Iran

Islamic republic of Iran it is a country of Oriente.medio. Even 1935 he was well-known like Persia. The country limits with Pakistan and by the east; Turkmenistán by the northeast, The Caspian Sea by the north and Azerbayán and Armenia by the northwest; Turkey e by the west and finally with the coast of Persian Gulf and Gulf of Omán by the south.

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Jomh?r?-ye Esl?m?-ye?r?n
Imagen:Iran_coa.png
(In Detail)
Motto national: Independence, Freedom, Islamic Republic!
Official language Persian
Tehran
Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei
President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

- Total
- % water

1.648.195
0,7%
Population
- Total ()
- Density

68.278.826
40/km²
Establishment of the last Government
- Date
Islamic Revolution
1 of April of
Rial
Time zone UTC +3.30
National anthem Sorood-e Melli-e Jomhoori-e Eslami
Dominion Internet .TO GO
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Member of: OPEC, The UN

Table of contents

History

Main article: History of Iran

Persia it appeared in under the Aqueménida dynasty like a vast empire controlling an area from India a . Conquered by , although recovered its independence soon forming the empires Childbirth and Sasánida successively. The last one was defeated by Arabs in , followed by selyúcidas Turks, mongoles and Tamerlán.

was the one of independence with the dynasty Safaví and following that granted the title of Shah. In Persia under the pressure of Russia and initiated a modernization process. During was occupied by both powers and in Tehran the conference of equal name was celebrated. In 1953, prime minister Mohammad Mosaddeq, it was expelled from the power when trying to nationalize the petroliferous resources, in an operation orchestrated by British and North Americans. The Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi it increased its dictatorial powers with the support of , that considered its greater ally him in the zone. In the displeasure of the population caused a rebellion that lasted near a year and that ended at exile of shah and the restoration of Islamic Republic with Ruhollah Khomeini at the most leader.

In began the Iran-Iraq war that would finalize in .

After the death of Khomeini in was happened by Alí Khamenei like Chief of State, being the headquarters of the government opened to elections every four years in which it has been attended a struggle between a reformist sector led by Mohammad Khatami and another conservative.


Iran is a constitutional Islamic republic, its political system this established in the constitution of , call Qanun and Asasi. Iran has several governmental organizations complexly interconnected. Some of those organizations are chosen in demorcática form and others are chosen according to their religious inclinations.

Government

  1. Government of Iran
  2. External Subjects Iranis
  3. U.S.A.-Iran Relations

Supreme Leader (Rahbar)

In agreement with Iranian constitution, Supreme leader of Iran he is responsible for the delineation and supervision "of the general policies of the Islamic republic of Iran."In absence of the Leader I surpass, names an advice of religious leaders. The Supreme Leader is 'commander-in-head of the Armed Forces and it controls the operations of intelligence and the security of the Islamic Republic. It has in case mísmo, the authority to declare the war. Also it has the capacity to designate and to dismiss the judicial leaders, of the networks of state radio and television and to the leader maximo of Guardroom, guardhouse of the Islamic Republic. It also designates to six of the twelve members of Advice of Guardians. He and the advice of religious leaders, are chosen by Assembly of Experts, in base of its qualifications and to the high popular esteem that is professed to them.

President (of Ráis-e Jomhour)

After the Supermo Leader, President of Iran he is the highest civil employee of the country. She is the person in charge of which the Constitution is exerted and to act like the head of the executive, except in matters related to the Supreme Leader. According to the law, all the presidential candidates must be approved by Advice of Guardians before they formalize its candidacy. Once confirmed like candidates, the President is chosen by absolute majority in universal suffrage for a term of four years. After his election, the president designates and supervises the Cabinet (cabinet), it coordinates the governmental decisions, and it selects policies of the government to be exposed to the parliament. Eight vice presidents serve underneath the president, as well as a cabinet of 21 ministers. The Cabinet must be confirmed by the parliament. Unlike many other states, the branch of the executive in Iran does not control the Armed Forces.

Parliament (Majles)

Iranian parliament he is unicameral, the Islamic Consultative Assembly or "Majles-e Shura-ye Eslami", consists of 290 members chosen by a term of four years. They are chosen by direct and secret vote. It establishes the legislation, it ratifies international treaties, and it approves the budget of the country. All the legislation of the assembly one is due to confirm by Advice of Guardians. The candidates to the Majles require the approval of Advice of guardians.

Assembly of Experts

Assembly of Experts, that it has weekly sessions, it consists of 86 "virtuous and learned" clergymen chosen by the public by a term of eight years. Also to the presidential and parliamentary elections, Advice of Guardians it determines elegibilidad for candidacy in this assembly.

