Sudafrica

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Republic of South Africa
Republiek van Suid-Afrika
IRiphabliki yase Ningizimu Afrika

(Sudafrica)
Sudafrica - Bandiera Nazionale Sudafrica - Stemma nazionale
(detail) (detail)
Maxim: !ke and: ?xarra?ke (Translation: Various people join)
Information
Language official: Afrikaans, English,Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele, Southern Sotho, Northern Sotho, Tsonga, Tswana, It sells
Understood them: Capetown (legislative)

Pretoria (administrative)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
(2.900.000 (Capetown)
1.300.000 (Pretoria)
500.000 (Bloemfontein) ab./ )

Politics
Shape of government: Republic
Head of state: Thabo Mbeki
Head of the government:
Independence: From United Kingdom
Income to The UN:
Area
Total: 1.219.912 km²
Pos. in the world: 24°
% of waters: 0%
Population
Total: 43.647.658 ab. (2002)
Pos. in the world: 26°
Density: 36 ab./km²
Geography
:
Jet lag: UTC +2
Economy
: Rand
Consumption energy: kW/ab.
Several
TLD: .za
Prefisso tel.: +27
Acronym autom.: ZA
National hymn: Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika/Die Stem van Suid-Afrika
National festivity:
It is moreover member of Commonwealth, ofOrganization of the Nonaligned countries to you, of, ofOAU and dell Committee for the Development of Africa of the South.
Wikipedia:WikiProject/Geografia/Antropica/Stati It is invited to follow the outline States.


Sudafrica is one republic situated in the southern tip of. It confines to north with Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, to the northeast with Mozambique and Swaziland; Lesotho it is contained entire to the inside of its borders. One shows oneself moreover onThe Atlantic Ocean and on that one Indian. Cape of Good Hope, situated near one of the understood one them, Capetown, it represents delimits the border between the two oceans.

Index

Storia

Preistoria and discovery of the Europeans

The remarkable fossil ritrovamenti of Sterkfontein, Kromdraai and the caverns of Makapansgat they indicate that vary australopite to us (Australopithecus) they are evoluti in Sudafrica since 3 million years ago approximately. The fossils of ominidi main South Africans comprise Child of Taung, "sig.ra Ples "and recently the skeleton of" Little Foot ".
To these several anthropomorhic monkeys they are you follow species of Homo, included Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Homo sapiens sapiens.

Men of the age of the iron entered to south of the river Limpopo, in odierno the Sudafrica, between the fourth and fifth century, and they were agriculturists. They are movements slowly towards the south in the province Kwazulu-Natal until 1050. They arrived until Fish River, in odierna the province of Western Head. These populations of the age of the iron have pushed more and more to south the hunter-binders lì residents.

Uncovered in 1486 they give Bartolomeo Diaz, to the search of one via it orients them to the Indians, the Cape of Good Hope was for a century and means portuguese support to the way of the Indians.

When the first coloni Dutch arrived in 1652 the Sudafrica was inhabited gives Khoi, Saint, Xhosa, Zulu and several aboriginal tribes.

The first Dutch colonization

The written history of the Sudafrica begins in 6 you open them 1,652, when a center of coloni was settled down to Cape of Good Hope to work of Jan van Riebeeck and on behalf of Company of the Dutch Indians. For the greater part of the XVII and XVIII century, the takeover expanded slowly under the dominion Dutch. The colony of the Head was constituted gives calvinists European, above all of the Low Countries, but also of Germans, ugonotti French, Scot and others; the fusion of these people gave life to one new: i Boer or Afrikaners.

The coloni Dutch they exterminated the local populations Saint, importing enslaved fromIndonesia, from Madagascar and fromIndia, that they will go to constitute the ethnic group of i Coloureds.

