Elbl?g (to pronounce: , local Polish dialect: Elbi?g ([:?lbi??g ]); Truso, Ilfing) is a city of the north of cash 128.700 inhabitants. Capital of Powiat ofElbl?g, located in since , before capital of Voïvodie d' Elbl?g (–), or left Voïvodie de Gda?sk (.
Name of the city
According to various sources, the name of the river having given its name to the city at origins old man-Prussian or Germanic (Gothic). Old sources: river Ilfing (), Castrum de Elbingo quod A nominates fluminis Elbingum appellavit (1237 - Peter Dusburg, Chronicon Prussiae Ground), in Elbingo (), in Elbing (), in Elbinge... fluvium Elbinc (, charter of the city), of Elbingo (), in Elbyngo (), Elbingum glazed (), Elvingo (), in Elbingo (), in Elvingo (), czum Elbinge (), czu Elbing (), Elwing (), czum Elwinge (), Elbing (–), Elbyang (front ), Elbing (), ku Elbi?gowi (), W Elbl?gu (), W Elbl?gu ().
The city was called Elbing in and kept this name until in , when it was changed into Elblag.
Old man-Prussian city of Truso
The seaport of Truso on the Ilfing river was mentioned for the first time towards 890 by Wulfstan de Hedeby, a sailor , travelling on the southern coast of the Baltic. The exact site of Truso is not certain, the coast having changed in an important way, but the majority of the historians the site in or near the modern city of Elbl?g.
It was an important seaport, credit also on bay of at the time of first trade route in the area. The goods principal goods exchanged were it, and them slaves. The city was inhabited by tradesman and craftsmen old man-prusiens, and attended by going of the neighbouring areas (, ). Truso declined commercially towards XE century, and its functions taken again by and later by Elbl?g.
Truso occupied a central position on the Eastern roads of trade, which went from Birka, in the north of Gotland and of Visby on , and included/understood the city later of Elbl?g. From there, the tradesman gained Carnuntium in . The old road of Amber led towards south-west and to south-east towards , to see it.
The East-West road started from Truso, which would run along until , and by rivers until Hedeby, a shopping centre in the center of Jutland. Hedeby, which was near the current town of Schleswig with , occupied a central position and could be reached of the four cardinal points, like by , it, and the Baltic.
About year 890, Wulfstan d' Hedeby a voyage by boat of Hedeby until Truso at the instigation of the king undertook . One of the possible reasons for this forwarding was that a help was to be was to be brought to Harold to defend oneself of the Danes or which occupied the greatest part of. The reasons of this voyage remain obscure, Truso being at the time more than one simple commercial counter, and Alfred the Large one, the sovereign of Western Prussia, kept close contacts with the Saxon continental ones and the Franks.
Arrival of Christendom: the Teutonnique Order
With and XIIIE centuries, the region concerned duchy Polish of Eastern Poméranie. Christianization territory was entrusted to Christian, bishop of (Zantyr) and withTeutonique Order who accepted it Kulmerland (or Chelmno Land) in of the independent duke Conrad de Mazovie. conquest of Prussia was accomplished only one around fifty of years later at the price of bloody battles, period during which new fortified towns, commercial counters and cities were founded.
A city called Elbing in Pogesanie was founded in by German tradesmen close to the ruins of fortress old man-Prussian and the comptoire of Truso, on the old one road of amber. The chevalliers teutonic cosntruisirent a castle, from now on destroyed. When Prussia was divided into four dioceses, Elbling and Pogesanie formed part of the one of the new dioceses, dénamméPomesanie.
In Elbl?g accepted them rights of Lübeck, which confirmed its importance as seaport (contrary to other towns of Eastern Europe, which had them rights of Magdeburg). At that time, it was an important port, member of , with important trade with, them Flandres, and . The city accepted many commercial privileges of England, of Poland, of , and ofTeutonique Order, the such privilege of the old town of Elbl?g Old Town granted in , wide in on the trade of the grain, metal and products forest. Another establishment called new city of Elbl?g was founded in , which accepted the rights of Lübeck in .
The oldest copy of communal law Polish called it deliver of Elbl?g (Ksi?ga Elbl?ska), was written in the second part of XIIIe century. was written in the second half of 13th century. A list of vocabulary of , called Elbing-Preussisches Wörterbuch (Prussian vocabulary of Elbl?g), was founded towards by the administrators of the city.
Membership of the Hanseatic League
Commercial cities of Elbl?g (Elbing), (Danzig), and Toru? (Thorn), under the imperial direction of , formed .
