Kardecista Espiritismo

The term espiritismo it appeared as one created by Allan Kardec, used for the first time in the introduction of O Book of the Espíritos (1857), specifically to nominate the body of ideas that were being for it divulged. Today, however, the term started to be used for many of ample form for the some religiosas/filosóficas doctrines that believe and/or practise the communication with presumptions espíritos of people deads. The followers of Kardec many times point the use most generic of the term espiritismo as being maken a mistake.

While the article is come back toward the direction amplest of the term, the present article aims at to deal with the espírita doctrine as was codified by Kardec. This division is mere didactic. The use of the term kardecista espiritismo in the present article it does not imply to support the direction amplest of the term espiritismo as being more or less "correct" that its more restricted use.

Thus, in this article, for espiritismo the thought chain must be understood - been born in middle of century XIX - that was structuralized from the dialogues between pedagogo French and what it and many researchers of the time had considered to be about diverse, disclosing itself through several . It is characterized for the ideal of understanding of the reality by means of the integration enters the three classic forms of , , o and . Each one of them, according to espiritismo, if taken separately, tends to lead the excesses of skepticism, negation or fanatism. The objective espírita doctrine to establish a dialogue between them, aiming at, with this, to the attainment of an original form, to one alone more including and deep time, to understand the reality.

The doctrinal base of the Espiritismo is , primeiro livro das obras bda Doutrina 特别是 In this book, they are inserted questions developed for Kardec, that would have been answered for the espíritos in mediúnicas sessions with diversified techniques of . These questions, numbered of 01 the 1019, had served as base for too much books.

The espíritas affirm that its doctrine has inspiration , despite the well differentiated theological conceptions in that it says respect to , to the humanity, salvation, favour and destination. For they, Jesus Christ is the pure spirit who we know in all the history of the Land and is the model to reach the perfection.

Table of content

Context

In 1855, , later known by the pseudonym of , launched it the inquiry of the phenomenon, sufficiently common to the time, of the "girantes tables" or "dance of the tables", where tables and objects in general seemed to liven up of a stranger vitality. After two years of devotion to the research, it it did not consider many and obvious frauds with that if it came across sufficients to justify a generalization that made of all the events of this order fallacies and/or charlatanries. Personally convinced the reality of the phenomenon, that considered essentially real despite the existing meaconings, but also of the possibilities to not only be caused for espíritos, Rivail gave a step ahead: in place to dedicate the remaining portion of its life to the search for "cientificamente proving" the veracity of the phenomena, Rivail looked for to extract of the possibility, for hugged it, of them to be caused for espíritos something of useful for the humanity.

Robust the formations humanistic why it passes, drinking directly of Pestalozzi, disciple dileto of , could not limit it it mere a research . A necessidade the drone algum suporte à espiritualidade humana numa época em que a ciência avançava a passos largos e ash religiões perdiam cada vez mais adeptos despertou em Kardec a idéia the uma forma the pensar o mundo que unisse, the forma ponderada, a ascendente Ciência et al. declining Religião, mediadas pela racionalidade filosófica. Of this form, Kardec made use of scientific to investigate the phenomena, of the philosophical rationality to dialogue with what it presumed to be and to analyze its proposals, and searched to extract of these dialogues consequences rational, useful for all the humanity. It appeared there, more necessarily in 18 of April of 1857, the espiritismo, organized in the first edition of O Book of the Espíritos.

First comments

The espíritas and many other defenders of the mediúnica explanation for the calls "supernatural phenomena" or "paranormais" adopt the date of 31 of March of the 1848 as initial landmark of the modern mediúnicas manifestations, more ostensive and alegadamente frequent of that it never occurs, what it took many researchers if to lean over on such phenomena. They affirm, however, that events involving espíritos (people that already had died) exist since the primórdios of the humanity.

Among others, the commentaries cite as example of to speech on "dáimon"or genius who would acomapanharia ; the prohibition of to the practical one of the "consultation to deceased", that it would be an evidence of the possibility of this practical, since something does not prohibit unrealizable; e the communication of with e Elias in the Tabor Mount, cited in TM, 17, 1-9.

Study on the girantes tables

according to biógrafos, Allan Kardec was invited by Fortier, a studious friend of the theories of Mesmer, to verify the phenomenon of girantes tables with the disposal to observe and to analyze the phenomena that despertavam curiosity in century XIX.

The first had manifestations as mediúnicas had happened by means of tables if lavantando and beating, with one of the feet, a definitive number of collisions and answering in this way yes or not, as it are stipulated, to a question proposal.