British incursions

In English occupied Capetown making of the city the line of departure for the penetration in the continent African, during war Anglo-Dutch in . The boer ones declared defeats, and the British ones annetterono the colony of the Head in . Nacque a dispute for the compensation to the abolition of the slavery sets up from the British ones in and many coloni afrikaner, own republics were moved to the inside of the country, creating: Republic of the Natal, (than in it was absorbed from English), Free state of the Orange (Voortekkers, under the guide of To. Pretorius) and Transvaal (that taken the name of South African Republic, ). One incursion of Voortrekker in the coastal zone of Natal it comes rejected from Zulu with to head Dingane, brother of Shaka.

In 1873 English they placed the guide of the nation Zulù Cetawayo, but they were forced to attack it, since it constituted a danger for the colonizzatori. Zulù English near Isandlwana sbaragliarono, thanks to the acquaintance of the territory and their ability, however were not useful for the Victoria in order to destroy the adversaries completely in withdrawn. Cetawayo it did not try interest for the crews from fire and made to continue its sudditi ones to fight with the traditional systems, that they previewed the body to body. Therefore in the successive battles the men died to migliaia under the blows of the modern English artillery. Four years of debilitating war were necessary however and I use it of guns to repetition because riuscissero English to capture Cetawayo. The peace placed aim to independence of the Zulù: the Zululand divenne in colony British and it was incorporated in in Natal.

Boer Wars

The discovery of diamonds in and in stimolarono l'immigrazione ed intensificarono il soggiogamento dei nativi. The boer ones will resist with happening to the British attacks during before Boer War in - 81.
The boer ones wore uniforms of color cachi, same color of the earth, while the British ones used uniforms of shining red color, rendering them easy targets. The situation had been made therefore indefensible for the intransigence of the first minister of the colony of the Head, Cecil Rhodes, that it wanted to re-unite the entire region under the British flag and of the boer president P. Kruger tenacious defender of boer independence; the British ones returned in great number, without their red uniforms, in the second boer war ( -). The war strongly was osteggiata from Liberty Party in the British Parliament because not necessary and expensive, but the enormous veins of present diamonds and gold in the boer republics guided i Tories in order to press on the war. The boer ones will courageous resist with guerrilla tactics, using the greater acquaintance of the land, in order to hit quickly and to disappear, but the British ones riescirono to overwhelm the boer forces thanks to their advanced number, the external availability of refueling and the participation of English general F. S. Roberts.
The British ones burnt small farms and collected in order to prevent the maintenance of the boer guerrillas. Reduced to the hunger, many afrikaners thought that the time of the peace had come. Therefore a peace treaty was signed to Pretoria .

British Government

With Treaty of Vereeniging the British sovereignty comes declared on the South African republics and the British government loaded the debit of war (3.000.000 £) due from the governments afrikaner. ToDutch legal charter was come to an agreement one special (afrikaans it was not recognized like distinguished language).
One of the main dispositions of the treaty that concludes the war was that to the black ones it would not have been allowed to vote, unless in the colony of the Head.

The British management tried one "Anglicizzazione" of the boer population with the obligatory education , but the program failed, only generating rancor in the boer ones and the program was abandoned when the liberal ones came to the power in in . The first acknowledgment happened in this period ofafrikaans like language distinguished fromDutch.

Afrikaner Government

After four years of negotiations, it was createdSouth African Union from the existing republics (Colony of the Head, Natal, Free state of the Orange and Transvaal), , dominion independent within Commonwealth, exactly eight years after the conclusion of the second boer war. The union was still a British territory, but governed they give Afrikaner.

After to have participated to flank of England in first world war and to have acquired therefore great international prestige beyond that a mandate of League of Nations for the control ofAfrica of Sud-Ovest, the South African Republic knew a period of inner agitation because of the more and more strongly affirmation of boer elements nationalists on the English elements. In the elections of English Smuts it was struck from the boer one Herzog, supporter of one political racist, that he introduced in the country the racial segregation (apartheid) already in vigor in the boer former-republics.
In the English Parlemento votes Charter of Westminster, that it gives to flood independence to the Sudafrica. In it returned to the Smuts power.
The Sudafrica formed an alliance to England in second world war, the South African troops fought in Ethiopia, North Africa and Europe.
It obtained to annex to the South African Republic the German former-colony ofAfrica of Sud-Ovest, than, in , with the election of own representatives, province of the republic becomes one.

