Treated Torrijos-Carter

Localization of the canal of Panama

Treated Torrijos-Carter (to the times related in the singular as Treated Torrijos-Carter) two are treated signed between United States of America e Panama in Washington, DC in 7 of September of 1977, annulling Treated Hay-Bunau-Varilla signed in 1903.

Table of content

The Treated Ones

These two treated guaranteed to Panama the control of Canal of Panama - until then under control of the United States - from 1999. The treated ones thus are called in homage the two signatories, United States president Jimmy Carter e the Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos. Torrijos is not elect democraticamente, having taken the power through one coup d etat in 1968, but it is considered, in general, that it had a great support in Panama for the signature of these treating.

The first one treated is called officially The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal (Treated referring to the Permanent Neutrality and the Operation to the Canal of Panama), normally related as the Neutrality Treaty (the treated one to Neutrality). In this treating, U.S.A. keeps the permanent right to defend the canal of any threat that can intervene with its continental neutral service ships of all the countries.

As treated it is called The Panama Treaty Canal (the treated one to the Canal of Panama). It is this treated that guarantee that, after year 2000, Panama would assume the total control of the operations of the canal and would become first the responsible one for its defense.

Ratification

Both the treated ones subseqüentementes had been ratified in Panama for a majority of two terços in a plebiscite occurred in 23 of October of 1977. In order to allow the popular debate of the treated ones and in reply to the allegations of its adversaries in U.S.A. of that Panama was incapable to ratify the treat ones democratimente, restrictions to the press and political parties some weeks before the vote had been annulled. In the day of voting, 96% of the Panamanian voters had been to the ballot boxes, the biggest index of participation in Panama until then. The treated one to Neutrality was what more it worried the voters, particularly to the left, e was one of the reasons for which the treated ones had not found still bigger a support popular.

In The United States, the Senate ratified first the treat one in 16 of March of 1978 e as in 18 of April.

The treated ones had been object of some controversies in the United States, particularly in the section conservative, that it faced them as a sovereignty abandonment on a good of the United States to that it characterized as "hostile government". In the year preceding the final transference of control of the Canal, it had an attempt, in the Congress of U.S.A., mainly Common Resolution 77 (House Joint Resolution 77) presented for Helen Chenoweth-Hage, to declare the treat lapsed and null Carter-Torrijos. Despite the fact of the withdrawal of U.S.A. being now complete, still it has organizations (mainly in the extreme-right of the specter United States politician, as John Birch Society) that the United States urge to declare the null and lapsed agreements. The support to HJR 77 was part of the platform of campaign of 2000 of Republican Party of Texas, but it did not appear more in the platform 2004.

Possible sabotage

In accordance with New York Teamses, in the following day to the ratification of the treated one for the Senate, Torrijos declared that its regimen had plans to sabotage the Canal if the ratifications had failed. In August of 1990, Chicago Tribune it announced that documents captured for the military of U.S.A. disclosed that Torrijos had asked for Manuel Noriega that it prepared such plans. The notes written by hand of Noriega on the plan had been found during Invasion of the Panama of 1989.

These announcements had been confirmed by the book of Noriega, America's Prisoner, published in 1997. The name of code of the plain age "Huele the Quemado"("It smells the burnt one"). According to Noriega, Panamanian military specialists had infiltrated the lace of United States security in zone of the Canal e lived there by two months, transferring for camponeses and fishing. They would be prepared to take by assault the Canal and the highway Panama-Colón with explosives and rocket launcher to the signal of Torrijos, to be spread out under form of message codified in a program of popular radio.

In the book, Noriega also repeats the accusation made for the critics of the foreign politics of U.S.A. of that the invasion of the Panama of 1989 had been launched in order not to respect the treat ones.

