The term francic indicate the language of and, by extension, all the Germanic dialects resulting from this language.
With the historical direction, the francique one was the language of . It had a spoken form then also a written form.
In linguistics, the term francic indicates, by extension of direction, all the varieties of Germanic resulting from the language of the Franks.
Within the meaning of "regional language", francic (of Lorraine) or the francic Lorraine one indicates overall the three linguistic forms of francic used in Lorraine (francic Rhenish, francic native of the Moselle region, francic Luxembourg).
One can distinguish three main categories of francic
Dialects bas-francic are attached to the group . results from this group.
means francic is attached to the group average German The means-francique covers the west of means-German while in the east one finds for example the thuringien and the Saxon one. means francic subdivides itself of is in west in:
The first three varieties are spoken in Lorraine.
high francic north in the south is subdivided in:
- francic Rhenish Southerner (Südrheinfränkisch) is spoken with and with .
Geography of the francique one
- The francique one colognais (Kölsch) which is spoken in the area about and in Cantons of the East () (francic ripuaire)
- Francic the hessois (Hessisch) which is spoken in (francic Rhenish).
- The francic palatine one (Pälzisch, in German Pfälzisch) which is spoken in Palatinat (francic Rhenish).
- The of the Saar one subdividing itself in of and francic Rhenish of
- The francique one of Franconie (northern of Bavaria) is attached linguistically to francic Eastern
- The francique one of the area of Karlsruhe is attached linguistically to francic south
- of Belgium spoken in the area about (francic Luxemburgish).
- The francique one colognais (Kölsch) is also spoken in Belgium, in Cantons of the East.
Spoken in the North-East about and the north and the west of Alsace, the francique one is regarded as one of and one of the two regional languages of Lorraine.
The francique one of Lorraine should not be confused with the "novel" of Lorraine which is as its name indicates it one Romance dialect nor with Germanic dialect (spoken in the greatest part of Alsace) or with standard German (regarded as the written standard of reference by a part of those which speak the francique one).
It is spoken by nearly 350 000 people in the department about and is prolonged with , in certain areas bordering in in and in .
Three forms of francic are spoken in , it is of west in east:
- francic Luxemburgish (or , Lëtzebuergesch) in the country (being prolonged with and in with the country of). Certain classifications still attach Luxemburgish to francic the native of the Moselle region.
- (Moselfränkisch) in country of Nied, towards (being also prolonged in along )
- francic Rhenish (Rheinfränkisch) in the coal basin (), the valley of and it Country of Bitche as well as the country of (being also prolonged in of North (Wissembourg) and the West (Saar-Union) and in in the major part of and of Palatinat)
In , the francique one is indicated in language running by the terms: Platt, Plattdeitsch, Lothringer Platt, Lothringer Plattdeitsch , Lothringer Déitsch, Fränkisch, Lothringisch, francic Lorraine , Lorraine francic
The francique one of Lorraine in its various alternatives does not constitute a specific branch of francic on the linguistic level since it is subdivided in several alternatives also spoken elsewhere than in Lorraine. Nowadays it tends to be mixed in the current expression with many words borrowed from French, the speakers frequently practising it codesweatching.
" platt "is the term more used currently (2004) by the Lorraine ones to indicate the francic Lorraine one. It is attested in particular in the local press and the edition, but does not appear in the French dictionaries.
which is an official language of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (francic Luxemburgish)
Lexicon and grammar
- The auxiliary "to have" into francic Rhenish (valley of and country of Bitche) = hon : ich hon, of the hasch, er/sie/' S hat, to mir hon, ihr hon, hon
in German: ich habe, of the hast, er hat, to wir haben, ihr habt, sy haben
- The auxiliary "being" = sin : ich bin (or ich sin), bisch, er/sie/' S isch, to mir sin, ihr sin, sin
in German: ich bin, of the bist, er/sie/es STI, to wir sind, ihr seid, sy sind
Loans of French to the francique one
Voci some words that it borrowed from old francic, the language of the Franks.
- spur < * sporo (old francic, cf. German Sporn)
- beech < * haistr (old francic)
- armchair < faldistôl (francic, cf. German falten "to fold" and Stuhl "chair")
- garden < * gart or gardo (old francic), "fence", but also "spine"...
- heaume < helm (francic helmet, cf. English helmet)
- marsh < * marisk (old francic, cf. English marsh)
- mark (to mark) & goes (frontière)< * marka(old francic, cf. English mark)
- row < * hring "ring, circle, military assembly" (old francic, cf. German Boxing ring)
- truce < * treuwa "contract, convention" (old francic, cf. German Treue)
"I was born in close of . In the family one speaks French with the parents, the francique one and French with the remainder of the family and the buddies. I do not remember to have heard the word " platt "or" francic "before the years . To indicate our language, one said " Déitsch ", i.e. Deutsch ("German") with the local pronunciation. "
"I was born in the years 1950 with . In the family and with the buddies one spoke the francique one: it was often named " platt "or" deitsch ". French was the only language tolerated at the school under penalty of punishment. My grandfather born before 1900: it could read in the Lorraine press of standard German language ("Mail of Metz" or "France Newspaper") while pronouncing in dialectal form.
- "gate of the platt"
- the site of the festival of Sarreguemines
- site of Gau Griis, association for defense and promotion of francic (Bouzonville). "Gau Griis" publishes, since 2001, a trilingual (French, German, francic) literary review and semi-annual, the "Paraple".
- very documented site, with lexicon and charts
- site history of the francique-chart-literature
- Bilingualism in North-East France with specific reference to Rhenish Franconian ()