Kardec, in analyzing these fenómenos, concluded that it did not have nothing of convincing in this method for the skeptics, because if it could believe a effect of electricity, whose properties little were known by then. Then methods had been used to more get developed answers by means of the letters of the alphabet: the mobile object, beating a corresponding number of times to the number of order of each letter, arrived to formulate words and phrases answering to the questions proposals.

Kardec concluded that the precision of the answers and its correlation with the question could not be attributed perhaps. The mysterious being that thus answered, when questioned on its nature, it declared that he was one Spirit or genius, it gave its name and it supplied to diverse information its respect.

Principles

The Espiritismo, in a general way, is based on the following points:

  • in the existence and unicity of , rejecting of ;
  • in the existence and immortality of , understood as intelligent individuality of the Divine Creation;
  • in the defense of , as the natural mechanism of perfectioning of the Espíritos;
  • in the possibility of communication between the incarnate espíritos ("livings creature") and the deixarred a carne espíritos ("deceased"), through the mediunidade;

Moreover, they can be cited as characteristic secondary:

  • The notion of continuity of the individual responsibility for all the existence of the Spirit;
  • Progressividade of the Spirit inside of the evolutivo process in all the levels of the nature;
  • It comes back of the Spirit to the substance () as many times how many necessary to reach the relative perfection the one that if destines. The espíritas do not believe in , or either, the Spirit return in the body of animal to pay debts, as they accept the religions in general eastern. As the Espiritismo, the Spirit not retrograda;
  • Total absence of sacerdotal;
  • Self-denial in the practical one of the good, or either, usually does not charge nothing for the this or that espírita activity;
  • Proper terminology, as for example, , Law of Cause and Effect, médium, Espírita center. The espíritas not they use the terms: body astral, , , , "", "device", "", "", among others vocábulos used by some religions and beliefs.
  • Total absence of cult the images, altars, etc.
  • Absence of any rituals of baptism, cult or ceremony to officialize marriage;
  • The espírita doctrine stimulates to the practitioners of the espiritismo the respect to all the too much religions and opinions.

according to espíritas, organizations exist whose characteristics are not incased in the espírita doctrine, and therefore are not considered by the Espíritas Federacies, representative of the doctrine. For the espíritas, these are espiritualistas and not espíritas doctrines. This differentiation has generated many controversies and quarrels in both segments.

Although the Espírita Doctrine is not deriving of , this is the country that possesss the biggest amount of adepts.

Books published for Kardec

The book was also published Posthumous workmanships, that its death is a coletânea of the writings found in the drawers of Allan Kardec after, where if they display stories, conclusions and experiences whose authorship not if it can attribute the Kardec inquestionavelmente, but that if they had shown important for the agreement of its experiences.

Doctrine Espírita and Cristianismo

The espiritistas (in Portugal) or espíritas (in Brazil), in its majority, are affirmed Christian and attribute to the Espírita Doctrine the character of a Christian doctrine. However, this association between Espiritismo (Espírtia Doctrine) and the Christianity are contested by the matrix religions Jewish-Christians, under the allegation of that, even so partilhe of Christian values, the espírita rejection the diverse Biblical and theological postulates praised by the Christian churches would make impracticable the conceptualization of "the Christian" espiritismo as.

The espíritas base its defense of Christian carácter of the Espírita Doctrine in the fact of Allan Kardec, in its dialogues with the Espíritos, to have concluded that the Christian, exempt moral of of faith it associates, would be what of next to a code to ethical the holy ghost and rational the man I possessed. Moreover, the reply to question 625 of O Book of the Espíritos affirms to be Jesus the biggest moral example of that it makes use the humanity, although the espiritismo to deny it any to carácter the holy ghost effectively (Posthumous workmanships, 13.ª Edition, pág. 121).

The Prof.ª , after-doutoranda for the College of Education of the University of São Paulo, defends the Christian character of the Espírita Doctrine, pointing in the proposal structuralized by Allan Kardec a new model of religion, other people's the sacerdotais dogmas, formulas, hierarchies and eminently based in the aspect ethical-moral of the citizen. It still considers and Pestalozzi as the two great precursors of the idea of a "predominantly moral natural religiosidade", and defend that "it was proven with the publication of The Evangelho according to Espiritismo e of The Sky and the Hell that, even so it did not confess it, it [ Kardec ] was making a new reading of the Christianity ". (Pedagogia Espírita: a Brazilian project and its description-philosophical raízes, São Paulo, Feusp, 2001, pág. 74)

Already the Prof. António Flávio Pierucci, of the Department of Sociology of the University of São Paulo, studious of the Brazilian religiosidade, looks for to demonstrate that the Espiritismo (Espírita Doctrine) is not one , affirming that the espíritas use the Christianity to legitimize themselves. Pierucci also defends that the bond with the Church Catholic defended for the espíritas served, during decades, to fight against the discrimination and the intolerância. (The Desencantamento of the WorldAll the Steps of the Concept, São Paulo, Publishing company 34, 2003)

