European body

Blason du Corps européen
Blazon of the European Body
Soldats du Corps européen et son drapeau. De gauche à droite, un Allemand, un Français, un Belge, un Luxembourgeois et une Espagnole
Soldiers of the European Body and his flag. Of left on the right, a German, a French, a Belgian, a Luxembourger and Spanish

Engaged as a whole, it European body, (English Eurocorps, German Eurokorps) can provide 60.000 men, 700 tanks and 300 pieces of artillery. It is it army corps most powerful of Western Europe. Created in 1992, declared operational in 1995, it is a Franco-German initiative to which successively joined , it then it . In addition to the five Member States ("nation-tallies"), seven countries of (, , , , , and ) detaches a number limited liaison officers to the staff, with . and , members ofNATO, also sent liaison officers to the staff.


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Synopsis

Organization

Headquarters

Headquarters (HQ) of the Body European or EUROCORPS, installed with , is composed Staff, battalion of Headquarters, four Detachments of National Support and Staff of the Multinational Brigade of Support with the Command. On the whole, approximately 900 soldiers and a hundred civil work with the Headquarters.

The various national contributions to the HQ Eurocorps are supplemented by "rotating functions" allotted in turn to the one of the states of the nations frameworks (FR - GE - BE - SP; LUX has a fixed station). the 9 other nations (GR., END, YOU, AUT, CA, PL, the U.K., NL, IT) contributrices provide either of the personnel of staff or of the liaison officers.

The current distribution of the stations between the Member States is indicated by code-colors. The framed and ombrées cells indicate the "rotating" functions.

In time of peace, the national contributions to the forces at the disposal of Eurocorps are composed of units under operational command and units held with provision of Eurocorps but remaining under national command.

Mission

The report/ratio of the Small rock:

The report/ratio of the Small rock can be regarded as the act founder of Eurocorps which it defines as a European army corps multinational, independent of the integrated military structures of NATO. The report/ratio still describes in a precise way the missions, the provision, the possible executives of engagement, the structure and the organization of Eurocorps like certain financial and legal aspects. Initially a Franco-German initiative, Eurocorps has start opened with the other Convention countries of Western Europe.

Declarations of Petersberg and Rome:

It is at the time of the top of the Western European Union (UEO), June 19, 1992, that the declaration of Petersberg defines the role of the UEO. This declaration stresses the importance of the UEO as a component of the defense of the European Union. It also announces the reinforcement of the UEO as a European pillar of Atlantic Alliance. It is accordingly that the Member States of Eurocorps decided on May 19, 1993 in Rome, to place Eurocorps at the disposal of the UEO.

3 types of employment are considered:

  • Eurocorps is prepared to carry out missions of humanitarian aid and missions of assistance to the populations which would be victims of a natural disaster or aggressions.
  • Eurocorps can be deployed to carry out operations of restoration of peace or missions of maintenance of peace within the framework, for example, of UNO or the SOEC.
  • Eurocorps can be deployed as or terrestrial command army corps of component, to carry out combat of high intensity with an aim of ensuring the common defense of the allies, pursuant to the article V of the treaty of Washington (NATO) or of the treaty of Brussels (UEO).

Agreement SACEUR:

Agreement SACEUR defines the condition of uses of Eurocorps within the framework of NATO. It was signed on January 21, 1993 by the chiefs of French and German staff and by the Commander Suprême of Combined in Europe (SACEUR), supplemented in September 2002 by an endorsement extending the missions to ensure of it conformity with the reform of NATO. This agreement precise:

  1. missions of Eurocorps within the framework of
  2. responsibilities for planning for the use for Eurocorps
  3. the possible engagement of Eurocorps under the command as a chief of NATO
  4. responsibilities and relations between the # and commander-in-chief of NATO in Europe command of Eurocorps in times of peace.

The relations between Eurocorps and NATO are founded on the following principles:

  • the specificity of this new "European multinational force" will be respected.
  • the resolution of Eurocorps to adopt the structures and the procedures of NATO to facilitate its integration in the event of engagement.

History

Origins

The creation of Eurocorps can be regarded as the result of the Treaty ofElysium, signed it by the French president, it General de Gaulle, and the German chancellor, Konrad Adenauer. By this treaty, of which the goal is to reinforce the relations between and it, the two countries are committed collaborating in the field of defense. Beyond the closer political relations, the two countries envisage to carry out exchanges of personnel between their respective armies and to cooperate in the field of the industry of defense.

In , the president and the chancellor Kohl decide to strengthen the military co-operation between France and Germany: they announce the installation of the Franco-German Defense and Security Council which allows the creation of Franco-German brigade, operational since .

, the two Heads of State inform the president of the Council of Europe in a common letter of their intention to reinforce this military collaboration. They thus provide the foundations of a European body in which the other members of the Western European Union can take part. It is at the time of the top of the Small rock, May 22, 1992, that the official decision to create Eurocorps is made by François Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl with the adoption of the common report/ratio of the French and German Ministers for Defense. A few weeks later, as of July first, a provisional staff settles in Strasbourg in order to set up that of Eurocorps.

