Quebec

To visit the page of the town of Quebec, which is the capital of the province, to see Town of Quebec.

Quebec
Drapeau du%20Québec Armoiries du%20Québec
(Details) (Details)
Currency : I remember
Other provinces and territories of Canada
Country Canada
Capital Town of Quebec
HTTP://www.city.Quebec.qc.Ca
Metropolis Montreal
Lieutenant-governor Read Thibault
Prime Minister Jean Charest (Liberal)
Surface 1 542 056 km² (1E)
- Ground 1 183 128 km²
- Water 176 928 km² (11,5%)
Population (2005)
- Total 7 568 640 hab. (2E)
- Density 4,90 hab./km² (5E)
Admission in Confederation
- Date 1er July 1867
- Row 1E
Representation at the Parliament
- Seats with the House of Commons 75
- Seats with the senate 24
Postal abbreviation QC
Prefixes postal code G H J
Gentilé Inhabitant of Quebec, Québécois
Time zone UTC -51
Field Internet .qc.Ca
1 UTC -4 in the case of islands of the Madeleine


Quebec is one Canadian province whose population counts nearly 7,5 million inhabitants. The Inhabitants of Quebec speak in majority it French, making of Quebec the only State officially of French language (and majority) in North America (excluding them The Antilles). The provincial capital of Quebec is the city of Quebec. (One says "in Quebec" and "of Quebec" for the city; "in Quebec" and "of Quebec" for the province.)

Synopsis

Geography of Quebec

Principal article: Geography of Quebec

Quebec is located at the east of Canada, bordered by the province ofOntario and Hudson Bay in the west, provinces of Ground-New-and-Labrador and of New Brunswick with the east, them The United States (States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and ofState of New York) with the south and itArctic Ocean in north.

Park Omega, close of Montebello

The province, largest of Canada, is a vast territory (nearly three times the surface of France), the major part is very little densément populated. More than 90 % of the surface of Quebec forms part of Canadian shield, a large territory which, historically, was called the area of Ungava. At the time of News-France, livable Quebec consisted of a strip of land of a few tens of kilometers of width skirting two banks of St. Lawrence river. It is there that the first French colonists settled to cultivate the ground there after having cleared it.

Quebec has a very varied landscape. Various geological sets there are found. There is the Canadian Shield, with north, and an assembly line in the south: The Appalachian Mountains. Two areas of plain are also present: Low-Grounds of the St. Lawrence bordering two banks of the river of the same name as well as the Low-Grounds of the Arctic girdling Hudson Bay.

In 1912, a great piece of the Canadian area of Ungava was removed with Territories of the North-West to be integrated into Quebec following a law of Parliament of Canada approved by London. This vast area of North, practically uninhabited, created the enormous province of Quebec such as one knows it today. This addition with the province included James bay, where some of greatest projects are the hydroelectric from Quebec, installed on the river the Large one.

The territory of Quebec is extremely rich in natural resources with its forests of conifers, of leafy trees, its lakes and its rivers; paper, wood and the hydroelectricity are among most important industries of the province. The extreme North of Quebec is made of a subarctic area called it Nunavik ; it is the ground of the nation Inuit.

The most populated area is the valley of St. Lawrence river, in the south, where are located the capital, Town of Quebec, and the metropolis, Montreal. In the north of Montreal are them Laurentides (mountains), the oldest assembly line in the world, and the east, them The Appalachian Mountains go until Cantons of the East (Estrie). The peninsula gaspésienne extends in gulf of the St. Lawrence in the east.

The valley of the St. Lawrence is a fertile area where one finds fruit cultures and cereals as well as dairy products, maple syrup, whose Quebec is the most important producer of the world, as well as cattle.

History of Quebec

Principal article: History of Quebec

Quebec was inhabited by First Nations before the arrival of French and is still today - the Québécois State recognizes eleven nations autochtones on its territory: Inuit, them Mohawks, them Innus, them Cries, them Algonquins, them Atikamekw, them Intrigues, them Huron-Wendat, them Abénaquis, them Malécites and them Naskapis.

The first explorer European from Quebec was the French Jacques Cartier, which planted a cross with Gaspé in 1534 and sailed on the St. Lawrence river in 1535. In 1608, Samuel de Champlain birth gave to News-France while melting Town of Quebec. This one will become the starting point of the French exploration ofNorth America. In 1627, the king of France Louis XIII the monopoly of colonization granted to catholics. Little after will come the foundation from Three-rivers (1634) and Montreal (1642). By including Quebec, these three agglomerations were, throughout the history of Quebec, the principal political and economic centers of the province. Of course, of the important cities in terms of population will join to them in the form of "suburbs", like Longueuil for Montreal, Sainte-Foy for Quebec and, more modestly, Three-River-West for Three-Rivers. On the other hand, during recent modifications with the municipal mode (fusions/défusions), several important suburbs joined to the news large cities. In 1663, News-France became a royal colony under the reign of the king Louis XIV.

