The United States of America

For the homonymous articles, to see The United States (homonymy).

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United States of America
Drapeau des États-Unis Grand sceau des États-Unis d'Amérique
(Details) (Details)
National currency :
(1776 - present) E Pluribus Unum
(Latin : "Of several, one")
(1956 - present) In God We Trust
(English : "As a God we have faith")
Official languages English is used as official language but 30% speak another language 1
Capital Washington, Cd.
38° 53' N, 77° 02' O
Larger city New York
Government
- President
Republic federal
George W. Bush
Surface
- Total
- Water (%)
Classified 3E
9 629 047 km²
2,20%
Population
- Total (2005)
- Density
Classified 3E
295 267 686 hab.
30,25 hab./km²
Independence
- Declared
- Recognized
Kingdom of Great Britain
July 4 1776
September 3 1783
Gentilé AmericanE,
Étasunien/or States-unien/(rare)
Currency American dollar (USD)
Time zone UTC -5 to -10
National anthem The Banner Star-Spangled
Field Internet .custom
Code
telephone
+ 1
1 There is not official language at the federal level, although itEnglish that is to say used by all the federal organizations. Each state is free to have its or its own official languages, or not.

The United States, The United States of America in long form, are one federation composed of fifty States (represented by fifty stars of flag), located in North America and inPacific Ocean. Forty-eight of these fifty States are located at the south of Canada and in the north of Mexico. Alaska is located at the west of Canada. Hawaii is in the Pacific Ocean, to 3 900 km in the south-west of California.

Washington, Cd. (or District of Columbia) is capital federal of the country, with a special statute (it is not a State and is not either member of a federate State). Other territories have specific statutes, in particular States (old colonies) which are not member of swears federation, but which is integrated in practice: American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands islands, Puerto Rico and them United States Virgin Islands.

The United States is members ofNATO, ALENA, G8 and permanent members of Security Council of the United Nations.

Synopsis

Denomination

Designation in short form this country is The United States while designation in long form is The United States of America. Except notable forUNO and of the title of this article, the short form The United States is used to indicate the country byISO, EU, IGN, Swiss diplomacy, INSEE, etc.

History

Detailed article: History of the United States

The current territory of the United States was initially occupied by Indians of America who were divided into tribes and who spoke several hundreds about different languages. They left few traces of their presence, especially for the people nomads. With XVIE and XVIIE centuries, first contacts with Europeans, mainly Spaniards in the south and English in the east constituted a shock of the cultures and the majority of the Indians died because of the epidemics imported by the White.

Signature of the American Constitution

The first English establishment was established in 1607 with Jamestown, Virginia, and the 13 colonies proclaimed their independence it July 4 1776 vis-a-vis with Great Britain (Declaration of Independence). They adopted constitution of the United States of America in 1787, the first of the world. These two texts are founders of the American identity.

The question of slavery started American Civil War in 1861. But that did not prevent the United States from growing thanks to immigration and itindustrialization all with the length of XIXE century like undertaking the conquest of the West.

With XXE century, the United States became the first economic and political world power (especially after Second World war), in spite of failures like war of Vietnam who traumatisa the American company. Since the explosion ofThe USSR and end of the cold war, the United States is the only great power, a power disputed by the islamist ones, by the growth Chinese and by the other poles of Triad (European union and Japan).

See also: History of the Franco-American relations

Policy

The White House, Washington D.C.

Detailed article: Policy of the United States

The country consists of fifty States federated which has full sovereignty in several fields: it acts of one federation. The United States is one republic federal and member of Parliament bicamerist. The three capacities (legislature, executive and legal) is separate.

The president and the vice-president are elected for four years together, by the indirect vote for all. Each State is represented by its college of Great Electors the number is roughly proportional to the number of inhabitants of the State in question. Since 1948, the president can exercise only two mandates. The political scene is largely dominated by two parties: republican party and it democratic party.

Chart of the states

George W. Bush is a president of the United States since 2001.

Supreme court is the highest authority of federal legal system.

