Emmanuel Lévinas ( with - with ) is one of origin , born in Kovno, naturalized French in after having settled there. It also received an education traditional, including the reading of .
Lévinas was deeply influenced by and , that it met at the University of Freiburg and of which it introduced the?uvre in , in particular them Cartesian meditations of Husserl whose it ensured the translation. Its philosophical work was also marked by the Jewish religion.
From Lithuania in France
Lévinas was born in Kovno in Lithuania on December 30, 1905 (according to into force then in the Russian empire, is on January 12, 1906 according to ).
Wire of Jehiel Levyne (Lévinas) and Déborah Gurvic, Emmanuel is the elder one of a family of three children: Boris (born in 1909) and Aminadab (born in 1913).
His/her father is a bookseller and the family speaks . A particular professor teaches with the three children (three boys) Hebrew starting from the reading of the Bible.
The war of pushes the family to be fled in with Karkhov (Ukraine) until in . It is in Karkhov that Emmanuel Levinas enters to the college, in spite of numerus clausus (discriminatory limitation) allowing only five Jewish children to be allowed there. It reads the Russian great writers there, in particular Pouchkine, Lermontov, Tolstoï and Dostoïevski.
During the Twenties, Lévinas goes to France to to follow studies of philosophy (1923-1927). It meets Maurice Blanchot with which it will maintain a deep friendship.
1928 to 1929, he is the pupil, with Freiburg-in-Brisgau (Germany) of Husserl (two six-month periods) then of Heidegger (one six-month period). After having supported its thesis of doctorate Theory of the intuition in phenomenology of Husserl (1930), it is established in Paris.
In 1931, it obtains French nationality. Married to Raissa (Marguerite) Lévi (1932), it?uvre with Alliance Universal Jew (A.IU.) of 1933 to 1939. Lévinas will have three children, of which one dies in low age.
Lévinas is mobilized in 1939 and is made captive in Rennes; then transported to Germany, close to Hanover. After war, it gives talmudic lessons to the Conferences of the Jewish Intellectuals of France.
From 1964 to 1975, Lévinas will undertake its university career. This one will lead it of Poitiers, by Paris-Nanterre (1967), in the Sorbonne (1973).
Emmanuel Lévinas dies in Paris on December 25, 1995 during the festival of Hanuka.
The discovery of German phenomenology
The thought of Lévinas meets with the crossroads of phenomenology and existential philosophy. It questions the bases of ontology to present humanism like "ethical place" of the transcendence. Glance towards the past (memory) and the future, this thought tears off the subject on the ground on which this last thinks of resting (transcendence)"to plant it" in a new way in a humanity which does not cease retracting throughout its own history (immanence).
Experiment of the war
Emmanuel Lévinas seldom evokes its four years of captivity in a stalag in Germany. However, it was wounded until in its flesh by the anti-semitism. The experiment of humiliation and the useless suffering lead it to profess its Judaism like a humanism. For him, the anti-semitism indicates the hatred of the other man. Its experiment rests on one lived in charge of very diverse affects, on not named traumatic facts.
On the basis of its experiment of the war and the camps of work, Lévinas "dismounts" philosophy to be it and proposes a philosophy of the other. Between the had a presentiment of hitlerism and the pressing responsibility to teach the future generations on the duty of memory, Lévinas endeavours to carry on the history a glance without hatred nor resentment. Lévinas was not with , however it lost all its family there. For him, to survive resembles a privilege. But in this adjournment of death, the Lévinas survivor makes the strange experiment of a freedom which is discovered responsible for the other man ad infinitum.
God and Shoah
After Auschwitz, the idea of God was essential like a different manner - and even a "second religion" - to introduce God and the direction of the human suffering. In response to the totalitarian assertion of the human thought and its rooting until deepest to be it, Lévinas goes - to leaving the war to attempt to deploy an ethics which considers the suffering from the point of view interhumaine, i.e. in an not-indifference of the ones with the others.
To Emmanuel Lévinas, the concept of transcendence emerges from a suffering humanity and evokes of entry of play atheism, i.e. the condition a separate being. It is a question neither of assisting of divine nor to deny it. To refer itself to the absolute as an atheist is to be offered to the dialogue with the Other and not to reduce it to the object of a speech. By doing this, Lévinas does not seek to present evidence of the existence of God. It indicates how occurs the emphase the infinite one in finished. It is not God who is required in the next one, it is the Different one which obsesses the conscience in the proximity of next and which means its subordination to others to him.
The thought of Lévinas meets with the crossroads of and of existential philosophy. It questions the bases of to present humanism like "ethical place" of . Glance towards the past (memory) and the future, this thought tears off the subject on the ground on which this last thinks of resting (transcendence)"to plant it" in a new way in a humanity which does not cease retracting throughout its own history (immanence and incarnation). To speak in such a context, it is to let resound "the word of God" within a "holy history", because fully directed towards the other man.
