Apology (dialogue)

Apology of Socrate it is a juvenile text of . Written between 399 AC and 388 AC, it is the most credible source than information on process to Socrate, beyond to that one in which the figure of the old philosopher it is probably little rimaneggiata from the author; We remember in fact that it did not write null: all those that we know of he we must to Senofonte, Platone and (this last one did not know it directly).

For via of the use of as literary artifice in the own ones converses, it becomes to times difficult to understand where the real Socrate ends and where instead Platone is using of the personage in order to express the own theories; with the Apology it does not happen, in how much juvenile work - written therefore still under the infuence of the master - and in how much report of a really happened process; eventual shunting lines from the truth could have carried it in judgment for slander. The apology is moreover one written particular, in how much not in dialogue shape: it is Platone that Socrate, in fact, despised the writing and supported that the philosophy was an oral art; therefore - of forehead to the necessity of having to write - Platone will mainly make it in shape of dialogue between two or more persons. Its peculiar shape is given from the impossibility for Socrate to converse, in a court of : it had to introduce a harangue in order to defend itself from the accusations to corrupt the young people, not to recognize of of the city and introdurne of new.


The debut of Socrate

The text begins with the defense of Socrate, presumablly taken place hardly after the accusatory harangue of Meleto. It, poet, were the legal presentatore of the accusation, pushed give Anito (cuoiaio and political man of faith democratic) and Licone, oratore. Socrate gives here sfoggio of its famous irony, declaring of being remained dumbfound from the ars oratorial of the accusation, to the point not to nearly believe more to own innocence, although it knows that they have not said null of true. It hits particularly that the accusation has thought an optimal oratore to it, and has perceived the judges not to let to draw in deceit: It is the line of departure from which Socrate it will be launch in one captatio benevolentiae and in one most violent accusation al same time. Repeating to speak the good one, and not to know to say other that the truth (accomplice also one its not acquaintance of the logical ones of the court - ribadisce therefore implicitly that it you never has not oed in how much rispettabile citizen) will aim the eyes of the judges at the own dowries and at the same time will criticize i sofisti, which it compares Meleto.

The defense from the ancient accusations

Lascerà however from part the addressed accusations to he, very aware of their essentially legal nature: they were alone the legal windscreen behind which other accusations hid, very radicate in the mind of the Athenian (being to you been inculcate sin from when they they were children); that is ancient accusations, very represented from those ""of in which Socrate is painted like "man sage, that he speculates on the celestial things, that investigates the secrets of buries, than the reasons weak people ago to appear more forts and this goes teaching"- 18B -. Socrate obviously will not be able to carry in court anyone has diffused these sideboards, therefore it will be limited to the use of shadows, imaginary interlocutors - Socrate is not in fact in a position to speaking like a sofista, he needs of an interlocutor in order to construct logos or speech; beyond to the time, since the truth he arrives himself (if he only arrives himself to you) after long search - It contests to them because he knows that he is from whom the empietà accusations are born: who investigates on things of such kind is considered like a man whom she wants to intromettersi in the divine transactions (like happening to , forced to the exile because it preached that the stars were stones and of i) It he will not be simple, in how much nobody has never effectively felt it to speak of (Will admit it are been interested to these things, in Fedone - 96A - but of esservisi detached in how much they did not give the necessary wisdom to it); for the accusation to teach them, if said how much were not enough, there is the customary profession of ignorance from part of Socrate: how can it teach if he does not know null? This will give the occasion to it launch itself in an other attack against the sofisti, culprits is made to pay for the own lessons. According to Socrate they do not possess the wisdom, and if they possessed it it would be disdicevole is made to pay in order to share it. Socrate thinks that these accusations it have been turned because owner of a type of various wisdom, one atropines sofia (human wisdom).

It cites celeberrimo the episode of its friend Cherefonte, which it asked to the oracolo of if there were someone more sage than Socrate; the answer of the oracolo was negative. Socrate, knowing not to know, could not believe to that answer: it tried someone that he was more sage than he, oing from the politicians with reputation of sages and interrogating them, in order then to discover that they in truth did not know null of those that they said of knowledge. Resosi account to come in hatred to which it refuted the own ignorance, Socrate then passed to the examination of the poets and the craftsmen (term that in it was worth for anyone produced an object with the own acquaintance, painters like fabbri). It discovered that first they did not know neanche of what were poetando, while the second ones for their acquaintance of the own technique thought sages in many other fields. From this nacquero search the inimicizie towards Socrate and its reputation of man sage: anyone saw exposed the own ignorance thought that Socrate knew. The philosopher understood therefore that the oracolo he had spoken in enigma shape: Socrate is sage because solo to be human to knowing not to know, to difference of the others: the true wisdom is pure divine, and to the man it is not given to catch up it. And also the accusation to teach to make to gain the speech worse to the young people the drift from its examinations: the richer young people had pleasure in seeing Socrate to carry to knot the ignorance of people, and tried also in its absence to make the same one. Meleto, Anito and Licone represent therefore it wants it of availed again of the categories humiliated from Socrate: poets, politicians and oratories.

