List of kings of Persia

Empires of Iran
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The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers:


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Contents

Early realms in Iran

Elamite Kingdom, 3000660 BC

The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. Some have offered evidence for a linguistic kinship between Elamite and the modern Dravidian languages of Southern India (see "Elamo-Dravidian languages") but this is not universally accepted. The proto-Elamites lived even as far back as 7,500 years ago in Iran. See remains here.

Avan Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

  • Peli (fl. c. 2500 BC)
  • Tata (precise dates unknown)
  • Ukku-Takhesh (precise dates unknown)
  • Khishur (precise dates unknown)
  • Shushun-Tarana (precise dates unknown)
  • Napil-Khush (precise dates unknown)
  • Kikku-Sive-Temti (precise dates unknown)
  • Lukh-Ishshan (fl. c. 24th century)
  • Khelu (fl. c. 24th century)
  • Khita (fl. c. 23rd century)
  • Kutik-Inshushinnak (fl. c. 2240)

Simash Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

  • Gir-Namme (fl. c. 2030)
  • Enpi-Luhhan (fl. c. 2010)
  • Khutran-Temtt (precise dates unknown)
  • Kindattu (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Inshushinnak I (precise dates unknown)
  • Tan-Rukhurater (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Inshushinnak II (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Napir (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Tempt (precise dates unknown)

Eparti Dynasty (precise dates unknown)

  • Eparti I (precise dates unknown)
  • Eparti II (precise dates unknown)
  • Eparti III (fl. c. 1850)
  • Shilkhakha (precise dates unknown)
  • Attakhushu (fl. c. 1830)
  • Sirukdukh (fl. c. 1792)
  • Shimut-Wartash (c. 1772 – c. 1770)

Igehalkid Dynasty (c. 1350 – c. 1200 BC)

Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1205 – c. 1100 BC)

Late Elam Dynasty (743–644)

  • Khumbanigash I (743717)
  • Shuttir-Nakhkhunte (717699)
  • Khallushu (699693)
  • Kutir-Nakhkhunte (693692)
  • Khumma-Menanu (692689)
  • Khumma-Khaldash I (689681)
  • Khumma-Khaldash II (681680)
  • Khumma-Khaldash II & Shilhak-In-Shushinak (680676)
  • Shilhak-In-Shushinak & Urtaku (676664)
  • Shilhak-In-Shushinak & Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak (664653)
  • Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Khumbanigash II (653651)
  • Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Tammaritu (651649)
  • Atta-Khumma-In-Shushinak & Indabigash (649648)
  • Indabigash (648647)
  • Khumma-Khaldash III (647644)

Jiroft Kingdom, c. 2500 BC

The recent archeological findings at Jiroft have uncovered an "independent, bronze age, civilization with its own architecture and language" that have led some archeologists to speculate it to be the remains of the lost Aratta Kingdom. 1

Empire of Medians and Persians

Median Dynasty, 728–550 BC

The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median empire during the 6th century BC.

Achaemenid dynasty, 550–330 BC

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Line of Cyrus Line of Ariaramnes
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The epigraphic evidence for ancestors of Darius I the Great is highly suspect and might have been invented by that king.

Hellenistic rulers

Argead Dynasty, 330–310 BC

Seleucid dynasty, 305–164 BC

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid 2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. There were more Seleucid rulers of Syria and, for a time, Babylonia, after Antiochus IV, but none had any effective power in Persia).

Parthian dynasty (Arsacid dynasty), 247 BC – AD 224

There were various regional client dynasties, often with significant autonomy.

Sassanid dynasty, AD 224–651

Rulers after the advent of Islam in Iran

Arab caliphs rule

All Persian provinces fell under The Arabic Caliphate from 661 to 867.

divided, 867–1029

Tahirids in Khorasan, 821–872

  • Taher ebne Hosein ebne Mos'ab, Emir 821822
  • Talhat ebne Taher, 822828
  • Abdollah ebne Taher, 828844
  • Taher ebne Abdollah, 844862
  • Mohammad ebne Taher, 862872

Alavids, 864–928

  • Hasan ebne Zeid Hasani, Emir 864884
  • Mohammad ebne Zeid, 884900
  • Hasan ebne Ali Hoseini, 913916
  • Hasan ebne Ghasem Hasani, 916928

Ziyarids, 928–1043

  • Abolhojaj Mardavij ebne Ziyar, Emir 928934
  • Abu Taher Voshmgeer ebne Ziyar, 934967
  • Zahir-ol-doleh Behsotoon, 967976
  • Shams ol Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos, 9761012
  • Falak ol Mo'ali Manuchehr ebne Ghabus, 10121031
  • Anushiravan ebne Manuchehr, 10311043

Buyyids, 932–1056

Diylamids of Fars

Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman

Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan

Saffarids in Seistan and beyond, 861–1002,

  • Yagub Leith Saffar
  • Abu Yusef Yaqub ebne Lais, surnamed "the coppersmith", Emir 861878
  • Amr o ebne Lais, 878900
  • Abol Hasan Taher ebne Mohammad ebne Amro ebne Lais, 900908
  • Lais ebne Ali ebne Lais, 908910
  • Abu Ali Mohammad ebne Ali ebne Lais, 910910
  • Abu Jafar Ahmad ebne Mohammad ebne Khalf, 923963
  • Abu Ahmad Khalf ebne Ahmad, 9631002