In , the cities of Eastern Prussia formed Prussian confederation (Preussische Bund), which was raised victoriously in against Teutonique Order. The Prussian confederation called upon King de Pologne Casimir IV to help them to fight the Teutoniques Knights. Casimir IV benefitted from it to annex Prussia. The town of Elbl?g was consequently integrated into the province of Royal Prussia under the sovereignty of the Polish Crown. From , Elbl?g became by Kingdom of - , in the respect of the languages and the laws of each entity. The administration chose consequently it instead of , as it of it was use in all Hanseatic cities.
At the moment of , the inhabitants of the city devirent Protestant, and the first lesson was exempted in with Elbl?g.
From , Elbl?g maintained the trade étraoites with, for which the aviat city granted an exemption of tax. English and them established in Elbl?g created itReformed Scottish church of Elbing. The Scot helped Protestant during . Competition of the city with was on several occasions the cause of ruptures of commercial bonds. Towards , Elbl?g left , confining itself with its trade privileged with England.
Among the famous inhabitants of the city at that time, Hans von Bodeck, Samuel Hartlib or Hartlieb, and during six years the Moravian refugee Johann Amos . In , the choniquor of the town of Elbl?g Daniel Barholz foot-note which the communal council of Elbl?g included of Bernsteindreher, or Paternostermacher, which was craftsmen licensed for the work of amber. The family gave communal mayors, advisers, etc. The poet Christian Wernicke was born in 1661 in Elbing. (1719 Elbing + 1772 Goettingen) became famous for its lesson of the natural law and the rights dde the man.
The imperial cartographer Johann Friedrich Endersch of Elbl?g a chart establishes of Warmy in 1755 and an engraving with the strong water of a named gallion realized Die Stadt Elbing (Town of Elblag).
At the time of the first division of Poland in , the city lost its privileges of city-State, and was annexed by the Kingdom of , which became in left.
In , the first steamer was built by Ignatz Grunau. In 1837 Ferdinand Schichau launched the arsenal of Schichau in Elbing and later another arsenal close to Danzig. Schichau built it Borussia, the first propeller ship of Germany. The arsenal Schichau d' Elbings built also various machines, of the boats, the steam engines, the torpedes. After the inauguration of the train towards in , the indutrie of Elbing started to strongly develop. Schichau worked with his/her son-in-law Carl H. Zise, which directed the workshops after the death of Schichau. Schichau also set up residences for the thousands of workers of its industries.
Another Prussian engineer, Baurat Georg Steenke of Königsberg, connected Elbing on the Baltic with the south of Prussia, by building the channel of Oberland.
Elbing becoming an industrial town, the Democratic Social Party of Germany (SPD) took the majority of the vôtes (51 %) with in .
Many inhabitants of Elbing fled with the approach of the Soviet troops in . All those which were turned over or remained furente xplusés at the end of mla , when the échut city in Poland.
During the seat in February , the Old City was set fire to and destroyed to 65 %. After the war, the materials of a part of the ruins were used to rebuild and . The retse was destroyed in and .
Concentration camps of Elbing
History after 1945
After the expulsion of the German population, the city was repopulated by Polish and took the name of Elblag. 98% of the new inhabitants were of the expelled Poles of the zones annexed bySoviet Union or of the peasants of the over-populated villages of central Poland.
The communist authorities planned to rebuild the old city, destroyed in . The economic difficulties did not make it possible to put this plan in?uvre. The ruins of the old city were abbtues in , and only two churches were rehabilitated.
Afterwards , the restoration of the old city started. The local authorities decided to rebuild it with new houses, the same ones cuts and dimensions that historical constructions. Sometimes, of the old parts were integrated in the new construction industries. Approximately the 2/3 of the city were rebuilt.
Since the beginnings of the restoration, an important archaeological work is also undertaken. The essence of the historical heritage of the city was destroyed during XIXE century and in . The foundations were however not destroyed, and the recelles cellars and latrines of many lucky finds. Those feed the museums of the city. Are in particular only glasses XVE century in Europe.
Since , a German minority of return in old Elbing, is called Elbinger Minderheit, cash a few hundreds of people.
- [ 1 ] Elbing church records filmed by LDS
- Endersch map of 1755 [[ 2 ]] : for Elbl?g click one second down from signal left section of map
- Gesellschaft DER deutschen Minderheit Stadt und Kreis Elbing
- page deprived on Elbing page in German
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