See also:

Presidents of the United States
Vice-president of the United States
Constitution of the United States
List governors of the States of the United States of America
The United States, presidential election

States

Detailed article: States of the United States

See also: Order of entry in the Union

Drapeau des États-Unis d'Amérique 50 States The United States of America Drapeau des États-Unis d'Amérique

Alabama · Alaska · Arizona · Arkansas · California · North Carolina · South Carolina · Colorado · Connecticut · North Dakota · South Dakota · Delaware · Florida · Georgia · Hawaii · Idaho · Illinois · Indiana · Iowa · Kansas · Kentucky · Louisiana · Maine · Maryland · Massachusetts · Michigan · Minnesota · Mississippi · Missouri · Montana · Nebraska · Nevada · New Hampshire · New Jersey · New York · New Mexico · Ohio · Oklahoma · Oregon · Pennsylvania · Rhode Island · Tennessee · Texas · Utah · Vermont · Virginia · Virginia-Western · Washington · Wisconsin · Wyoming

Associated administrative areas
American Samoa · Guam · Northern Mariana Islands islands · Puerto Rico · United States Virgin Islands · Washington, Cd.

Geography

La vallée de la Mort, le point le plus bas et le plus chaud des États-Unis
The valley of Death, the hottest point low and of the United States

Detailed article: Geography of the United States

  • Some reference marks:
    • The most populated city: New York
    • Summit highest: McKinley Mount
    • Not low: Valley of Death
    • Principal river: Missouri-Mississippi who runs on more than 6 000 km.
    • Surface: 9 631 417 km²
    • Littoral: 19 924 km
    • Extreme altitudes: - 86 m > + 6 194 m

Relief

Snake River, Wyoming, États-Unis
Snake To rivet, Wyoming, The United States

The relief of the United States has a meridian organization. Of is in west, one meets:

  • a coastal plain alongAtlantic Ocean
  • the chain of The Appalachian Mountains, not very high
  • a vast depression (Large Lakes, plain of Mississippi, Large Plains)
  • Rocky Mountains
  • Large Basin
  • Nevada Sierra and Chain Cascades
  • narrow valleys (central valley of California)
  • Coast Arrange, a coastal chain alongPacific Ocean

It is necessary to add two important territories to it:

  • Hawaii, archipelago volcanic
  • Alaska, mountainous and volcanic appendix of the North-American continent

Climates

All the climates are represented in the United States, colder (Alaska) with hottest (Valley of Death), wetter (the North-West) with driest (deserts of South-west).

See the detailed article Climates of the United States of America

Rivers

Vue du Grand Canyon
Sight of the Large Canyon

Lakes

Satellite image of the Large Lakes

Large Lakes approximately 250 000 km² represent: larger with smallest:

  • Higher lake
  • Lake Michigan
  • Lake Huron
  • Lake Érié
  • Lake Ontario

The other important lakes are:

Terrestrial borders

12 034 km of borders:

  • 8 893 km with Canada (including 2 477 km withAlaska)
  • 3 326 km with Mexico
  • 29 km with Cuba (bases naval Guantanamo)

Human geography

Principal motorways in the United States

The Americans concentrate on the littorals, including those of the Large Lakes. In the west of the 100E meridian line and in Alaska, the densities are very low, except downtown some insulated. California is the State more populated. More of the three quarters of the population is urban. The most dynamic areas are Sun Belt. The reconversion of the North-East of the country enables him to hold an important role.

See also: Cities of the United States ~ National parks in the United States ~ List botanical gardens of the United States of America ~ Environmental policy of the United States of America

Economy

Wall Street In New York, symbol of the American economy

Detailed article: Economy of the United States

The United States has the most powerful economy of the world, with one GNP who rises to 11 649 billion dollars (2004). In this market economy, the most dynamic sectors are electronics, the aerospace one, biotechnologies and industries of the armament, even if the advance were reduced since the end of Second World war. The principal asset of the country remains despite everything the tertiary sector (banking services, cinematographic production, tourism...). The rate of unemployment is relatively weak. The United States suffers from a strong trade deficit. New York Stock Exchange is one of the first of the world.