The members of the Assembly of Experts also choose to Supreme Leader within its own members and they reconfirman it periodically. One has never known that the assembly defies decisions of the Supreme Leader.

Advice of Guardians

Twelve jurists form Advice of Guardians, six of which they are designated by the supreme leader. The head of the judicatura recommends the six rest, that are named officially by the parliament.

The Council of Guardians this invested with the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws approved by the parliament are in line with sharia (Islamic law). Therefore the advice can exert I veto on the Parliament. If a law approved by the Parliament is judged incompatible with constitution with sharia, it is sent again to the parliament for its revision.

The Council also examines the presidential and parliamentary candidates to confirm that they are apt to postulate a candidacy.

Expeditador Advice

Created by Ayatollah Khomeini in , the Epeditador Council has the authority to mediate conflicts between the parliament and the Council of Guards. At the moment, according to the constitution, the advice of Expediency serves like consultative organism the Supreme Leader, doing one to him of the government bodies of more reach of the country, at least in name.

To be able Judicial

The head of the judicatura is designated by the Supreme Leader and, in turn, she designates to head of the Supreme Court and to the main public prosecutor.

The public cuts deal with the civil and criminal cases. It also has cotes revolutionary that they judge certain categories of offenses, including crimes against national security, narcotic contraband, and the acts that mine the Islamic Republic. The decisions taken in revolutionary cuts are final and they cannot be appealed.

The decisions of Special Administrative Court, that it works independently of the regular judicial frame and that only responds before the Supreme Leader, they are also final and they cannot be appealed. Special the Administrative Court it supposedly handles the crimes committed by clergymen, although also it has taken cases that implied common people.

Territorial organization

Main article: Provinces of Iran

Iran it is divided in 28 provinces (ostan-haa, singular - they ostan):

  1. Tehran
  2. Qom
  3. Markazi
  4. Qazvin
  5. Gilan
  6. Ardabil
  7. They settle
  8. Eastern Azerbaijan
  9. Western Azerbaijan
  10. Kurdistán
  11. Hamadan
  12. Kermanshah
  13. Ilam
  14. Lorestan

  1. Khuzestán
  2. Chahar and Bakhtiari
  3. Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad
  4. Bushehr
  5. Fars
  6. Hormozgan
  7. Sistán and Baluchistán
  8. Kerman
  9. Yazd
  10. Esfahan
  11. Semnan
  12. Mazandaran
  13. Golestán
  14. Khorasan

It can that the province of Khorasan end up dividing itself in two: South Khorasan Norte and Khorasan.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Iran

The Iranian landscape is dominated by mountain ranges that separate several river basins and plateaus of others. The populated western part is most mountainous, with mountain ranges like I mount Zagros and Alborz mountains, forming this one the highest point of the country in Damavand to 5.607 meters. Eastern half of the country consists basically of desert vacated formed by river basins with occasional lakes of salt.

The only plains are throughout the coast of the Caspian Sea and in Persian gulf next to the border with in Arvandrud (Shatt al-Arab). Also other less extensive plains are throughout the coast of the Gulf, in Straits of Hormuz and in Sea of Omán.

climate he is barren or semi-arid, except in the coast of the Caspian Sea where it dominates a subtropical climate. ss

Economy

Main article: Economy of Iran

The Iranian economy is a mixture of planned economy, being the propietary state of the abundant petroliferous resources of the country ( Persian gulf it contains both third of the world-wide reserves); while most of the population lives on a self-sufficient primary sector. The commercial sector services and is represented by deprived companies of small size. The present government has continued with the policy of the previous one as far as reforms to impel a greater diversification of the national economy and thus not to depend as much on the swings of the price of petroleum in the international market as he happened in .

Demography

Main article: Demography of Iran

Almost two thirds of the population speak some language Indoirania, although the only official is Persian, written in Arab alphabet modified. Ethnically 32% are Persian, 11% Kurds and 2% baluchis. Within the túrcico group they emphasize azeríes (45%) and turkmenos (2%), but also it has Arabs (3%), Armenian, Jews, and asirios. Arab language, being the used one in is taught in the school.

The majority is Muslim: 89% Shia, the official religion of the state and a 10% sunnitas. Between the minority religions they emphasize Faith Bahá'í, Zoroastrianism, and .

The population of Iran has duplicated itself from the year , although reeemplazo generational is at the moment not assured.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Iran

Sports

 

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