The defense from the recent accusations

Cleared this point, Socrate passes to the examination of the recent accusations: it is defined guilty to corrupt the young people; not to recognize of of the city and introdurne of new. Meleto will directly call to render account of the accusations, and it will come easy to demonstrate to it as they were orchestrate them; it in fact never has not taken care itself really of the cure of the young people and easy demonstrates its ignorance in matter: according to he all the Athenian citizens cure themselves of the young people in the just way except Socrate, than instead them travia. To Socrate striking will be enough little in order to make it to fall in contradiction, facendogli to admit like impossible that it is the majority of the persons to having science of what is right to make and of what not to make (topic recurrent of corpus Platonicum). Meleto admits also that the persons accept to be single with who bring they of the assets, and escape again from who bring evils. Therefore, or Socrate cannot teach the evil - since nobody would be with he - or, if ago, ago in unconscious way, since otherwise you would know that teaching it it would be found again very soon only. And second the Athenian laws, who mistakes without to know it does not go tried but instructd. The impietosa destruction of the figure of continuous Meleto in the confutazione of the accusation not to believe to of and professar some of new (in the fattispecie daimon socratico): Meleto, chased from Socrate, reputa a this last atheist, follower of the doctrines of Anassagora; Socrate ago to notice as it is impossible not to believe to of but professar of some, therefore is contraddicendo the own accusation. From here, Socrate will have to only try to believe in a God of the city - and reputarne its daimon son, although it never does not say it - and it succeeds to you for analogies: not things relating to the horses without horses can exist, neither sonate of flauto without suonatori of flauto: in the same way they cannot exist new of if it does not originate to you from of i, is pure as impure sons.

Final defense and verdict

Socrate ribadisce finally that, if is the condemned, it will be only for the hatred fomented from the ancient accusations. But that not the scalfisce: it does not reason in terms of life or of dead women, he only fears not living in the just one; if the just conduct of life were not this, they would go.blames all to you those who lost the life in battle also to help the companion in difficulty, or the same one of (this paradox resorts also in -115B -); moreover, Socrate emphasizes the incoherence in which it would sink, he that it remained to just the place in the battles (obvious captatio benevolentiae; a deepened description more of the behavior of Socrate in war is found in -219 -) and would not have to remain to you hour that to ordinargli of living filosofando is the God . In adding, he does not fear the dead women because it knows not to know: it would be a contradiction to fear it, since something can be only feared that is known to be an evil (the nature of the dead women will be then the topic centers them of Fedone). The single thing that Socrate knows is that not it must living in the ingiustizia, is towards the man who towards the God: if it were rilasciato to pact not to exercise more philosophy, it could not accept, in how much he would be contravvenendo to the divine orders and cure of the Athenian would not be being been taking whom it loves, leaving them in nanny of if same:

"or mine concittadini of Atene, I am obliged and I love to you; but I will obey rather to the God that to you, and until has breath, and until of he is able, I will not never stop of filosofare and ammonirvi[... ] you that six Athenian, citizen of the greatest city, shames to does not give to you thought to you of how many the riches in order to amass some more possible, and of your spirit, so that it becomes how much more possible optimal one, does not give the cure to you?" -29D-

He not for other philosopher, the love that nutre for the Athenian and the task assigned them from the God, that one of risvegliarli; it is a tafano put to the flank of a noble horse so that impigrisca, test is not any that it in order to dedicate itself completely to this obligation has reduced itself in poverty. Its asserts that daimon it prevents to complete the evil, and remembers its conduct: it has always tried living in the justice, even if this involved it the risk of dead women. When it made part of the council was the solo to vote against to the process of the commanders who did not collect are shipwrecked after it battles of the Arginuse, not because innocent them reputasse, how much because to try them in block it was against the law; and equally it made when order from the government of i was given to it thirty tyrants to kill Leonte of ; it refused, sure of its sentence a.morte, than not sopravvenne only because the regimen was turned upside down.

