History of Australia

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History of the discovery

The Western shore of continent is registered already on one map by the name of great Java as the part of the great Australian earth, which, in the opinion of then scientists, surrounded entire south pole of the terrestial globe. In were however they were made further discoveries, predominantly by Dutchmen. The first of the undertaken with the etoyu purpose journeys was complete the ship Of d'yufkin, which, after leaving in from Europe, in opened Torresov the strait. With the mouth Of karpentir river, this vessel, in , apparently the first time approached the coast of Australian continent. Soon after that the Spaniard Of torres reached this shore from the eastern side. Then Jan Karstents, in , aboard the ships of feather and Arngem, iduchi from Amboiny to the south, visited into the large molded edge, whose coast was by it looked around with the searching of water suitable for the drink. From one of these ships was called its Arngemslend. In of bullets and Piterts somewhat enlarged discoveries on the northern shore. Western shore was opened in by captain Dirk Gartog, who adhered to it hearth 23° and 27° is southern. latitude., and in merchants Edel' and Gutman adhered to it hearth 32 1/2°. In Peter Nyuits opened the part of the western shore, which lies to the east from Leyvina cape, and gave to it the name Of nyuitslenda. In General -wtatgalter Van-Dimen -Dimen did send the most enterprising seafarer of that time, Abel Tasmana for a study, not island that large earth, with coasts of which recently they had time then to be introduced. g. this seafarer approached the western shore of the island Tasmania (before Vandimenova the earth), it swam further to the eastern shore and touched Solomon islands and . In its second journey, in , it passed along the southern shore New Guinea, investigated Karpentariyu bay and Vandimenov bay, and then, iduchi along the northwestern shore of continent, it reached Vittslenda and Nortvesta cape. Is connected new Guinea with Australia at that time yet was not reliably known. Then new studies of these shores, with exception of a few attempts, it was not during 125 years.

In from was sent expedition for the observation of the passage of Venus through the sun. The captain was the chief of this expedition James Cook, to which it was assigned to produce astronomical observations together with Green on the islands Tahiti (been called from it incorrect name To otaiti). During January g. Cook, after going around the cape of Horn, it reached of Tahiti, approached during October the eastern shore of New Zealand and in approached the unknown still then to the eastern shore of the Australian continent (new Holland, as it was called until recently), during May it entered in The the botanibey, in The the moretonbey and reached at the end of August of the northern extremity of continent. Cook gave to entire eastern coast strip the name new southern Vallisa. Passing between the cape as York and new Guinea, it touched Batavia and in g. it returned into England. In g. in England it was decided to colonize the coast country opened by Cook and for the beginning to exile there criminals. Under the authorities of captain Artur Philipp, appointed as the governor of new southern Vallisa, g. to the coast of avstraliskogo continent arrived the squadron with 778 criminals, who were settled near the present city Sydney. "of February was founded control for this colony, which was being stretched from York cape to sydney, and inside the country to 131° eastern. debt., with the start of the adjacent islands. Then Lieutenant Philipp King was sent for the colonization Of norfol'ka island, which it was also decided to make a place of reference. During August one expedition penetrated in the mountains on the eastern side of continent; during October surgeon Bass and Lieutenant Flinders went around Tasmania and was investigated partly the interior of this island. After discovery by captain Murreyem lying on the southern shore port -Filippbe4, Flinders during November opened king Georg bay, Port- Lincoln, the island of kangaroo and Spencers bay. During July it was directed to the north, opened the strait between continent and new Guinea convenient for navigation and removed to the plan Karpentariyu bay.

During June from sydney left the first party of settlers for the coasts of derwent in Tasmania. To the same island in was transferred from Norfolk the colony, based for the heaviest criminals. The following then remarkable expedition was undertaken during June , moreover Of uentvort, Blekslend and Lawson penetrated through the blue mountains to the sources lying on the West coke -Rivera. Already during November of the same year land surveyor Evans with five satellites undertook further study of the country, passed for a second time through the blue mountains and, being pushed forward, it produced a study Of makkari river. After six months through the mountains was laid the road, governor himself undertook journey into the interior of the country and placed there base To baturstu city. Evans's expedition in led to the discovery Of lakhlana river. ya of June Oksleye land surveyor with Harris and botanist Fratser left from sydney for investigating Makkari to its mouth. Their journey was finished 8 of October in one of the bays, which they named PortMakkari. In to Hamilton to Hume and To govellyu was assigned find road from that opened by Hume in of Georg lake to western to port on the bass strait. This expedition opened many new rivers on the way from Murrumbidzhak to Port- Philipp. Botanist Allen To kunningam opened in Pandorskoye gorge in the Liverpool mountains, and in - excellent plateau among the local plains.