Samanids (Proto-Tajiks), 892–998

  • Adel; Amir Mazi Abyu Ebrahim Esmail ebne Ahmad, Emir 892907
  • Shaheed; Abu Nasr Ahmad ebne Esmail, 907913
  • Saeed; Abol Hasan Nasr ebne Ahmad, 913942
  • Hamid; Abu Mohammad Nuh ebne Nasr, 942954
  • Rashid; Abul Foares Abdolmaleh ebne Nuh, 954961
  • Mo'ayyed; Amir Sadeed Abu Saleh Mansur ebne Nuh, 961976
  • Radhi; Shahanshah Abolqasem Nuh ebne Mansur, 976996
  • Abol Hareth; Mansur ebne Nuh, 996998
  • Abol Foares; AbdolMalek ebne Nuh, 998998

Ghaznavids, 997–1186

  • Yameen o-dowleh AbolQasem Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, Sultan 9971030
  • Jalal o-dowleh Abu Ahmad Mohammad ebne Mahmud, 10301030
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abu Sa'd Masud ebne Mahmud, 10301040
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abolfath Modud ebne Masud, 10401049
  • Baha o-dowleh Abol Hasan Ali ebne Masud, 10491049
  • Azad o-dowleh Abu Mansur Abdol Rashid ebne Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, 10491052
  • Jamal o-dowleh Abolfazl Farrokhzaad ebne Masud ebne Mahmud, 10521059
  • Zaheer o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Ebrahim, 10591098
  • Ala o-dowleh Abu Saeed Masud ebne Ebrahim, 10981115
  • Soltan o-dowleh Abol-fath Arsalan Shah, 11151117
  • Yameen o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Baharm Shah ebne Masud, 11171153
  • Taj o-dowleh Abol Shoja Khosro Shah ebne Bahram Shah, 11531160
  • Saraj o-dowleh Abolmolook Khosrow Malek ebne Khosro Shah, 11601186

Seljuk Turks, 1029–1194

divided, 1194–1256

Khwarazmids, 1096–1230

An empire built from Azerbaidjan, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.

  • Ghotbedeen Mohammad ebne Anushtekeen Gharajeh, Shah 10961128
  • Alaodeen Abol Mozaffar ebne Ghotbedeen ebne Mohammad 11281156
  • Tajedeen Abolfath Il Arsalan 11561171
  • Jalaledeen Mahmud Soltanshah ebne Il Arsalan 11711172
  • Aladdin Takesh ebne Il Arsalan 11721199
  • Soltan Jalaledeen Mohammad ebne Aladdin Takesh11991220
  • Jalaledeen ebne Aladdin Mohammad 12201230

Eliminated for good by the Mongol horde

Ilkhans, 1256–1380

The preceding era of disunity, also called First era of fragmentation, was ended through conquest by the Ilkhans, a pagan Mongol horde, nominally subject to the Great Khan. (Ilkhan means governor of an il, i.e. province).

The Second era of fragmentation begins in 1343, as remnants of the Hordes competed with local dynasts for authority. This era ends with the conquests by Timur, around 1380

Muzaffarid Dynasty, 1314–1393

  • Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz ), 1335–1364 with...
  • Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) ( d. 1375), 1358–1366
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz ), 1366–1384
  • Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387

In 1387 Timur captured Isfahan.

  • Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  • Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  • Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  • Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Timurid dynasty, 1380–1507

The third era of fragmentation follows, as Timur's Empire loses cohesion and local rulers strive against each other.

  • Pir Muhammad, grandson of Timur, 1405–1407, effectively ruled in Fars
  • Djalal Ud-Din Miran Shah, son of Timur, 1405–1408, ruled Azerbaijan
  • Rustam, 1405–1409, ruled Arabistan
  • Khalil Sultan (Timurid dynasty), son of Miran Shah, 1405–1409, ruled in Samarkand, surrendered to Shah Rukh, became governor of Rayy until his death in 1411
  • Shah Rukh, son of Timur, 1405–1447, ruled first in Transoxiana
    • Ayyal, 1414, opposed Shah Rukh
    • Ailankar, 1414–1415, opposed Shah Rukh
  • Bayqara, 1409–1412, ruled in Fars
  • Iskandar, 1412–1414, ruled first in Fars, then Azerbaijan & Arabistan

In 1410 the Turcoman horde Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep) captured Baghdad and their leaders ruled the western parts of the Timurid realm. In the East however, Shah Rukh was able to secure his rule in Transoxiana and Fars.

Rulers in Transoxiana:

Rulers in Khurasan:

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.

Rulers in Samarkand:

  • Sultan Ahmad, son Abu Sa'id, 1469–1494
  • Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1494–1495
  • Masud, 1495
  • Sultan Baysunghur, 1495–1497
  • Sultan Ali Mirza 1495–1500

conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids

Shahs of modern Iran

The modern Iranian monarchy was established in 1502 after the Safavid Dynasty came to power under Shah Ismail I, and ended the so-called "fourth era" of political fragmentation.

Safavid dynasty, 15021736

Afsharid dynasty, 17361749

Zand dynasty, 17501794

Qajar dynasty, 17961925

Pahlavi dynasty, 19251979 and in exile

In 1979 a revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini forced Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi into exile, and established an Islamic Republic.

  • Cyrus Reza II Pahlavi, the firstborn (31st October 1960) son of Mohammad Reza, appointed as Heir Apparent with the title of Vali Ahd-i-Iran 'Crown Prince of Iran' on 26th October 1967, is pretender to the imperial thone, in exile, since he succeeded on the death of his father as Head of the Imperial House of Pahlavi and assumed the titles of Shahanshah and Aryamehr together with the style of His Imperial Majesty, 27th July 1980.

See also

External links