High and it Low-Canada afterConstitutional act from 1791.
Le Québec (brun) en 1867
Quebec (brown) in 1867
Le Québec (brun) aujourd'hui
Quebec (brown) today

The French and the Canadians were combined with Huron against Iroquois who, them, were the allies of English. Seven Year old war (17561763), betweenEngland and France, took a watershed in North America with the defeat in 1759 army of Louis-Joseph de Montcalm by the army of the English General James Wolfe in Battle of the Plains of Abraham, close of Town of Quebec. News-France was then lost for the kingdom of France. Canada, larger colony of News-France, counted only 55 000 inhabitants at the beginning of the war, whereas the population of New England was of almost a million colonists. The Amerindian population of the immense territory of News-France represented approximately 600 000 hearts then.

Great Britain took possession of News-France with treaty of Paris who put an end to the Seven Year old war which had torn Europe and the colonies in 1763, when the king Louis XV and its advisers chose to preserve Guadeloupe for its sugar rather than Quebec, then considered as a vast territory of ice of no importance by the kingdom of France. Following the treaty of Paris, the majority of the aristocrats turned over to France.

In response to agitations of its American colonies, the British crown founded itAct of Quebec in 1774, restoring the French civil law but preserving the English criminal right. During the American revolution, the city of Montreal was taken and the American revolutionists tried to rejoin the Canadians with their cause. The latter remained rather neutral in the conflict, according to the recommendations of the catholic Church which took the party of the British.

Following American independence, Loyal supporters settled in Quebec. Dissatisfied of the many privileges granted to the Canadians, they asked reforms and obtained what they wanted inConstitutional act of 1791 who divided the Province of Quebec with river of Outaouais, creating it High-Canada (itOntario of today) and it Low-Canada (Quebec of today). The two populations discovered British parliamentarism. Very quickly, the populations of two Canadas realized of the limits of this colonial system.

The great ideas of the liberalism of the time ended up causing a rising armed in Low-Canada and High-Canada in 1837 ; the revolt took place following the refusal of London to take into account the requests of the patriotic Party of Louis-Joseph Papineau. The rebellions were crushed and Lord Durham was sent by London to make investigation. It recommended, in his famous report/ratio (the Durham report/ratio), the assimilation of the French Canadians by the union of two Canadas and the adoption of one responsible government. The Union of 1840 was voted in London, but it is necessary to wait 1849 to see appearing, with the reformists, the responsible government. Unfortunately, the French-speaking people were not already majority any more with the country. The party reformist was then directed by Robert Baldwin in High-Canada and Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine in Low-Canada.

The Union is unstable, and when thePlain one joined it New Brunswick and News-Scotland at the time of confederation (1867), Bottom and Upper Canada will be divided once more, forming the provinces of Quebec and Ontario.

Recent political history

Principal article: Québécois policy

To the birth of the Canadian Confederation, whose Quebec is one of the four provinces founder, an article came to protect the school rights of the religious minorities and another the legality of the French language at the Parliament and the Court recognized. Since 1968, French and English are the official languages of Canada. A double system of education, based on the religion (education is a provincial jurisdiction), was established in Quebec. This system will be maintained until in years 1990, period during which it will be déconfessionnalisé.

The religious capacity occupied, until in years 1950, a dominating place in Quebec. The government ofNational union, with at its head Maurice Duplessis, will be the last to control the province with the assistance of the capacity of the Church. When it was with the capacity, clergy the USA of its influence to convince the voters to preserve this preserving government, government which took also measures against the social reforms and the trade unionism. Under the liberal government of Jean Lesage, the capacity of the Church largely weakened. During years 1960, Quebec entered a great phase of accelerated modernization. It is this period which one names Quiet revolution.

René Lévesque, premier ministre du Québec de 1976 à 1985
Rene Lévesque, Prime Minister for Quebec of 1976 to 1985

The modernization of Quebec revived the idea of independence and it movement souverainist shaped. Towards the end of the Sixties, this movement took a scope without precedent and a section extremist, it Face of Release of Quebec (FLQ) arose from the batch. This group had recourse to terrorist attacks on the Québécois ground against several English interests Canadian and symbol ofEngland. The demonstrations and riots multiplied until the climax of 1970, year when the FLQ assassinated a minister inhabitant of Quebec representative of the provincial government inhabitant of Quebec, Pierre Laporte. This assassination and other death threats sent to the ministers supporting Federation Canadian involved the intervention of the army Canadian, at the request of the Prime Minister Robert Bourassa and of the mayor of Montreal time Jean Flag, in the streets even of Montreal, placing the city under the state of siege. More than 500 leaders of Québécois opinions were stopped, among which trade unionists, artists and students. Subsequent boards of inquiry (GRC and Keable) will conclueront that the action of the governments federal and provincial, illegal on the moral level, primarily aimed at rejoining the public opinion rather than to repress an apprehended insurrection. These events mark all the same the end of the extremism within the independence movement.

