered habitually like a point of origen. The estructuralismo can be seen like a general approach with a certain number of variants. Their influences and developments are complex. The estructuralismo looks for to explore the interrelations (the structures) through which takes place the meaning within a culture. In agreement with the structural theory, within a culture the meaning is produced and reproduced through several practices, phenomena and activities that serve like meaning systems. A estructuralista studies as diverse activities as the preparation of the food and the rituals to serve it, religious rites, games, literary and nonliterary texts, and other forms of entertainment to discover the deep forms of production and reproduction of meaning in a culture. For example, one of the first and more prominent representatives of the estructuralismo, the anthropologist and etnógrafo Claude Lévi-Strauss, it analyzed cultural phenomena like mythology, the systems of kinship and the preparation of the food. When it is used to examine Literature, a critical estructuralista will examine the underlying relation between the elements.