The Concept of the Biblia

The matrix religions Jewish-Christians understand that, with the given Law in , God interditou to Old Israel the comuniçações with the World of the Espíritos and the use of being able supernatural for granted them. "... it will not have in the way of you nobody that makes to pass for the fire its son or its son, who interrogates the oracles, practises adivinhação, magic, encantamentos, enfeitiçamentos, appeals to the adivinhação or it consults deceased (necromancy)". (Deutornóminos 18:10-14) This prohibition is confirmed in . Some denominations defend the maintenance of this prohibition in the references contained in Evangelhos e in the book of Acts to the "impure espíritos" and "íniquos". Pablo has still who associates the citation of apóstolo, in Gálatas 5:20, to "witchcraft" (in gr.. farmakía) to the espiritismo, when it enumerates those that "will not inherit the Kingdom of God".

Already the espiritistas or espíritas, affirm that the Bible proíbe the practical one of incorrect form, or either, for purposes triflers.

The dialogue with the Christian Religions

The official position of the Church Catholic proíbe final its fidiciary offices to attend the carried through mediúnicas sessions or with espíritas aid of médiuns - exactly that these seem to be honest or merciful - does not want interrogating the Espíritos and hearing its answers, it wants attending for mere curiosity. Similar positions have the too much Christian religions.

However, the Church does not deny the physical possibility of communication with entities spirituals. In recent research, under the guardianship of the Pope João Pablo II, the Priest François Brune, it published in the book The Deceased in Falam, it defends the reality of the communications with the Espíritos. Moreover, mainly in Brazil, it is possible to observe a bigger tolerance on the part of many lay catholics to the practical mediúnicas. As much the adepts of the espírita movement as of the Christian religions earn much more when they look to common points for the dialogue and the respect for the different points of view instead of if collating.

Fenómenos Espíritas and Science

The inquiry of the facts and causes of the mediúnico phenomenon is objecto of study for the Psychic Research, branch of (substituting ), that it has as basic interest the ascertainment of the occurrence of the alluded facts. They come becoming serious and ciêntifica inquiry, and for times, the university level. Also, the Espírita Doctrine uses a proper scientific methodology.

For beyond, of the doutrinais aspects, it exists a diversity of practical that they come exciting an increasing curiosity - the ectoplasmia, psicoquinesia, levitation, telepatia, clarividência, daily pay-cognition, saw onírica (dreams), the psicografia, mediúnica art, medicine and mediúnica, radiestesia and rabdomancia cirúgia.

Kardec, in the preamble of What it is the Espiritismo, it affirms that the espiritismo "is a science that deals with the nature, origin and destination of the Espíritos, as well as of its relations with the corporal world". Inside of this perspective, Kardec would have established "Espírita Science", having as objecto and all the order of phenomena that it say respect. In Espírita magazine, that it published until its death, analyzes some stories of pparently deriving mediúnicos or supernatural phenomena of diverse parts of the world. It was perfected for distinguishing the events that considered likely of charlatanism and the simple gotten excited imagination.

The Espiritismo in Brazil

Divulged in practically all in the century XIX, the Espiritismo arrived at in . Today, the Country is what it congregates the biggest number of espíritas in the whole world. Brazilian Espírita federacy - nationwide entity of the Espírita Movement - it congregates ten a thousand Espíritas Institutions approximately, spread for all the regions of the Country. Currently, Brazil possesss 2,3 million espíritas, in accordance with , carried through by (IBGE). Third bigger religious group of the Country, the espíritas is, also, the social segment that have greater income and escolaridade, according to data of the same Census. The espíritas have its image strong associated to the practical one of the good and of . They keep in all the Brazilian States asylums, orphanages, for devoid people, day-care centers e other institutions of assistance e social promotion. Allan Kardec, the Coder of the Espiritismo, is a personality sufficiently known and respected in Brazil. Its books already more than venderam 20 million units in all the Country. If the too much espíritas books, all decurrent ones of the workmanships of Allan Kardec will be entered, the publishing market Brazilian espírita exceed 4.000 headings already edited and more than 100 million vendidos units.

Brazilian Espírita federacy

Brazilian the Espírita Federacy was established in 2 of January of , in . In completed 120 years. It is a society civilian, , , e filantrópica, that it has for object the study, practical and the diffusion of the Espiritismo in all its aspects, on the basis of the workmanships of of Allan Kardec and in of . The Publishing Department of the FEB more than possesss a catalogue of 400 headings that totalize 39 vendidos book million. All inspired in the Kardequiana Codification: , , , chronicles, scientific e , beyond , , you emend e of songs espíritas.

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