It is in 1968 that it was formed Québécois party, party souverainist directed by Rene Lévesque. This party gained the provincial elections of 1976 and a series of laws founded making the promotion and the defense of French language. French became the official language of Quebec (Law 101) in 1977.

In 1980, the project of Lévesque, called sovereignty-association, was supported by 40 % of the population at the time of a referendum. The government of Canada of Pierre Elliott Trudeau the constitution repatriated unilaterally in 1982, but the agreement is not ratified by the government of Quebec following the events discussed of what one will name thereafter Harms of the long knives. Quebec still did not sign the constitution of 1982. Of 1985 with 1994, it Liberal party of Quebec controlled under Robert Bourassa and Daniel Johnson ; advance on the constitutional problems resulted inAgreement of the lake Meech (1987), but this one breaks down in 1990. Another agreement, itAgreement of Charlottetown, which was to solve a long list of problems in more of regulating the relation of Quebec with the remainder of Canada, was rejected by a Québécois referendum pancanadien and referendum in 1992.

Québécois party, carried out by Jacques Parizeau, returned to the capacity in 1994 with the promise to hold a new referendum on the sovereignty of Quebec. Held it October 30 1995, this referendum saw the souverainist proposal rejected by a lower deviation than 1 % (YES: 49,4%, NOT: 50,6%)des votes, is approximately 30 000 votes. Jacques Parizeau left the post of Prime Minister (January 29, 1996) and was replaced by the chief of Québécois block federal, Lucien Bouchard. Bouchard and its successor pequist, Bernard Landry, left side the accession with sovereignty, privileging the restoration of public finances. November 15 2005, Andre Boisclair of the party after a race with the cheffery the opponent became the new chief, in others, with Pauline Marois.

April 14 2003, the Québécois Party was beaten by the Liberal Party, directed by Jean Charest. Become Prime Minister, Charest followed a policy of disengagement of the State, in particular by supporting the partnerships public-private. The government of current Quebec counts 21 ministries and 25 ministers. The current one chair of the national assembly of Quebec is Michel Bissonnette.

In 2004, one learns by the general card verifier from Canada that a black case had been used from 1995 to promote the Canadian unit during and after the referendum on the sovereignty of Quebec. Moreover, one reveals that in spite of the laws Québécois chief clerks, nine times more money had been used by the camp of "Not" (supported by the government of Canada), with the detriment of the camp of "Yes". These revelations question, with the eyes of the camp souverainist, the results of Referendum of 1995 in Quebec, rejected by very little voice. Since, several measurements are taken by the Canadian government to support the Canadian unit at the Inhabitants of Quebec. The recent surveys show besides that the support with the sovereignty of Quebec reached tops in 2005, is nearly 55% of "Yes".

Québécois economy

Principal article: Québécois economy

Like the majority of the economies of the industrialized countries, that of Quebec rests mainly on the sector of the services. The manufacturing sector is there also very important, appearing in the second rank.

In spite of their small place in GDP province, the natural resources remain very important for the provincial economy. Quebec indeed has a territory rich in forests of conifers of all kinds, in water and in minerals. The abundance of the hydrous resources of Quebec enables him to exploit energy hydroelectric via its company of State Hydro-Quebec, the major part of the electricity produced in Quebec coming from the hydroelectricity. By doing this, Hydro-Quebec gives each year of important dividends to the government of Quebec, which in fact a considerable source of income for the State.

The valley of The St. Lawrence is an area agricultural very fertile. One produced there dairy products, of fruits, of vegetables, of maple syrup (whose Quebec is the first world producer) and of cattle.

Compared to Canada, Quebec is a major player inpharmaceutical industry. It is also the spearhead of industry aerospace and of transport in Canada. The company Bomber in is an example. It?uvre in aeronautics, trains, and the motoneiges, built many trains throughout the world such asAcela Express train, the subway of New York and several subways of other large cities.

Geographical proximity of Quebec with The United States fact that a great part of its exports is intended for the territory states-unien.

Québécois culture

Detailed article: Québécois culture, Québécois cinema, and Québécois French (on the French language in Quebec)

Ville de Québec
Town of Quebec

One cannot include/understand Quebec without taking into account the cultural aspect, because it is what distinguishes it from the North-American unit. From the historical point of view, if one poses the French metropolis like initial point of comparison, one notes quickly in France of the differences between the French citizen and the first colonists and runners of wood of News-France.