In captain Sturt undertook journey for the purpose to investigate the flow Of murrumbidzhi up to its mouth and opened the Alexandrine lake, into which falls Murreye river. In land surveyor Mitchell, after undertaking the trip to the north, arrived to the banks of river, which was more than all before opened and which the natives called Karauloy, but the occupied with the latter hostile position forced it to return. In was opened by it Glenelg river with its luxurious coast vegetation. Captain Vikgem in and captain Stokes in produced extensive topographic surveys on the western shore of continent and opened there the mouths of many significant rivers. In g. German scientific Dr.. Deykhgart undertook expedition to the northeast, which was being remained to those times completely unknown, and was investigated coast earth of this molded edge. In the same year Of sturt it left from Adelaide for the north for the interior of the country and through the terrible stony desert reached to 25° 28' yuzh. latitude., from where it was constrained to begin reverse journey. Even to the end of this expedition for the desert Mitchell again left for finding the way through the interior of the country to Karpentariya bay and opened r. Victoria or barge. Its satellite of Kennedy in passed with the flow of this river to one of the deafest deserts, and on the return to sydney it left to find way to the sea peninsula, but in this journey it perished without leaving a trace. In and Leykhgardt again undertook expedition into the interior of the country, but exactly as Kennedys, propal without the news together with its satellites. Finally, in the same year of journey in inward continent they were undertaken by von Ron and Gregory.

The unhappy outcome of the expeditions of Kennedy and Leykhgardta for many years stopped a study of the country. Only in left with two ships to the northern shore, to the West from Arngemslenda, for the study by that falling there in the sea of Victorias river. Following with the flow of this river, Gregory turned to the southwest, but he returned, being it was stopped by the almost impervious desert. Soon after that it again undertook the journey Pa the West in order to find, if it is possible, the tracks Of leykhgardta, and it returned to Adelaide, not dostignuv of its purpose. It was at the same time decided to produce a near study of the region of salt lakes, which lies to the north from Spenserova of bay. In a matter of this study showed large services Harris, Miller, Dyullon, Warburton, Svinden Of kampbedl' and many others. The poppy Of duall Stewart undertook three journeys into the region of salt lakes and compiled the plan of expedition across entire continent, in the direction from the south to the north. In it passed to the middle of continent and erected English banner on the central Styuartoveye mountain, which has 1000 m. in the height. During June, as a result of the hostile position occupied with natives, it was constrained to forego its enterprise. During January it, however, renewed the attempt to pass continent from the south to the north and penetrated to 11/2° further in the depth of the country how the first time, but during July it had to return, not dostignuv of the intended target. The third attempt was made it during November of the same year and crowned by the success: Stewart erected English banner on the northern shore Of arngemslenda and returned by that by almost dying to his compatriots.

Not long before Stewart's return from his first journey, during August , from Melbourne left expedition under the authorities of Robert O'Gara Burke, in tracking of astronomer Vil's, doctor Beklera, the naturalist Of bokkera and by others, in the number of approximately 30 man. with 25 camels, 25 by horses and so forth, etc. The travellers were shared into three parties, of whom each had to rest on other if necessary to search for refuges in the rear. Burke, Vil's, King and Grey during February were already on the swampy shore Of karpentarii bay, but seas could not reach. they arrived in stanovishche of the second party, but they found by its by that abandoned. Burke and its satellites perished from the hunger; Saviour one only King, whom, during September , was found in stanovishche of natives with the expedition sent from Melbourne; it is emaciated as skeleton. Two expeditions, sent then for finding Burke, traversed entire continent.