Apartheid

In order to deepen, you see the voice Apartheid.

The Union operated one political more and more rigorous of racial segregation with loss of i civil rights of the black populations, especially after the Victoria electoral of the skillful wing of the National Forehead in with the governments of Daniel François Malan (-), Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom (-) and Hendrik F. Verwoerd (-). This politics, famous like apartheid, it caused serious inner contrasts and it alienated to the Sudafrica the support of the international community, until the sentence from part of the United Nations in 1961 and the choice imposing economic endorsements. The black oppositions, between which the African National Congress (ANC), put law outside, were forced to pass to the actions. The ANC was limited to objects to you strategic as to destroy reason of arrest of the future president centers them them electrical workers ( Nelson Mandela). But it gets worse violence actions were store clerks from the same government, than soffocò with the iron fist the protests against the regimen. In 1975 the tension situation would have carried to the revolt of Soweto. In Verwoerd comes rieletto, me in september it comes assassinated in one seated parliamentarian and Balthazar J. Vorster he becomes first minister. In ,The UN the end of the mandate of the Sudafrica votes onAfrica of Sud-Ovest, but the Sudafrica does not recognize this action of the United Nations. Vorster remains in loads until .

Transition towards a majority government

they carried to the end of the apartheid, with the liberation of Nelson Mandela decided they give F.W. de Klerk and with the introduction of elections held democratics , before under Nelson Mandela, therefore with Thabo Mbeki. The Sudafrica added to 9 languages native Africans to the afrikaans and English like official languages, carrying the total to 11.

It was post-apartheid

Endured after the elections, the government ANC it adopted one political of reconstruction and development that headed to reconstruct the economy. This politics were replaced from GEAR, plus conservative, using the foreign investment. The change was much controversial one and cause of tensions between the ANC and its allies you of government (South African Communist Party, mayoralty COSATU).

In spite of these efforts of improvement, the national economy remained lazy. In the May ,inflation it was to 11.2%, with Rand that come down less of the half regarding ten years before (regarding ). The foreign reservoirs remained low. The unemployment rate remained nearly 30% of the active population | economic Data of the Sudafrica. Approximately 60% of the population alive under the poverty line, earning a yield 250 Rand (approximately 30$ USA, sources ), or also less, to the month ]. The economic disparity remains a problem; more of 50% of the population it receives 11% of the yield national anniversary; while 7% of the population receive beyond 40% of the yield of the country | Poverty and inequality in Sudafrica.

With the decline of the iron fist afrikaner, the crime in Sudafrica has grown. The root cause of died for the males between the 15-21 years is the homicide. Johannesburg the city in the world has the highest rate than crime recorded between all. Unfortunately, between the secondary effects of the post-apartheid in the economic situation in Sudafrica there are the closings of many hospitals, artistic and scientific institutions. Those that remains have narrow the budget and they are maintained from popular subscriptions. Us they have been accusations of corruption of high civil employees governed to you, and the scandal was involved also the minister of the defense Tony Yengeni and Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace. However, the greater part of these scandals did not provoke the dimissioni of the interested civil employees and in many they have lost the confidence in the South African political climate.
Un piccolo numero di organizzazioni terroristiche di destra stanno operando in Sudafrica. Si oppongono al governo di maggioranza nero e tentano un ritorno all'apartheid e al dominio politico afrikaners. Ci sono state bombe a Soweto nel 2002, con arresti di presunti membri del gruppo Boeremag. La condizione economica del Sudafrica sembrò stabilizzarsi negli anni (1999-2003), mantenendo comunque la leardship di maggior paese industriale del continente africano, con la più grande concentrazione di industrie alimentari. Inoltre è l'unico stato dell'Africa che utilizzi l'energia nucleare in ogni forma.