Two major currents work psyché of the inhabitants of Quebec of then, and will have a major impact on its culture. There is initially a current strongly idealistic missionary, in phase with the idea of the "good savage", aiming at creating a company new, mixed, perfectly Christian, far from perversions of Europe. This vision angelist will make long fire. Nevertheless, compared with the model of the English colonists, the French model has the merit to dream with a union with the people autochtones. In the facts, being given their low number and considering hardness of the climate, the French newcomers have only this choice. If in the facts the union were not chocolate éclair and social, it will be cultural, material and political.

The other idea which makes dream the French who unloads, and who marks the colony, it is that of the adventurer. The courageous young men who enter the grounds discover a world of an incredible natural richness, in more of making the meeting of extremely liberal companies appearing to them. It is in contact with the "sauvagesses", of the richness coming from the fur skins, with the wire of the trainings and the political alliances made near the autochtones, that the spirit of adventure of the colony is forged.

Following the defeat of the French Army with Quebec in 1759, News-France becomes British. It is the beginning of a cultural resistance which will take the religion and the language like principal vectors. Because in 150 years, the country was formed a culture.

But it is a culture far from European, primarily oral, which will make wish with Lord Durham (1838) that for their own good, these colonists without culture become anglophone and take part thus fully by way of subject of the British crown. The Inhabitants of Quebec decided some differently.

Still today culture of Quebec east put of before on a large scale in this French-speaking State.

Everywhere with Quebec, it hockey is practically regarded as one root, and made party of the popular culture of the inhabitants. Canadians of Montreal League Nationale Hockey (LNH) is the most popular team within the inhabitant of Quebec amateurs, who amount per million. The arrival of Scandinavian of Quebec in the LNH in 1979 the popularity of the sport accentuated, creating a competition without preceding between the two Québécois cities.

The dissolution of Scandinavian in 1995 towards Colorado, because of financial problems, put an end to decades of competition with Montreal. Today, ten years after the removal of the team, one speaks more and more about a return of the LNH in Quebec.

Symbols of Quebec

Montréal
Montreal

The province of Quebec is also called the "Beautiful Province". This name was reproduced on number plates vehicles of 1963 until 1978, where it was replaced by the currency of Quebec " I remember ». This currency is engraved on the frontage of the building ofNational Parliament in the city of Quebec.

The armorial bearings of Quebec, as adopted in 1939, are appeared as one ecu where appear from top to bottom three gold lilies on blue bottom (French Mode), a gold leopard on red bottom (British Mode) and a maple branch on yellow bottom (Canadian Mode)

The emblem of Quebec is flower of lily, usually white on a blue bottom, as the provincial flag (see higher), called it Fleurdelisé. As the site of the Québécois government explains it, it flag point out a banner having accompanied the army by Montcalm at the time of the victory of Chime against the British troops in 1758. This flag replaced itUnion Jack by a unanimous vote of the French National Assembly in 1948.

The floral emblem is itvareigated iris. Previously the emblem was it lily white, to point out the flower of lily of French monarchy, but it was changed foriris because the lily is not an indigenous plant of Quebec.

The provincial bird of Quebec is it harfang of snows and the tree, it yellow birch.

Lastly, since 1998, the butterfly White admiral (Limenitis arthemis arthemis (Drury)) is the insect-emblem of the province.

Patron saint of Canadian-French is holy Jean-Baptist. Saint-Jean-Baptist, celebrated it June 24, is now national festival of Quebec. One celebrates Saint-Jean-Baptist by bonfires and concerts putting in the high-speed motorboat Québécois artists, particularly in Capital-main road on the plains of Abraham.

Religions in Quebec

Quebec is mainly demonstrable Catholique by the presence of the Bible in the law courts to date. With immigration, several other religions are integrated into the province. The Charter of the rights and freedoms of the person with Quebec (Article 3) protects freedom from religion for each inhabitant of Quebec in the measurement which it does not violate another basic right, the law and order or general wellbeing of the citizens of Quebec (Article 9.1).

Administrative areas

Quebec is divided into 17 administrative areas:

Tourist areas

See here for more detail.

See too

Internal bonds

External bonds


Drapeau du Québec Areas of Quebec Drapeau du Québec

Abitibi-Témiscamingue · Low-Saint-Laurent · Capital-main road · Center-of-Quebec · The Boiler-Appalachian Mountains · Coast-north · Estrie · Gaspésie-Island-of-the-Madeleine · Lanaudière · Laurentides · Laval · Mauricie · Montérégie · Montreal · North-of-Quebec · Outaouais · Saguenay-Lake-Saint-Jean

See also: List MRC of Quebec


Drapeau du Canada Provinces and territories Canada Drapeau du Canada

Provinces : Alberta · Colombia-British · Island-of-prince-Édouard · Manitoba · New Brunswick · News-Scotland · Ontario · Quebec · Saskatchewan · Ground-New-and-Labrador

Territories : Nunavut · Territories of the North-West · Yukon


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