It repeats not to be able to corrupt the young people simply because it does not have null from insegnargli; it is not a master neither asks money: therefore, if someone (like and Alcibiade) it becomes malignant, he cannot have of guilt; to new evidence of this is that nobody of its follows us is never turned to court against of he, and if this were not happened because it was by now corrupt, nobody of its friends or same relatives have never thought that Socrate corrupting it. Socrate remembers the judges who it could have made resorted to the suppliche, to the own ones like to those of its sons and the moglie Santippe: in this way riproporsi like determined man to make the just one, like pushed from the truth and rispettoso of the laws wants: if supplicasse the grace, and came come to an agreement, would make to it to smash to the judges the oath to judge according to law. With these last considerations, it is gone to the verdict.

It comes found guilty for single 30 ballots: 221 to favor, 280 against; if 30 persons still had been persuaded, she would have been resolved in 251 to 250.

The pain proposal

Socrate ironicamente emphasizes like Meleto, if it had not been supported from Anito and Licone, perhaps would have had to pay one fine of thousands (giacché it was previewed that if the prosecutor had not caught up at least fifth of the ballots he would have had to pay such figure, in order to discourage the practical one to drag in court for futili reasons; fifth of 500 it is, obviously, 100. Dividend for three 280 ballots, is attested to us Second to 93 ballots for two and 94 for the one) laws of the Athenian court, as well as tried how much the accusation had to propose one pain, and to put it to the ballot. But as Socrate can propose a pain for himself, that is for who it knows not to have store clerk crime? It inflames the court asking like pain for being maintained to expenses of the state in pritanèo, honor granted to the personalities more illustrious than Atene; after which, it considers the other options: the jail and the exile. If it does not consider just to be imprisoned and reduced in slavery, much less probable and honorable it it seems the exile: if it has been condemned from the people whom he loves, who never will be able to receive it, he and its filosofare? Also because it cannot stop to make it: for obedience to the God, like for personal conviction:

"an examined life is not worthy to have lived" -38A-

It then suggests to a pain of a silver mine (a figure ridicule; it is considered that a mine was worth one hundred dracme, and a medimma of grain - approximately 40 chili - cost 3 dracme) since is all those that possess, but then - under pressure and thanks to the loan of the friends , Critobulo, Critone and Apollodoro - to succeed to elevate the sum to thirty mines. But, it is because effectively this was not however much elevating, is because the judges were by now remained offenses from the proposals of lodging in the pritaneo and to fine of one mine, the nearly unanimous verdict: according to Diogenes Laerzio(II, 42) were a refuse of others 80 ballots regarding those with which he was the condemned, therefore 140 to favor and 360 against. Platone does not narrate of scrutinies or turns out us you of the voting, giacché its attention is concentrated only on Socrate and its thought, and although these details would have had great thickness in a literary work, of distoglierebbero the attention.

How much then happens is not given to us to know if it is happened really or rather it is an enrichment than Platone: usually to this point the process was concluded, but Socrate will have still an occasion to speak. It can be supposed that Platone has intentional to enrich the text, but given the importance of Socrate is also possible that the court has intentional to listen to it once again.

The last participation of Socrate

In its last participation, Socrate at first points out the consequences of the verdict to the adverse judges to he: it, already a lot ahead in the years, would be died from himself within little time. With the sentence a.morte, the Athenian will have reputation to have murdered Socrate, man sage, even if sage was not. Socrate knows that it will be considered to martire from its friends, and that many of it will follow the tracks: if before it were one, to prick the powerful ones of Atene, hour they will be multiplied; the single way that the powerful ones had to contrast these "tafani", as Socrate will call them, would have been to strive itself to achieve the virtue, like has made Socrate: it has not not only implorato mercy, but he has not used beautiful words, it makes arguments and citations - own of i sofisti - in order to trick the judges: it has recovered to their judgment for that he is.

To the judges who voted in its favor - it is meaningful to notice that only now it uses the terms "judges", reported to which they wanted to acquit it: before the verdicts denied to you, he used always the city words "of Atene" - it turns still some word: Neither when it exited of house in order to o to the court, neither during all its defense, daimon it prevented to speak, as it was its usual when Socrate errava: it was acting in the just one, therefore the destiny will bring it of the assets: But which assets can carry one sentence a.morte? In this case, the dead women necessary will have to be an pleasant sleep, deep and without dreams or to find again itself in the ade with the greatest heroes of the antiquity; Socrate does not contradict, thinking next to the pleasure that it will try in this case to examine them one by one, in order to discover who is sage and who it is not.

With these its last words, Socrate remember the judges who to a man in order are not possible well that they happen of the evils, and exhorts them to interrogate the own sons as it would have made he, in order to approach them the virtue.

"But here that it is hour to go: I to die, and you to living. Who of we two goes towards the best is dark to all outside that to God."

With these words the Apology of Socrate finishes.

Correlated voices

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