Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren, ( - ), is the eighth . It is elected for a mandate of 1837 to 1841.
It supports the policy of Andrew Jackson which names it in its government and allows him to be elected with the vice-presidency for its second mandate. Elected official chair, largely because of the support of Jackson, it continues the same policy whereas the economic conditions are degraded involving a panic generalized in 1837. It will not be re-elected.
|N° of order||8E chair of the United States of America|
|Mandate||4 March |
|Date and place|
|5 December |
|Date and place|
|Richard M. Johnson|
Results of the elections
M. Van Buren is born on December 5, 1782 in Kinderhook, New York. His/her parents hold an inn and manage a farm with the assistance of some slaves. Its education is limited to the elementary school of its birthplace.
In 1796 it is employed with the writings in a lawyer where it undertakes the study of the right as an autodidact; it is allowed with the bar of the State of New York in 1803. It practises this profession successfully during twenty-five years.
In parallel with its activities of lawyer, it starts, since 1812, a political career which carries out it Senate of the State of New York (1812 to 1820) to that of the United States (1821 to 1828), at a post of Foreign Minister in the government of Andrew Jackson before becoming its vice-president during its second mandate.
If it is not particularly recognized for its capacities in the various occupied stations, M. Van Buren shows a very thorough political direction since it succeeds in reconciling many supports and, in particular, becomes the dolphin of president Andrew Jackson. There is flattered elsewhere in its autobiography to be able to remain calm vis-a-vis with the insults of its political adversaries, this which by no means prevents it from taking its revenge later. It is very skilful in the art of the compromise: thus it proposes, to be able to integrate Floridas in the Union, to prohibit the importation of new slaves while preserving those in place; this position likes at the same time the States of the South, in favour of slavery, and in the States of North, abolitionists!
Extremely of its experiment, of with , as vice-president at the sides of the president Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren presents at the presidential election of 1836 pennies the sign of continuity, and it is elected thanks to the support of its predecessor. One of the principal points of its program is its opposition to a powerful federal government, it supports consequently the right of each State to decide its policy. The opposition between pro and anti federalists is one of the outstanding points of the political life of its time. It will be easily elected on December 7.
March 4: nomination of Martin Van Buren as an eighth president of the United States.
September 4: confronted start with the world economic crisis of 1837, Van Buren does not manage to solve it the more so as it is in favour of a minimal role for the federal government. Criticisms of the opposition make lose many stations with its party at the time of the intermediate elections.
It succeeds in calming the tensions between the British and the Americans concerning the layout of the border between Canada and the United States thanks to a diplomatic approach, but this position is worth to him the enmity of the partisans of the force.
March 31: order in Council instituting the ten hours day for all the workmen working on federal contracts. The estimated average duration of the working day was at that time 11,4 hours.
July 4: the Congress votes finally, the debate hard since years, a law allowing the creation of a central bank under federal control.
In Canada of the separatist movements are agitated against the domination of the United Kingdom; these rebels are supplied out of weapons by American. The Canadian troops tackle the ships which use the Large Lakes for this traffic. Although many American wish the war with Canada, Van Buren sends troops to make sure that, American side, it does not have there provocations. The war is avoided.
Panic gains the American economy in the 1837 bus the currency is printed by each State whereas the federal government treats with gold and money. Inflation reaches more than 20%. In these conditions it is difficult to rectify economy but in more Van Buren, which is persuaded that it does not rest with the federal government to intervene in the private businesses, decides nothing to make. It is only at the end of its mandate that it will propose the creation of a federal central bank.
Policy concerning the civic rights, the minorities and immigration
Van Buren inherits the decision of A. Jackson concerning the expulsion of the Indians Cherokee de Georgie and does not do anything to prevent the execution of it. It undertakes a war against the Séminoles Indians to force them to evacuate the States of the East coast. (see Indian wars). The expulsion forced of the Indian tribes and their walk towards the west is known under the name of "track of the tears" and resulted in the death of almost a quarter of the Cherokee Indians.
At the time of the election of 1836 Van Buren is presented with the support and will have it of its predecessor, Andrew Jackson, against candidates of the Whig Party lately created. It is elected easily. In 1840, its reputation is into strong fall because of the economic problems and the candidate of the Whig Party which is opposed to him, William Harrison, carries out an election campaign such that they are held today: posters and flags, distribution of objects to the effigy of the candidate, slogans of countryside and even rumours on the sexual preferences of the competitor. Van Buren is beaten.
Martin Van Buren continues his political activity after his presidency. It does not succeed in being the candidate of the democratic Party for the elections of 1844 bus it is opposed to the extension of slavery and the entry of Texas in the Union which is likely to involve a war with Mexico. It is represented even in 1848 but its party, dissident of the democrats, do not receive any voice of the Great Electors.
It dies on July 24, 1862 in its birthplace.
Martin Van Buren was born after Declaration of Independence and thus becomes the first president having American nationality since its birth. Its family, being originating in the Netherlands, it is also the first president who is not British stock and the second resulting one from a modest medium.
Martin Van Buren would have taken taste with the policy by listening to the conversations of the politicians customers of the inn held by his parents.
The democratic party emerges as a cause beyond control of the American policy under the impulse of M. Van Buren. Opposition structure of the same manner around the Whig party. This two-party system remains the base of the current American political system.
Martin Van Buren is the originator and in favour of the construction of the Erie channel which, before the advent of the railroads, makes it possible to serve the state of New York starting from the area of the Large Lakes. On the political level this realization is an example of nepotism, the people named at important stations being solicited to help the political party.
As a vice-president, Martin Van Buren chaired the Senate. It brought with him two guns in charge of fear of being assassinated.
Martin Van Buren would have declared that "the two more beautiful days of its life were, for the first, that where he had become president, for the second, that where he had left the presidency".