Geografia

Geografia fisica

Morfologia

The South African territory comprises all the southern portion of the high "Africa", to south of goes them of Limpopo and of the depression of Kalahari. It rests on an ancient crystalline cliff hoof preCambrians, venate from rich auriferous and uraniferi traditions in the region of Witwatersrand (Transvaal); in great part but such substrate it is covered from sediments of the formation dictates of Karroo diffused in allSouthern Africa but characteristic above all of the region of the Head. Of age they give carboniferous (Paleozoico) to giurassica (Mesozoico), such layers catch up also the 7.000 m of power; they are anch' economically much important they for the presence of goes carboniferous giacimenti to you. Of essentially tabular structure therefore, the South African territory is wrinkled alone in the extreme southern section of the Head, where it is aligned, for effect of the orogenesi ercinica, a series of chains, with alignment for more from east to the west, separated from long goes them; in the depressions formed from the corrugamento capide are spread exactly Great Karroo and Karroo Small.

The prevailing morphologic element is but the raised hem of the plateau; although in more points smembrato from the erosion (the main agent molder of the territory, than more it was not interested from marine ingressioni after Paleozoico, but light marginal episodes) in massive it isolates to you, like Tafelberg (1.914 m) and Kompasberg (2.504 m), the ciglio continental imposing wall to east forms one, with i Mounts of Draghi, or Drakensberg, it characterizes to you from powerful basaltic effusions and with several advanced tops to the 3.000 m (the maximum quotas are found but in Lesotho). Towards the such west raised margin, Great Escarpment or Great Escarpment, it is lowered progressively until the terrazzati shelves of the western coast, while towards south it is faced from the mentioned chains of the Head. One tightened wraps alluvial coastal borders nearly all the country; the coast is a lot to regulate and generally importuosa, but that in the southern zone where the chains of the Head show oneself directly on the sea. Here the marine erosion has carved a colorful way the arenaceous reliefs, originating one succession of capes, with coasts to falesia, and of short features of low coasts; famous Cape of Good Hope a full of rocks one is but ancient isolotto knit to the continent. Rather monotones are the tavolati ones of the inside, of medium height between the 1.200 and the 1.800 m.

They make part of the Sudafrica also two islands antarctic situated approximately 1.770 km to south-east of Port Elizabeth, islands of Prince Edoardo.

Hydrography

Hydrographical the country, also divided between various river basins, pays essentially inThe Atlantic Ocean, above all throughOrange (1860 km), the main national river, that it is born in Lesotho and whose immense river basin (1.020.000 km²) it corresponds to good part of plateaus; the course of the river is but uneven from fast and cascades that of it render diffile navigation, hindered moreover from the much irregular regimen. Between affluent its a sure importance has Vaal (1.200 km) and Molopo (approximately 1.000 km) that it marks for along feature the border with Botswana but that it is nearly always dry. It comes down to the Atlantic alsoOlifants.

Between the fiscal ones ofThe Indian Ocean the main one is Limpopo (1.600km): the irregolarità of of the profile and the regimen of it pregiudica but navigation. The other rivers are born nearly all from Great Escarpment and they introduce a normal course to the coast (between the many is celebre Tugela that it is originated to the borders with Lesotho and form, with a series of knows to you, the cascades omonime) except those of the zone of the Head, where the relief forces them to long longitudinal distances. Between lagos of the Sudafrica there are the Grootvloer, formed from the Sak river that but is almost dry for great part of the year and the lago Sain Lucia near Durban.

Climate

The climate is remarkablly varied in relationship is to the great territorial extension, is to the altitude, is to the esposisizione to the sea. The subtropicale latitude and the deep marine influence are to the origin of the Mediterranean climate that characterizes the southern apex of the South African territory: here the temperatures are myths and the 600 precipitations exceed i milimeter; the rains are tied to the been left over one of cold fronts of antarctic origin during, while nearly all the rest of austral Africa in the same period is surpassed from an anticyclonic area that prevents the afflusso of humid air masses of the surrounding oceans.