Several assets explain the power of the American economy: the American territory is immense, equipped well in mining resources (second world coal producer, oil, natural gas, however, copper...) and agricultural. It is located between the two large oceans of planet, the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It is also well controlled by a varied grid system (Large Lakes, railways, ports, airports). The population is cosmopolitan and mobile. The mean level of life is strong, even if the social inequalities are important. dollar and the English language have an international radiation. The federal state invests a relatively significant part of the GDP in research and does not hesitate to show itself protectionist. multinationals American are present on all the continents and take part in the economic power of the country. The United States is with the c?urALENA, a regional organization which preaches free movement of the goods and the capital.


Some recent figures:

  • rate of unemployment in March 2005 : 5,2 % of the working population
  • growth rate of GNP in 2003 : 3,2 %
  • The American economy created 2,2 million new employment in 2003
  • See also: Agreement of North-American free trade; American economy, 2002.
  • Consult the paragraphs on the economy of the states and the large cities.

Demography

Detailed article: Demography of the United States

A scene of street in New York

Population: 295 267 686 inhabitants (January 2005). 0-14 years: 20,8 % (men : 31 122 974; women : 29 713 748); 15-64 years: 66,9 % (men: 97 756 380; women: 98 183 309); + 65 years: 12,4 % (men: 15 078 204; women: 21 172 956)
Density: 30,25 hab./km²
Life expectancy men: 74,8 years (in 2005)
Life expectancy of the women: 80,1 years (in 2005)
Growth rate of the population: 0,92 % (in 2004)
Birth rate: 14,13/1000 (in 2004)
Death rate: 8,34/1000 (in 2004)
Infant mortality rate: 6,63/1000 (in 2004)
Rate of fruitfulness: 2,7 childrenwoman (in 2004)
Rate of migration: 3,41/1000 (in 2004)
Median age: 35,6 years (2001) Plus of three million Mexicans would live in an illegal way in the United States. The demography of the United States of America differs from the other industrialized countries and developed:

  • The United States is the first immigration country of the world: in 1991, they accomodated more than 1,8 million immigrants.
  • birthrate y is stronger and dynamics that in the other rich countries.
  • The United States is with the third rank of the most populated countries, behind China and itIndia.
  • There is forty agglomerations of more than one million inhabitants.

See also: the richest places in the United States (classification of the States and Comtés according to their richness) ~ American company

Culture

The stick with Hudson, in Ohio

* See the detailed article Culture of the United States

One distinguishes two types of culture in the United States: élitiste culture and popular culture. First is known little, the second rayon in the whole world thanks to the cinema, with the music, with Internet.

The American culture has a Anglo-Saxon base, who is explained by the historical origins of the country. English is the most spoken language. However, the contributions of other cultures contribute to make of the United States a cultural crucible:

  • the Indian heritage is read in certain words and toponyms.
  • the Hispanic influence is strong in California, in New Mexico and in Texas like in several large cities elsewhere (New York, Miami in Florida, Hartford in Connecticut).
  • the French influence is strong in Louisiana.
  • the European and Jewish immigrants also marked the culture of the country.


Detailed articles: American inventions ~ Universities in the United States ~ Libraries in the United States of America ~ Education system of the United States of America ~ American cinema ~ American company

A country where the religion counts

  • An investigation published in December 2004 in Wall Street Journal Europe affirm that 75 % of the Americans are declared believing in the United States, for 43 % of practise.
  • Religious freedom is guaranteed by the constitution.

Detailed article: Religions in the United States

Famous Americans

Scientists

  • See the detailed article American scientists, alphabetically
  • See too American mathematicians, by time

Painters

* See the article American painters, alphabetically

Photographers

  • Riis Jacob 1849-1914
  • Alfred Stieglitz 1864-1946
  • Ansel Adams 1902-1984
  • Diane Arbus 1923-1971

To supplement

Historians

To supplement

Political Personalities

  • John Ashcroft, Attorney General, 2002-2005;
  • Colin Powell, Secretary of State, 2002-2004;
  • Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State, 2005-;
  • Madeleine Albright, Secretary of State, 1997-2001.

