Fight with the cosmopolitanism

"fight with the cosmopolitanism" - the campaign, which was being carried out in THE USSR in 1947-1953. Proclaimed as a goal the creation of culture by "national on the form, socialist in the content", the obligation of Soviet and especially Russian the patriotism (patriotism in this case it was understood as the underlining of national roots and the negation of entire foreign), fight with the "obsequiousness before the West". It frequently acquired frankly of feature, although it was not reduced to the antisemitism.

Content

Appearance of the term

Expression appeared at the end 1940- X of years. Its author - A. A. Zhdanov, Soviet state and party worker, the member Politbureau (one of the organizers of the pursuit A. Akhmatovoy and M. Zoshchenko), which during January of year, coming out at the conference of the workers of Soviet music in CC CPSU, he said: "internationalism is born, where national skill blooms. To forget indicates this truth... to lose its face, to become by the lone cosmopolite».

In THE USSR the campaign of fight with "antipatriotism" became obvious of the year, when with the ministries and the departments were founded "court of honors", that obliges, according to their regulations, "narrative irreconcilable fight with the obsequiousness and the servility before the western culture, to liquidate the underestimation of the value of the workers of Russian science and culture in the development of world civilization". Subsequently the term "antipatriotism" was substituted to the term "cosmopolitanism".

"fight with the cosmopolitanism" in the science

In this period the history of science and technology was given from the point of view of the unconditional priority of Soviet and pre-revolutionary Russian scientists in all field of knowledges. The achievements of foreign scientists and inventors were quieted. Frequently this installation led to the straight lines to the falsification (they were invented allegedly "the first in the world flight on the balloon " the Ryazansk scribe Of kryakutnogo, medieval documents about the discovery by the Novgorodians Spitsbergen and t. d.).

This approach affected also the current scientific work; references to the work of the contemporary foreign authors could be considered the manifestation of "cosmopolitanism" and lead to the denunciations and "studies".

Understood thus "patriotism" from the meaningful side most vividly was manifested in the humanities, first of all in the history and the history of literature. Discussion centered on "the age-old Russian earth", about the unconditionally progressive role of the achievements of Russian tsars and it was other.

"fight with the cosmopolitanism" in the skill

of year, in the central organ OF TSK the AUCP(B) "Pravda" it appeared the editorial article "about one anti-patriotic group of theatrical critics", edited personally By Stalin. Joint authors wrote famous article. Besides the colleagues of "Pravda" Vadim Kozhevnikov and David Zaslavskiy, to the work they drew entire color of the management , of Constantine , of Anatoliy Sofronova and other prominent Soviet writers. Article became the first program publication, which engaged society in fight with the "lone cosmopolites". The session preceded publications Bureau OF TSK the AUCP(B) of the same year, on which it was decided to unroll wide propagandistic campaign "against the lone cosmopolitanism and the anti-patriotic forces". In this case the cosmopolitanism was subdivided into "the hurray- cosmopolitanism", the "frantic cosmopolitanism" and the "lone cosmopolitanism", but, subsequently, in the official Soviet got accustomed only last term.

This campaign was sent against the "slander" of the Russian people, with which predominantly were charged the writers and the criticisms of Jewish origin. They required to reveal them and to indicate its Jewish surnames (was organized discussion in the central press "they were necessary to us literary pseudonyms?", formally caused by another reason, but accompanied by the transparent allusions to the true). There were osuzhdeny as some cosmopolitan and/or ochernitel'nye also become classics works of the deceased authors, not only the Jews ("the Duma about Opanase" 3. G. Bagritskogo, "twelve chairs" Il'fa and Petrov, the work Aleksandr Green).

Political repressions of the antisemitic nature

The beginning of political repressions against the Jewish public workers is pertained to the year 1948 - the year of the break , of that created with the participation BY THE USSR, with Moscow and its reorientation in THE USA. Existed from the times of the war Jewish antifascist committee, that supported close connections including with the Jewish organizations of union powers, was declared by the organ of enemy secret service agency and it was dissolved; the majority of its members was arrested.

In to year fight with the "Zionist conspirators" reached the limit: during October it took place violence with the former workers of Jewish antifascist committee, and it unrolled in the same months the "affair of doctors" (see this article). Was "exposed" "Zionist plot", also, in the the very MGB. Many noticeable workers of Jewish culture in the language were shot in the same period (not only the members of antifascist committee) were completely destroyed all establishments of the Jewish culture: the newspaper "eynikayt" - organ YEAK (Jewish antifascist committee), the "unity of Soviet patriots, who record in Yiddish", Jewish publishing house "der Emes" (Pravda), the association of Jewish writers in Moscow, Kiev and Minsk, the office of Jewish culture with the academy of sciences OF UKRSSR - UKRAINIAN SSR, the almanacs Of "geymland" (native land) in Moscow and "der Stern" (star) in Kiev, and also Jewish theaters in Moscow (State Jewish theater - GOSET), Minsk, to Odessa, Chernovtsakh, , t. e. everywhere in the limits OF THE USSR.

There is a documentary not confirmed version about that preparing in the beginning of the year of the deportation of Soviet Jews into Siberia and to the Far East; for greater detail, see in the article Affair of the doctors.

Literature

 

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