To the contrary, of, when in continental within lowland conditions are established pressure, the coming from humid air masses fromThe Indian Ocean to the continuation of the south-east trade wind they invest the coasts orients them and Great Escarpment irrorandole of abundant precipitations (1000-1500 milimeter). In particular Natal it enjoys a humid warm climate, than ago of this province the more favorable area to the cultivation of tropical cultivations. As one continues towards the inside the precipitations diminish: on plateaus they are gone around on i 500-800 milimeter annual. In way more clearly 60 are reduced continuing towards the west until touching i milimeter to Port Nolloth, on the Atlantic. The thermal, sensitive excursions on plateaus, are somewhat contained on the coasts.

Temperature and precipitations

Temperature e precipitazioni mensili
Temperatures and precipitations salaries

Population

Density: 36 for km²
The census of the October population of 40 has shown one.583.611 persons; the appraisals for this country explicitly consider the effects of exceeding mortality due toAIDS; that can cause one hope of lower life, one higher infantile mortality and not, lower population and rates than increase and changes in the demographic division from the age and the sex various regarding previewed (the July 2002 east.)

Etnie

Black 75.2% (zulu 23%, xhosa 9%, ndebele, setswana, siswati, tshivenda, sesoto, xitsonga), white men 13.6% (English, afrikaans), coloured 8,6%, Indians 2,6%.

Religion

68%, Muslems 2%, hindu 1,5%, animisti 28,5%.

Government

The South Africa is divided in nine province

Province of the Sudafrica
Province Capoluogo Inhabitants capoluogo Surface (km²) Inhabitants Density (ab./km²)
Western HeadCapetownca. 2.984.100129.370ca. 4.893.90037,82
Northern HeadKimberley166.100361.830ca. 814.2002,25
Head Orients ThemBisho137.900169.580ca. 6.514.50038,41
KwaZulu-NatalUlundi15.200ca. 92.000ca. 10.070.500109,46
Free BeenBloemfontein349.000129.480ca. 2.749.30021,23
North The WestMmabatho50.900?ca. 3.865.100?
GautengJohannesburg1.975.500ca. 17.000ca. 9.839.100578,77
MpumalangaNelspruit112.400?ca. 3.327.100?
LimpopoPietersburg104.000?ca. 5.482.300?

Economy

PIL(2003):157964 million dollars PIL/ab(2003):3409 dollars Inflazione(2003):7,7% Disoccupazione(2002):30% force lavoro(2002) in percentage:head physician 13, secondary 27, terziario 61

The Sudafrica is an underdeveloped nation to medium yield, with abundant revives, very developed in finance, communications, energy and fields of the transports, stock market it is between the first ten of the world. However, even if the development has been positive for ten consecutive years, has not reduced 30% of unemployment and they remain the problems of was ofapartheid, the poverty and the lack of being able economic between the svantaggiati groups. Other problems are the crime, corruption and HIV/AIDS. To the beginning of , the president Mbeki it promised to promote economic development and the foreign investment, to cut expenses and to privatize.

Points of force: it is the developed economy more of Africa; highly diversified and with modern infrastructures. The field financial is much fort in the investments mobilizes to you. The manifacturing field is in increase. The natural resources are several, in mineral particular of strategic importance.

Points of weakness: the political uncertainties discourage the foreign investments, Increase too much weak person in order to exceed the deprivations of the black majority. Demographic boom. The decrease of the gold price threatens many fields.

Resources

Production of electric power: 35,9 million kw.
Peach: 15.500 tons.
Oil: not producing, refining 10.000 b/g.
Breeding: sheep 13,5 million, goats 12,5 million, bovine 5,3 million.
Minerals:gold, silver, diamonds,