The?uvres of Emmanuel Lévinas are let gather in four periods:
- immediate context of (1929-1949),
1930 the theory of the intuition in phenomenology of Husserl 1934 Some reflexions on the philosophy of the hitlerism 1935 Of the escape 1947 Of the existence to what exists 1949 By discovering the existence with Husserl and Heidegger
- the presence of Lévinas within Jewish (1949-1963),
1961 Totality and Infini 1963 Difficult Freedom
- years of university education (1963-1974),
1972 Humanism of the other man 1974 Differently than to be or beyond the gasoline
- and the time of the retirement (1975-1995).
1982 Of God who comes to the idea (Texts of 1973 to 1980) 1991 Between Us (Texts of 1951 to 1988) 1994 the unforeseen ones of the history (Texts of 1929 to 1992) 1995 Otherness and transcendence (Texts of 1967 to 1989)
- Theory of the intuition in phenomenology of Husserl, Paris, Alcan, 1930
- Existence with existing, Paris, éd. Review Fountain, 1947
- By discovering the existence with Husserl and Heidegger, Paris, J. Vrin, 1949 - new edition aug. 1967, 3rd edition 1974
- Totality and infinite, Test on the exteriotity, $the Hague, M. Nijhoff, 1961
- Escape, Montpellier, Fata Morgana, 1962
- Difficult freedom, Paris, Albin Michel, coll. "Presence of the Judaism", 1963, new edition aug. 1976, 3rd edict. 1983, 4th edition 1995
- Humanism of the other man, Montpellier, Fata Morgana, 1972
- Otherwise than to be or beyond the gasoline, $the Hague, M.Nijhoff, 1974
- On Maurice Blanchot, Fata Morgana, coll. "Tests", 1976, new edition 1995
- Proper names, Montpellier, Fata Morgana, 1976
- Four talmudic readings, Paris, Midnight, 1968, new edition in coll. "Critical", 1976
- Crowned with the saint: five new talmudic readings, Paris Midnight, coll. "Critical" 1977
- Existence with existing, Paris, J. Vrin, 1978, new edition, 1993
- Time and the Other, Montpellier, Fata Morgana, 1980
- Beyond the verse: talmudic readings and speech, Paris, Midnight, coll. "Critical" 1982
- Of God who comes to the idea, Paris, J.Vrin, 1982, 2nd edict. review and aug. 1992
- Ethics and infinite, (dialogues of Emmmanuel Levinas and Philippe Nemo), Paris, Beech, coll. "Interior Space", 1982
- Difficult freedom, Paris, LGF, the Book of pocket, coll. "Biblio-tests", 1984
- Transcendence and intelligibility, Geneva, Labor and Fides, 1984, new edition 1996
- Proper names, Paris, the Book of pocket, coll. "Biblio tests" 1987
- At the Hour of the nations, Paris, Midnight, coll. "Critical", 1988
- Otherwise than to be or beyond the gasoline, Paris, LGF, the Book of pocket, coll. "Biblio-tests", 1990
- Between us. Writings on thinking it of the other, Paris, Grasset, 1991
- Death and time, Paris, LGF, the Book of pocket, coll. "Biblio-tests", 1992
- God, death and time, Paris, Grasset, 1993
- The intrigue of the infinite one: texts joined together and presented by Marie-Anne Lescourret, Paris, Flammarion, 1994
- The Unforeseen ones of the history, Montpellier, Fata Morgana, coll. "Tests", 1994
- Freedom and command, Montpellier, Fata Morgana, coll. "Tests", 1994
- Otherness and transcendence, Montpellier, Fata Morgana, coll. "Tests", 1995
- God, death and time, LGF, the Book of pocket, coll. "Biblio-tests", 1995
- New talmudic readings, Paris, Midnight, 1996
- Except Subject, LGF, the Book of Pocket, coll. "Biblio-tests", 1997
- Escape, Paris, LGF, the Book of pocket, coll. "Biblio-tests", 1998
- Ethics like philosophy first, Paris, Shores, coll. "Shores pocket" 1998
The Duty of memory: release of the camps
1906-2006: Centenary of the birth of Emmanuel Levinas
|Biographical articles referring itself to|
|Simon Blackburn | Ned Block | | David Chalmers | Patricia Churchland | Paul Churchland | | | Jerry Fodor | Susan Haack | Jaegwon Kim | | | Bryan Magee | Ruth Barcan Marcus | Colin McGinn | Thomas Nagel | | | Alvine Plantinga | | Hilary Putnam | W. V Quine | | | | Roger Scruton | | ||
|| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Werner Hamacher | | | | | Henri Lefebvre | | Emmanuel Lévinas | | Paul de Man | | Jean-Luc Nancy | | | | | | ||