Missions and relations

The declaration of Petersberg of defines the role of the UEO as a component of defense of the EU (missions of Petersberg). It is thus accordingly that the Member States of the body decide, it in Rome, to place Eurocorps at the disposal of the UEO.

, agreements SACEUR define the condition of uses of Eurocorps within the framework of NATO. These agreements specify:

  • missions of Eurocorps within the framework of NATO
  • competences for the planning of engagements
  • the assignment of Eurocorps under the command as a chief of NATO
  • responsibilities and relations between the commander-in-chief of NATO and the commander of * Eurocorps in times of peace.

A success

The Franco-German initiative quickly interested of other countries, in particular Belgium. This one, by integrating forces in an army corps, takes part in the construction of the identity of defense and European safety while preserving a role within NATO. The accession of Belgium is approved it by the Belgian government.

The official creation of Eurocorps takes place it 1er October with the taking of of the first ordering General, the lieutenant-General Helmut Willmann. The official ceremony proceeds in Strasbourg it 5 November in the presence of the Ministers for the defense of the three participating countries (Germany, France and Belgium).

Spain joined officially Eurocorps it 1er July .

Soldiers of Eurocorps take part in the procession of (French national festival) on the Fields-Élysées. This event is symbolic system for the history of Eurocorps and Europe.

Luxembourg officially adheres to Eurocorps it 7 May .

Exercises and operations

Since , Eurocorps takes part in many exercises with an aim of reinforcing its operational capacity. The first real engagement of Eurocorps begins in : approximately 470 soldiers of the HQ of Eurocorps leave bound for Bosnia-Herzégovine in 4 successive quotas to reinforce the HQ of the SFOR. The soldiers of Eurocorps account for approximately 37% of the HQ of the Force.

, less than two years later, the Council of NATO decides that the HQ of Eurocorps will constitute the core of the HQ of the KFOR in Kosovo. From March to October , approximately 350 soldiers of Eurocorps form the core of the HQ of KFOR III in Pristina and Skopje. The end of the mission of KFOR III is celebrated at the time of an official ceremony in Strasbourg it . Ministers for the defense of the Member States or their representative, Dr.. Kouchner, special representative of the Office of the Secretary-General of the United Nat in Kosovo, as well as the civil authorities and military of Strasbourg are present. One year later, the HQ Eurocorps controlled its new structure already adopted during the exercise COBRA 01 in the South of Spain. Several political and military institutions followed the exercise with a great interest. At the end of December 2002, the HQ of the Fast Body of Reaction European (official designation supplements) becomes one of the six staffs of fast reaction of NATO under appelation NRDC-EC (NATO Rapid Deployable Corps - Eurocorps, spreadable Corps quickly of NATO - EuroCorps)

From August 9 at February 11 2005 took place the major operation external of the European Body: its staff takes the command of the 6E International force of Assistance to Safety (ISAF 6) in Afghanistan, under mandate of and under command of NATO.

Reorganization of Eurocorps

During this time, important decisions are made concerning the Policy of Safety and European Defense. These decisions generate a certain number of consequences as for the role and the structure of Eurocorps. May 29, 1999, at the time of the Franco-German top of Toulouse, France and Germany propose to place Eurocorps as a force of intervention at the disposal of the EU in the event of crisis. This suggestion is subjected to the other Member States, which accept it; then it is officially proposed with the EU at the time of the Summit of Cologne, June the 3 and 4 . During this top, the EU also decides to reinforce its aptitudes of intervention and to set up forces of reaction in the event of crisis. This decision is confirmed and developed at the time of the top of the EU in Helsinki in December . In November, in Luxembourg, the Member States of Eurocorps decide methods of the transformation of this multinational unit into a body of fast reaction at the disposal of the EU and NATO. This transformation, which was the subject of a long preparation, begins it 5 June . Already in April , the nations members proposed the HQ like one of "Deployable High Readiness Force Headquarters".

In , NATO evaluated the capacities of the headquarters and its operational aptitude in several stages. Exercise COMMON EFFORT was essential in the process at the end which the headquarters obtained the certification of HQ of Fast Force of Reaction.

Eurocorps opens its doors

One of the criteria to be satisfied for certification as Headquarters of Force to High Availability (Ground) was to open the headquarters with all the nations members of NATO. Spain, which chaired at that time the common Committee, invited the members of NATO as well as the nations members of the European Union to integrate of the personnel or to send a liaison officer to the HQ of Eurocorps. This is why the nations framework signed a new technical agreement with the SACEUR it 3 September . The nations members: Greece (since the 03/09/2002), Poland (since the 07/01/2003) and Turkey (since the 03/09/2002) integrated of the personnel into the Staff of Eurocorps. Canada integrated of the personnel into the Staff of Eurocorps in July . , a technical agreement was signed with Austria and Finland, members of the European Union. In the tread, an Austrian officer and a Finnish officer integrated the Staff. 1er April , an Italian officer arrived at the HQ of Eurocorps to join his/her colleagues British and Dutch.

Members, Partners

Official site

Official site of mission ISAF 6 in Afghanistan:

 

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