Economic Fields

Agriculture

Like in kind all the productive fields of the country, also in the within of agriculture the participation of the government has been decisive; it above all has esplicato itself in the taken provisions in order to assure sufficient water supplying in a territory that it loses, for evaporation or overflowing, the greater part of waters convogliate from the rivers. Sin from it operates Water Research, instituted commission exactly in order to coordinate and to promote the most opportune searches and idrologiche safeguards; but already in it had been launched a huge plan for the sistemazione of goes them of the river Orange, with the creation of three great lagos one crafts them in a position to feeding 20 hydroelectric stations nonche immense net of channels. In the complex 13.6% of the active population are occupied in the agricultural field. Arable and territorial arborescenti cultivations cover 10.8% of the surface; a quarter of these I correspond to the "triangle of the maize" between Mafikeng, Lesotho and Swaziland, they are assigns you to maize, than in part it is exported. Instead destined the production, much inferior is eminently R-al.mercato inner, of frumento (15-20 million q), diffused above all in the south-western field of Province of the Head and in the part it orients them of Free state of the Orange; between i cereals minors figure I rise (4 million q),I luff, oats, Mile. Always R-al.mercato inner is destined potatoes (12,5 million q) and several orticole cultivations ( tomatoes, peas, onions, fagioli, etc.). Enough clean it is, like in other states Africans, the demarcation between subsistence agriculture and very more flourishing industrial agriculture of plantation; here to the first place it is placed sugar cane (22 million q sugar products annually), concentrated in wrap coastal of Natal, which they make followed tobacco (340.000 q), produced above all in Transvaal and in some zones of Province of the Head, and cotton (1,5 million q between fiber and seeds), diffused in plateaus. Most important it is finally fruit growing, in good destined part to the export and that, thanks to the variety of the climatic conditions introduced from the country, concur the species increase is own of the moderated areas is typical of those tropical ones. screw (14,6 million of q of grape) it prospers in the south-western cuspid of Province of the Head and from it elevates to you quantitati you of wines many valuable (9,4 million hl annual); in the province of the Head apples (4,5 million q are always cultivated), peaches (1,7 million q), pears, plums, apricots. Citrus cultivation (6,5 million q between oranges, pompelmi and lemons) optimally is represented, beyond that in the Province of the Head, in wraps coastal of the Natal species around Durban; in the coastal area of the Natal pineapple 2,6 million q is always produced to tropical fruit (, bananas 1,8 million q, manghi, papaie, etc.). Very taken advantage of are also cospicue the forest resources that supply 19 million m³ annually lumber, not covering 90% of the inner requirementses.

Breeding

In the complex for its climatic characteristics the South African Republic lend the breeding of the cattle: very 66% of the national territory are occupied from prati and permanent pastures, the distribution puts into effect them of the cattle is conditioned from the extension and the nature of the pastures; therefore bovines (11,9 million heads) are concentrate to you in the more humid areas of the east and the north (Natal, Transvaal, section orient them of the Province of the Head, Northern Orange); more important is the breeding of ovines (32,6 million heads), than they are pleased of lean pastures and barren and that they are therefore diffuse in all the immensest region centers them. The Sudafrica is a great wool producer (500.000 q the year); but the ovines also supply the valuable skins karakul. Between goat (5,8 million heads) they are of particular relief the goats of Angora (1 million); they are raised moreover suini, horses and flown them from courtyard.

Peach

Also peach (878.000 t annual) it covers remarkable importance modernly, being a equipped and organized field; the more abundant products (sardine, anchovies, clear, cods) are drawn from cold Atlantic waters.

Mining resources

Gold and diamonds

The Sudafrica is for tradition the country of i diamonds and of; however its revives is much several and in some huge cases. Although by now it is extracted to remarkable profondita and therefore to increasing costs, gold (650-700.000 kg annual, 62% of the world-wide production) are one sbalorditivo South African supremacy; the area of more famous extraction is Rand (Transvaal); to it other giacimenti are numerous assistants, like those of Odendaalsrus and Elsburg: draft in the complex of one cinquantina of mines. The auriferous minerals contain also one remarkable quantita of uranio, that it comes worked in various systems (6.500 t of oxide of uranio); most important also the extraction of (161.000 t). As far as the diamonds, the state has one colossal production (8,7 million carats between true and own gems and industrial diamonds); such attivita ago head to the company De Beers, that great part of the world-wide commerce of stones controls. For the diamonds they go above all remembered the mines of Kimberley (Province of the Head), Premier (Transvaal), Jagersfontein and Koffiefontein. Alluvial diamonds are extracted from the bed of Vaal and near Port Nolloth to the foce ofOrange; with boats purposely equipped come extracted diamonds also from the bottom of the sea. To the gold and the diamonds it must be added (78.500 kg).