See also: President of the United States

  • Alexander Hamilton, political thinker, politician
  • George Washington, first president of the United States

Musicians

* See too American singers, alphabetically / American singers, alphabetically

Rock'n'roll

  • Bob Dylan
  • Jimi Hendrix
  • Brian Wilson
  • Paul Simon
  • Billy Joel
  • Kurt Cobain
  • Jim Morrison
  • James Taylor
  • Buddy Holly
  • Presley Elvis
  • Chuck Berry
  • Marilyn Manson

Pop

Rap

  • 2Pac
  • Eminem
  • Snoop Dogg
  • Dr.. DRE
  • 50 Hundreds
  • Obie Trice

Jazz

  • Duke Ellington
  • Louis Armstrong
  • Mahalia Jackson
  • Ella Fitzgerald
  • Davis miles

Metal

  • Kiss
  • Manowar
  • Alice Cooper

Scenario writers

* See the detailed article American realizers, by times

Literature

  • American writers, by chronological order
  • American writers, alphabetically

Nobel Prize of Peace

King parlant à la marche pour les droits civiques.
King speaking with walk for the civic rights.

Mode

  • Calvin Klein

Others

  • Allan Pinkerton
  • Paul Revere Important revolutionist at the time of American independence
  • Benjamin Franklin important intellectual and politician at the time of American independence
  • Harriet Tubman, helped of the hundreds of slaves to escape from North before American Civil War
  • Stan Lee scenario writer of "comics", a kind of comic strip important in the United States
Festivals and public holidays
Date French name Local name Remarks
1er January New Year's Day New Year' S Day
Third Monday of January Day of Martin Luther King Martin Luther King Day Birth of Martin Luther King, militant for the civic rights
February 12 Birthday of Lincoln Lincoln' S Birthday Birth of Abraham Lincoln, the 16E chair of the United States.
Third Monday of February Day of the presidents Presidents' Day Birth of George Washington, the first president of the United States.
Final Monday of May Day of the Memory Memorial Day
July 4 Day of independence Day Independence Commemoration of declaration of independence of 1776
First Monday of September Labour Day Labor Day
Second Monday of October Day of Christophe Colomb Columbus Day
November 11 Day of ex-serviceman Veteran' S Day Commemoration of the end of the First World War
Fourth Thursday of November Thanksgiving Thanksgiving
December 25 Christmas Christmas Day Birth supposed of Jesus

Certain days are non-working in a state but not in the other: in California for example, Cesar Chavez Day (March 31) or it Native American Day (the 4e Monday of September), the public schools can be closed.


No law was voted to specify official languages at the federal level. Some States voted such laws with the profit chronologically ofEnglish, hawaiien and ofSpanish. The two principal federal political parties do not seem inclined to vote such a law, because it poses today the problem on behalf of more in more important of Spanish-speaking in certain States. To discuss of English as official language is considered by these parties a setting in conflict between the anglophone voters and the voters resulting from a recent immigration.

Some figures

Military expenditure: 400 billion dollars (in 2004)
Lines of telephone: 182 million (in 2003)
Portable telephones: 158 million (in 2003)
Radio sets: 575 million (in 1997)
Television sets: 219 million (in 1997)
Computers: 659 per 1000 inhabitants
Users of Internet: 159 million (in 2002)
A number of suppliers of access Internet: 7 800 (in 2000)
Roads: 6 406 296 km (including 4 148 395 km tarred) (in 2002)
Railways: 228 464 km (in 2003)
Inland waterways: 41 009 km
A number of airports: 14 807 (including 5 128 with tracks tarred) (in 2003)

See too

External bonds



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Other political entities : Dutch West Indies · Bermuda · Cayman Islands · Guadeloupe · French Guiana · Greenland · Martinique · Montserrat · Puerto Rico · Turkish islands and Caïques · United States Virgin Islands and British

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