Historical perspective

Map of the Zone of the Canal of Panama

The treated one to the Canal of Panama defined a plan for the transference of the canal, taking to a total control of all lands and buildings in the area of the Canal for Panama. The consequence most immediate of this treating was that Zone of the canal of Panama, as entity, it left to exist in 1 of October of 1979. The final phase of the treated one was completed in 31 of December of 1999. In this date, The United States had transferred the control of Canal of Panama e of all the areas of that it are until then the Zone of the canal of Panama to Panama.

As result of the treated ones, in 2000 about 1500 km² (or 370 000 acres), including something around 7000 building, as military establishments, deposits, warehouses, private schools and residences had been transferred to Panama. In 1993, the Panamanian government created an agency, Autoridad of la Región Interoceánica, also called "ARI", to manage and to keep the yielded properties.

The base of these treating was established in 1974, with a declaration of eight points signed in the city of Panama for the Secretary of United States State Henry Kissinger e the Minister of the Foreign affairs Panamanian Juan Antonio Tack. However, the Panamanian efforts to renegotiate the treat original Hay-Bunau-Varilla had practically been remained since its signature in November of 1903, few weeks later that Panama obtained its independence of Colombia. However, the action to renegotiate or to annul the treat one grew consideravelmente later that the events of 1964 they had caused to a complete rupture of relations between U.S.A. and Panama. In fact, in 9 of January of that year, hostile multitudes of Panamanians had tried to enter in the zone of the Canal, in protest against what the Panamanians considered as an attack of the Policy of the zone of the Canal against Panamanian students who had participated of patriotic manifestations in the zone. Extensive disputes had been followed, during which 20 Panamanians had been died and about 500 they had been wounded. Most of the victims had been deceased for shots of United States troops, that they had been called to protect the Zone of the Canal, including residences private of employees, in the majority United States, of the Zone of the Canal. However, the United States military had later shown tests of that some of the shots had been gone off of building located in the Panamanian zone, it are of the jurisdiction of the United States, e that these shots also could have caused part of the victims.

In the following day, 1 of January, Panama breached diplomatical relations with the United States and, in 15 of January, the President of Panama, Robert Chiari, it declared that Panama would not reestablish diplomatical relations with the United States, until the United States accepted to start the negotiations on a new treated. The first steps in this direction had been made little time later, in 3 of April of 1964, when the two countries had agreed to reestablishing the relations immediately diplomatical and the United States had agreed to adopting procedures for the "elimination of the causes of conflict between the two countries". Few weeks later, Robert B. Anderson, the special representative of the President Lyndon B. Johnson he flied for Panama to argue the bases of the future negotiations.

The negotiations for the treated ones had started in 15 of February of 1977 e was finished in 10 of August of that year. In the side of U.S.A., the negotiators had been Ellsworth Bunker e Sun Linowitz; the Panamanian side of the negotiations was led by Rómulo Escobar Betancourt. Few days before the final agreement had been reached, President Jimmy Carter sent one telegram to all the members of the Congress informing them of the course of the negotiations and asking for to only display an opinion to them on the treat ones after that they had had the chance to study them carefully. Senator Strom Thurmond answered to the order of President Carter pronouncing, during a speech in the same day, that "the Canal is ours, we buy it and we pay it, e we must keep it " .

References

  • M. Noriega and P. Eisner. America's Prisoner - The Memoirs of Manuel Noriega, Random House, 1997.

Periodicals

  • New York Teamses, April 4, 1964. U. S. and Panama Sign Agreement you the Restore Ties, Tad Szulc.
  • New York Teamses, April 20, 1964. Andersen Goes you the Panama the President's Special Envoy.
  • New York Teamses, February 8, 1974. U.S. Agrees you the Yield Sovereignty of Canal you the Panama, David Binder.
  • New York Teamses, August 9, 1977, Canal Negotiators Said you the Seek Accord by Tomorrow, Graham Hovey.
  • New York Teamses, August 11, 1977, U. S. and Panama Reach Accord you the Transfer Canal by to year 2000, Graham Hovey.
  • New York Teamses, April 20, 1978, U. S. Was Prepared you the Defend the Canal.

To also see

External linkings

 

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