Coal and oil

Important are also the giacimenti of coal (174 million t); more cospicua the carboniferous area extends from the Natal until comprising all the Transvaal centers them; other mines are found in the Free State of Orange. The first ritrovamenti of a sure one entita of oil, locate to you in found them submarine to the wide one of the coasts of the Head, until to , but the recovered oil is not sufficient because it turns out some economic the extraction. In effects nearly the half degli hydrocarbons employs to you is not coming from dal oil, but colossal systems are succedanei goddesses obtained for nei syntheses dal coal complex goddesses SASOL (South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corporation). Other minerals.

Also for metalliferous minerals the South African Republic is most endowed, species for those of (15,6 million t), present above all in the Natal, but still more for cromite (1,9 million t, according to world-wide producer), (1,4 million t, according to world-wide producer) and (5.260 t, fourth world-wide producer); cospicua it is also the production of (16.300 t) and of (30.000 t). To great distance branch (209.000 t), pond, . Between not metalliferous minerals they prevailamianto (146.000 t), i fosfati naturali (2,9 milioni di t), la mica e lo zolfo. Grandiose saline (626.000 t di sale) si trovano a Port Elizabeth e a Brantford.

Industria

Potenzialità industriali

The field in greater expansion is that manufacturer, than currently it participates for two fifth to the formation of the national product. One of the characteristics of the national industry is the presence of a strong public sector, that it has instituted large societa, like the SASOL, the ISCOR (South African Iron and Steel Industrial Corporation), the ESCOM (Electricity Supply Commission), the SOEKOR (Southern Oil Exploration Corporation), etc. Under governmental aegis it comes supported the realization of several economic plans of great proportions. The industrial potenziamento has had like premised logic attentta a political economic of energetic development; the production of energy (164.000 million kWh) exceed already that one of many European countries. Prodottoè quasiesclusivamente Di energia termica van L'energia, van de carbonescène e DA van alimentatacDa petroliod'importazione; sono in centrali van ILPOTENZIAMENTO van attoperò sia delle idriche, grandi van legatosoprattutto alle opere in corso sul fiume Orange, it is an immense program of creation of centers them nuclear.

Industrial production

The industry nacque like activity of transformation of local the mining resources; today its panorama is much diversificatoe has assumed important proportions also in several manifacturing fields. Cospicua is the industry iron worker, than it benefits of the presence iron and coal: localized especially in the Rand (Johannesburg, Pretoria, Vereeninging), it produces beyond 14,6 million t between cast iron and steel. To flank of it they operate various metallurgical complexes: of copper, of the pond, the aluminum (that it works bauxite of import), etc., that they operate is for inner demands that for the foreign country. Immense it is the range of products of the mechanical industry: automobiles, vehicles, airplane, ships, equipment electrical workers; it connects to you with the industry of the automobile, the plants for the production of rubber (6,8 million pneumati to us). The much important chemical production has assumed proportions, dislocated in several centers but above all operating to Sasolburg, in the Rand, where obtained synthetic benzine from the coal is produced, sulfuric acid, superphosphates, plastics, caucciu synthetic; other great complexes are to Modderfontein (synthetic ammonia), Somerset West (I rendered some synthetic, coloring), Phalaborwa (fertilizers), etc. The petrochemical field, also in constant expansion, is present with several refineries located in prevalence in the harbour centers of import (Capetown, Durban), let alone to Sasolbourg. The field you weave them marks it for the cotonifici and the lanifici, with the connected industry of the apparel. Several other industries work national raw materials, feeding to the shoe and the manufacture of the tobaccos; the Sudafrica has one good production of concrete and of paper.

Transports

Roads: 33.800 km (the guide is on the left)
Freeways: 1.142 km
Railroads: 22.916 km
Ports: Capetown, Durban, East London, Mosselbaii, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha
Merchant marine: 8 ships for 371.000 tsl

  • portacontainer 6
  • oil tankers 2

Airports: 740 (2001)

  • Jan Smuts International (Johannesburg)

Tourism

1 visitor the every year 8 inhabitants.
Lesotho 30%, Zimbabwe 14%, Swaziland 14%, Botswana 10%, Namibia 5%, others 27%.