On the initiative of mel'burnskogo botanist Miller, lady committee in the colony of Victorias in assembled cash resources to the new journey, immediate objective of which was the explanation of the lot of the expedition Of leykhgardta disappeared without the news. Duncan max Of intir, which saw in in the upper reaches Of the flinderoveye river the tracks of the designated expedition, became leader of new enterprise and it moved into the way during July ; but inside the country ruled this terrible drought, that half of entire number of participants it was necessary to send back into the colony. Soon max Of intir died of the malignant fever, and the same lot of postigla of its satellite was broken. Accepted after them the authorities above the expedition v. Barnett returned in into sydney, having gathered no new information about Leykhgardte. In sent was, for the same searches, expedition from the colony of West Australia, for which it was possible to learn from the natives, in one locality (hearth 31° yuzh. latitude even 122° vos. debt.) that after several years before the fact were umershchvleny in 13 days of way from there to the north, on the dried bottom of one lake, two white with three former with them horses. This story was repeated, also, in another locality. Therefore during April was equipped the expedition to the mentioned lake, which although did not reach its purpose, for that it penetrated in the interior of the country further than all previous expeditions, which were being been sent from the West. Already s g. the British Government made the different attempts to engage the northern shore of Australia during 41/2 years it it contained the military post (fort Of dundas) on the western shore Of mel'vilya island, during 2 years another post (fort wellington) in Koburge peninsula and s on garrison into the port -3ssingtone. But since hope for benefits from the commercial relations between Australia and East Asia was not carried out, then these attempts were left.

Only after Stewart in from the colony of South Australia traversed the continent to the northern shore Of arngemslenda, and "Nothern Territory" was set for control of this colony, the latter studied a question about the population of the country. During April Porta- Adelaide left to the north the sea expedition of geos-meter under the authorities of Colonel Finnis, who was soon substituted poppy Kinleyem. Latter in approached a study Of arngemslenda, but the rainy time of the year and flood they did not permit it to lead its intention for the performance, and it returned into Adelaide. Then during February , South Australian government sent to the northern shore of captain Kadell, who opened the significant river Of blayt (Blyth), and s of the chief Of the goydera land surveyors, which in Porta- Darwin environments produced the survey Pa space 2700 kV. km. More successfully went the matter of colonization in northern Kinslende, especially towards Karpentarii bay, since cattle breeding needed the new pastures, finding of which undertook particular enterprise. In the beginning of the fortieth years in entire present Kinslende were populated only the environments Of moretonbeya, and that is very weak. Since then the settlings were enlarged on the north to Karpentarii bay.

When subsequently, s g., was established the telegraph communication to Australia with Asia and through it with all other cardinal points, the analysis of the interior of Australian continent made enormous successes. Already during the laying of telegraphic wire embarked to appear on the path its small settlings, from which then were undertaken the expeditions for investigating the country. Thus, in Ernst Zhil', after leaving from the telegraphic station Of chambers Of pillar, proceeded with the flow of river to Finn to her sources, where it opened extremely fertile country Glen of Palms. From the telegraphic station Alice Springs in g. left geo-meter To gosse and it opened under 25° 21' yuzh. latitude. and 131° 14' eastern. debt. monolith Ayres Rock, by height 370 m. During its second journey Of zhil' it was certified in existence of large desert inside western Australia. John Forrest in reached the watershed Of murchisona, from where barren desert, which it investigated at a distance of 900 km, begins.

In Of zhil' undertook three new journeys into the barren steppes of internal Australia. In , on the commission of the government of the colony of South Australia, was investigated the flow of river Herbert, with what trigonometric measurements were produced and furthermore, was undertaken expedition for investigating the completely unknown countries, which lie on the sea shore. This expedition opened the large river Of mubre, which falls by three waterfalls, which have to 150 m. height. Serdzhison, during November , opened the excellent arable earth not far from the banks of Victorias river. John Forrest it returned in g. from the journey, undertaken by it into the completely unknown northeastern part of the colony of western Australia, during which it opened on the banks of Fitzroy river excellent alluvial plains. Its second journey povelo to the discovery in western Australia 20 Mills. and in South Australia of approximately 5 Mills. the acres grow prettier the pasture and arable earth, from which substantial part they were suitable for breeding of the sugar cane and rice. Furthermore, the interior of the country was investigated by other still expeditions in and years, and John Forrest, on the commission of West Australian government, took trigonometric measurement between The ashburtoneye rivers and de Gray, and it occurs from his reports that the local locality is very convenient for the settlings.

With writing of this article was used the material from .

 

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