Exports

Great Britain 12%, USA 6%, 5%, Germany 4%, Zimbabwe 4%, Mozambique 2,5%, others 62.5% (2001 st.)..

Imports

Germany 13%, USA 12%, Great Britain 11%, Saudi Arabia 7%, 7%, Iran 5%, others 45% (2001 st.)

Monetary Reservoirs

Circulating currency:349,92 billions of rand(2002)

Gold reservoirs:5600000 ounces

Reservoirs internazionali(2002):7639 million dollars

Culture

Schooling

Rate schooling: 85%.
University students: 617.897.

Instruction

The instruction is obligatory between the 7 and 11 years. The hard primary instruction 7 years; the primary instruction is uniform in one inferior section (two years) and one advanced; the secondary instruction is four-year and comprises a triennial inferior section that finishes with a examination (Junior Certifyd) and a advanced section, than it is concluded with an university entrance exam (Matriculation).

University:

Health

Public sanitary system.

Atmosphere

5% of protected territory (4 % partially are protect).

It deals to you acclimatizes them:

  • Convention of Ramsar
  • CITES
  • CBD (biodiversity)
  • Protocol of Montreal (emission CFC)
  • Basel (toxic refusals)

Flora

In relation to the climatic variations, the cover vegetable somewhat is differentiated; on plateaus the praterie moderated, than trapassano in cespugliose steppes and xerofile towards the southern and western areas predominate little piovese; on the depositor it orients them are met savane shrubby, often associated to plants of high stalk like and baobab, and borders of tropical forest, with character of along the course of some rivers (Tugela). The typical cover vegetable of wraps south-western of the country, that it enjoys Mediterranean climate, is the spot sempreverde.

Fauna

National parks

Politics

President: Thabo Mbeki.
First Minister: Jan Smuts.

Bicameral system:

  • National assembly - 400 members
  • National council of province - the 90 members (10 members for every province)

Foreign politics

Bibliography

External connections

Correlated voices

Mountains

  • Mounts of Draghi (3482 m)
  • Mount of Compass (2502 m)
  • Black mounts (2325 m)
  • Njesuthi (3408 m)
  • Swart Peak (1280 m)

Rivers

  • Auob
  • Brak
  • Buffels
  • Caledon
  • Doring
  • Fish
  • Gourits
  • Groot
  • Groot Letaba
  • Hartbees
  • Harts
  • Kariega
  • Kuruman
  • Limpopo
  • Mogaiakwena
  • Molopo
  • Moshaweng
  • Nossob
  • Olifants (South Africa - Province of the Head)
  • Olifants (South Africa - Transvaal) (River dos Elefantes)
  • Orange (Oranje)
  • Pongolo
  • Renoster
  • Riet
  • Sak
  • Sand
  • Sout
  • Tugela
  • Vaal

Lagos

  • Grootvloer
  • Saint Lucia

Seas

Islands

  • Marion
  • Prince Edward


Countries of the World |
| | Benin | Botswana | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cameroun | Green Head | Ciad | Ivory coast (Côte d' Ivoire) | Egypt | | Ethiopia | Gabon | Gambia | Ghana | Gibuti | Guinea | Equatorial Guinea | Guinea Bissau | Comore | Kenya | Lesotho | Liberia | Libia | Madagascar | Malawi | | | Mauritania | Mauritius | Mozambique | Namibia | Niger | Nigeria | Centrafricana Republic | Republic Democratic of the Congo | Republic of the Congo | Ruanda | São Tomé and Príncipe | Senegal | Seychelles | Mountain range Lion | Somalia | Sudafrica | Sudan | Swaziland | Tanzania | Togo | Tunisia | Uganda | Zambia | Zimbabwe
Enclave and European possedimenti
(Spain) | (Spain) | Réunion
Territories with indefinite legal state

 

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